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155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. Need to practice for the writing sections? Try this list of past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). These are also good for practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to talk on these subjects. 1. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the research papers psychology following statement?
Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 3. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the dissertation index way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 4. It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is learned is research papers psychology contained in books.#8221; Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important?
Why? 5. A company has announced that it wishes to essay farm orwell, build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Research! Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. 6. Essay! If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to research, support your answer. Dissertation Index! 7. How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 9. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 10. #8220;When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the online research papers quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students#8217; sports activities as they give to their university libraries.
Use specific reasons and become a law, examples to support your opinion. 12. Online Papers! Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to dissertation, support your answer. Research Papers! 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and papers mla, examples to support your answer. Research Psychology! 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Index! Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.
15. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the online research psychology qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17.
Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. 18. What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and essay farm orwell, examples to online papers, explain why these qualities are important. 19. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)?
Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 20. It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. 21. In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of dissertation this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 22. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 23. Research Papers Psychology! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. Use specific reasons and details to george orwell, support your answer. 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by online psychology, using specific reasons and details. 25.
A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and for research papers, dislike about living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Online Research Psychology! 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and effective listeners, details to support your answer. 28. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 29. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Television, newspapers, magazines, and online research, other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and index, details to online research psychology, explain your opinion. 30. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to live.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 31. It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in essay farm, your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.
33. Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 34. You have received a gift of money. The money is research papers psychology enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to essay - how a law, attend.
Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 35. Online Papers Psychology! You must select a person to teach others to do a job. Which one of the following is the most important for you to consider in effective essay, making your selection? the person#8217;s education the person#8217;s work experience the quality of the person#8217;s previous work. Online! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36. Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 37. Countries, businesses, and schools are three areas that need good leaders. Choose one of these three areas and outlines mla, describe the most important qualities of a leader in that area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details. 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and papers, explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
39. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific reasons and memorising, examples to support your answer. Online Papers! 40. Learning about the past has no value for those of us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 41. Essay Farm George Orwell! The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to keep trying and never stop working for your goals.
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 42. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Psychology! 43. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons and examples to msee thesis, support your answer.
44. Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields. Do these awards and prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and online papers, examples to support your opinion. 45. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to index, support your answer.
46. What is a very important skill a person should learn in papers psychology, order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 47. Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important.
What should be considered or kept in for research mla, mind in resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and papers, examples to support your answer. 48. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the most important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples to memorising essays tips, support your opinion.
49. Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 50. Which is more important for online psychology success: the natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples. 51. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children.
Use specific reasons and examples to essays, support your opinion. 52. Some people like to travel with a companion. Online Papers Psychology! Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 53. Some people prefer to get up early in the morning and start the day#8217;s work. Essay Animal Farm Orwell! Others prefer to get up later in the day and work until late at psychology, night. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
54. What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in your culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 55. Memorising Essays! Some people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to papers, work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. For Research Papers! 56. People work because they need money to online, live.
What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and msee thesis, details to support your answer. 57. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Face-to-face communication is research psychology better than other types of essay farm george orwell communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 58. Online Research Psychology! Some people like to do only what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and effective, take risks. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Papers! 59. Effective Listeners! Some people believe that success in life comes from online papers psychology taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 60. What change would make your hometown more appealing to animal farm george orwell, people your age?
Use specific reasons and papers psychology, examples to effective listeners essay, support your opinion. Online Research Papers! 61. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns. Effective Essay! Use specific reasons and research, examples to support your answer. 62.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and essay animal george orwell, details to support your answer. 63. Do you agree or disagree with the online papers following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and animal orwell, examples to support your answer.
64. A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 65. Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain.
Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 66. Do you agree or disagree with the online research psychology following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. Essay - How Bills Become A Law! 67. Online Papers Psychology! Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done.
Other people prefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Outlines For Research Mla! 68. Online Papers! Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth.
Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 69. People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 70. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Effective! Give specific reasons and research psychology, examples to support your opinion.
71. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 72. You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by process essay - how, two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology.
Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 74. Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Research! 75. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Msee Thesis! Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 76. In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to online, be successful in life?
Use specific reasons and examples from your experience to explain your answer. When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the prompt. 77. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the essay - how bills a law contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to psychology, support your answer.
78. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. Msee Thesis! They may choose to online papers, live in university dormitories, or they may choose to farm george orwell, live in apartments in the community. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference.
79. You need to travel from your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Online! Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Tell which method of travel you would choose. Process Become A Law! Give specific reasons for online your choice. 80. Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Essay Bills A Law! Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students.
Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. 81. Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of online research papers family and friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is msee thesis through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. Which do you think is preferable?
Use specific examples to research papers psychology, support your preference. 82. When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices.
Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. Dissertation! 83. Some people prefer to spend most of online research their time alone. Others like to become a law, be with friends most of the time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 84. Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends.
Compare the advantages of each choice. Which of these two ways of online research psychology spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies.
Others believe that young children should spend most of msee thesis their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? 86. Papers Psychology! The government has announced that it plans to process bills become, build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and research psychology, disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community.
Use specific details in your discussion. 87. Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the outlines for research most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to online papers psychology, support your position. 88. Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time?
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. - How Bills Become! 89. People learn in different ways. Some people learn by doing things; other people learn by papers, reading about msee thesis, things; others learn by listening to people talk about things. Which of these methods of learning is online best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. 90. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.
Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 91. Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the animal farm george same, and they do not change their usual habits. Compare these two approaches to life. Which approach do you prefer? Explain why.
92. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to support your answer. 93. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 94. Papers! Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct.
Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. 95. Do you agree or disagree with the memorising tips following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different.
Use specific reasons to support your answer. 96. Do you agree or disagree with the online research papers following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and established facts. Use specific reasons and details to outlines for research papers, support your opinion. Online Research! 97. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Animal Farm Orwell! Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 98.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school. Use specific reasons to psychology, support your answer. Listeners! 99. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Online Psychology! Use specific reasons and examples to msee thesis, support your position. Papers! 100. Do you agree or disagree with the memorising tips following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and online research psychology, short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position.
101. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Memorising Essays! Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
102. A university plans to develop a new research center in your country. Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture (farming). Online Papers Psychology! Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation. 103.
Some young children spend a great amount of for research their time practicing sports. Discuss the online research psychology advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 104. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful.
Use specific reasons and dissertation, examples to research, support your answer. 105. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed. 106. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of age) are the most important years of a person#8217;s life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
107. Msee Thesis! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to online research papers, school.
Which of these two school policies do you think is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 109. Msee Thesis! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 110. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the research courses that students want to study. Index! Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 111.
Do you agree or disagree with the online research following statement? It is better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Use specific reasons and outlines for research mla, examples to support your answer. 112. What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and research papers, examples to support your opinion. Dissertation! 113. If you could make one important change in research papers, a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 114.
A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an essays animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. 115. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the online research psychology year. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 116. Listeners Essay! Would you prefer to papers psychology, live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building?
Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 117. Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with?
Use specific reasons and examples to msee thesis, support your answer. 118. Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to research, spend their leisure time indoors. Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. Listeners Essay! 119. Your school has received a gift of money. What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.
120. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and examples to online research psychology, support your answer. 121. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish.
How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. 122. What is the most important animal in your country? Why is the animal important?
Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. 123. Msee Thesis! Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and research papers, explain why it needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 124. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose.
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 125. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and dissertation index, office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule? Use specific reasons and details to support your position.
126. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is one kind of plant that is important to you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 127. You have the opportunity to online research psychology, visit a foreign country for essay two weeks. Which country would you like to visit?
Use specific reasons and details to research psychology, explain your choice. 128. In the outlines for research mla future, students may have the online research papers psychology choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of dissertation studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to online research, explain your choice. Papers! 129. Research Papers! When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to dissertation, support your answer.
130. The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Research Papers! 131. When people need to complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in msee thesis, writing and others prefer to complain in person.
Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and research, examples to support your answer. 132. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 133. Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 134.
Is the ability to read and write more important today than in the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to memorising essays, support your answer. 135. People do many different things to research psychology, stay healthy. What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
136. You have decided to orwell, give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and online research, details to explain your choice. 137. Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for papers students or books for the library. Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. 138. Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries.
Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 139. People listen to research papers, music for different reasons and at papers, different times. Why is music important to online research papers, many people? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 140.
Groups or organizations are an important part of some people#8217;s lives. Essay - How A Law! Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and online research papers psychology, examples to essay george, explain your answer. Research! 141. Imagine that you are preparing for a law a trip. You plan to be away from your home for online research papers psychology a year. In addition to dissertation, clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.
142. Online Research Papers! When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 143. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the friendship. Orwell! Do you agree?
Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. Psychology! 144. Every generation of memorising essays people is different in important ways. Research Psychology! How is your generation different from your parents#8217; generation? Use specific reasons and for research papers, examples to explain your answer. 145.
Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the research psychology talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to support your choice. 146.
Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147. A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either to go on vacation to buy a car Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Essays Tips! Use specific reasons and online research papers psychology, details to support your choice. 148. The 21st century has begun.
What changes do you think the new century will bring? Use examples and details in your answer. 149. What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer.
150. Movies are popular all over effective listeners essay, the world. Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 151. In your country, is there more need for land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for research papers housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to essay, support your answer. 152. Many people have a close relationship with their pets.
These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and online research papers psychology, examples to support your answer. 153. Films can tell us a lot about the for research country where they were made. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. 154. Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and papers, examples to support your answer. 155. You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business. Which would you choose to listeners, buy?
Give specific reasons to explain your choice.
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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an papers psychology, interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in everyday life. We invite relevant and engaging contributions from bills become a law diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for online psychology emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy. The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to animal farm george, clarify the online research, intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber).
They developed the iconic :) to outlines, make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the online papers, emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on dissertation index language, yet another instance of the research papers, erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of mla, Congress, described as the online research, slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the process, sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and psychology emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in dissertation index young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and online always will have a visual component mediated by msee thesis a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself.
Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to research papers, provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of essays, humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about research writing and effective listeners encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in online psychology Japan, consisting of both more fleshed-out versions of emoticons (#9786; instead of :) for example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and process essay - how bills become purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in online papers psychology teen and msee thesis commercial culture are indisputable. Research Papers. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on essay farm orwell manga art and Japanese Kanji characters. But senders and recipients had to online papers, use the same network in farm george order for the characters to display properly (Marsden). Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of online research papers psychology, all mobile web and mail services in essay Japan. In the online, mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to outlines, their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of papers psychology, symbols, and in 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji.
This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on an Academy of Sciences committee to map the animal george orwell, typeface onto a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Psychology. Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to outlines, embody the authority of the scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the research, move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. Effective Listeners. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send. Moreover, individuals interested in having an online papers psychology, emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji.
According to dissertation, Mark Davis, president of the online psychology, Unicode Consortium, the emoji must be in essay george the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to online research papers psychology, fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in bills become a law a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and research psychology do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of essay become, images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective. Online Research Papers Psychology. Emojis allowed users to process essay - how bills become, continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to increase and speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite online papers psychology number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an papers mla, expedient compression of research, space and time driven by a desire to save money.
They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value. Msee Thesis. In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is psychology commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in what is now modern Iraq, to memorising, track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and online priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against listeners the memory-dissolving threat of writing, turning away in disdain from papers early cuneiform and memorising its mercenary mission and what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629).
In the modern era, industry routinely races for faster communication—consider technologies such as the online psychology, telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. All communications—visual and alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by essay animal farm george accident, happenstance and research papers the emergence of new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of professionals who had the proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of individuals formally educated in the discourse. Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training.
Only readers trained in dissertation Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. I will return to this issue of recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is papers psychology both materially and culturally bound. Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only effective listeners those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. Papers Psychology. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of msee thesis, what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and online psychology size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the role of typography in reifying this materiality and links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to papers, think about papers psychology how it is process a law circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and age relations. Most recently, the research papers psychology, absence of for research papers, racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on papers psychology Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to msee thesis, add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and only two that appeared to be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the construction of race by one of the fastest-growing modes of communication.
White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. Online Research Psychology. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone. Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by listeners the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and online research papers psychology acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an African company aimed at liberating Africans from effective digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for Google, using the online research, tagline everyone smiles in the same language and featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to essay farm, reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the online research, dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange.
Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery. Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of msee thesis, explicitly expressing them, so reading the situation and sensing the mood are very important. Research Papers. We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and text to become a law, introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of communication (qtd. in Marsden). Tamamuro's concerns are similar to those early English-language adopters of emoticons—wary of language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and online research papers received communication. Emojis, like the msee thesis, earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the online psychology, kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and ritual or phatic language.
Emojis are an attempt to msee thesis, insure that the message we intend is the message that is online papers received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language. On the one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards.
Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from memorising essays tips what it is that the online papers psychology, writer intended. Effective Essay. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the online, Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at best annoying or even confusing. If I am in msee thesis a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to papers, look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient.
When I filed and msee thesis saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in the eye. Psychology. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts. If I'm about to dissertation, swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and online papers how long I should wait before taking more. Memorising. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to stabilize—result in online papers some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes. Index. So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the psychology, more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of shorthand.
But communication is memorising essays tips never that simple. Even if we were able to remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence. To receive a text with an online research psychology, emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. Essays Tips. But—and here is where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in online research expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of msee thesis, meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in research papers psychology Pitman’s day. These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is process essay culturally dependent.
The emoji is not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of papers psychology, all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to be taken seriously, as in msee thesis I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to online research papers, express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to process - how, clarify the online research papers, tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and msee thesis sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is king. In their desire to shore up the online research papers, linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. We might recall T. S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of msee thesis, what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and attraction of what is online research papers psychology not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in essay - how become a law language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in online research papers Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in its exasperation with the limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is neither poet nor novelist. He is co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham).
Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull. Dissertation. For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. Research. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the memorising essays tips, language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on online research papers quotidian language that does not fly in effective essay the rarified air of the published poem or squat on papers a marble museum pedestal. He wants to memorising, change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter.
If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of what we think is fundamental. That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to know the online papers psychology, ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of all understanding. Placed in this context, the sending of a , in msee thesis its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the online research, matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is more to dissertation index, emoji than meets the glance. At the moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. Papers Psychology. But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the index, sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is papers psychology something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the smooth gloss of letters. And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators.
The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of msee thesis, care. We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. Papers Psychology. It is much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to essay - how bills become a law, type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the research psychology, debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection. But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of dissertation index, a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in Walker). So the ease and speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the psychology, catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure.
The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to dissertation index, her father in research papers psychology a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. Dissertation Index. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from a Lifetime Channel movie. Online Research. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in msee thesis the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to research psychology, rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in response to a friend's happy news.
The medium is not necessarily the message; context counts. Without truly knowing the effective essay, sender's abilities and proclivities, it is difficult to online papers, judge the sentiment behind the purpose. Essay Animal Farm George. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the research papers, very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and dissertation petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of papers psychology, language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves.
Yet the first symbols were animals. Msee Thesis. What distinguished men from animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of online, symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. Msee Thesis. A monolingual speaker of English is more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Emojis operate at the level of the online papers, non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. Dissertation. They inhabit a niche that is beyond the reach of online research papers, alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63).
For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Essays Tips. Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in research conveying a message, emojis expand the possibilities of what might be expressed. Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by bills users with bigger ambitions for them, and in online research doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of george orwell, rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) , a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. The desire to argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. Online Research. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of what he described as work[ing] us over (26). But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is outlines for research papers actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the online research papers, speed of exchange depends on outlines for research papers all parties speaking emoji. If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the online research papers, message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet.
No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted. We are again faced with the importance of context and of discourse. Index. Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the online papers, same emoji. Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an memorising essays, admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of trying to online research papers, ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in their language cradle. Memorising Essays Tips. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year. In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the kadomatsu as a sign of psychology, disrespect, mistaking it for memorising a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do.
There is always more to online research, an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the many interpretive choices he had to make during the for research mla, translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an research papers psychology, act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and for research unexplored literary waters in search of an elusive and formidable goal. While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by converting pixels into emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is online psychology also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors. Animal Orwell. The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another.
These creators have in effect responded to research, Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to use pictures to 'get the picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in dissertation this aural representation of them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies. An international collaborative aimed at online, developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by papers increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in online technology, the group called for a literacy pedagogy of available designs. - How Bills Become A Law. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the online papers, speed of texting via the tiniest screen of msee thesis, them all. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of online psychology, emojis serves them well.
Almost a decade prior to the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the emergence of the visual culture. Index. Just as the practice of language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the online papers, futility and even educational cruelty of essay, assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Online Research. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417). They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is a visual tool, an example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and essay graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417). As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and research papers psychology graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for memorising essays such balance.
Calls for the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in classrooms are beyond the online papers psychology, scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the same kinds of msee thesis, rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and online research creativity; a basis for analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to dissertation index, MacGuyver our way into language. At the end of the online, day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to others. Though in some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and creativity.
They are in a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. As smiles and frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and outlines for research eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and online research papers Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the Library of Congress images used here, and memorising essays whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Why Look at Animals?
About Looking. New York: Random House, 1988. Online Papers Psychology. 1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. 30 June 2014. Web. Msee Thesis. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.
Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Web. 20 July 2014. Dries, Kate.
People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to research, Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. Essay. East Coker . London: Faber and online papers Faber, 1942. Print.
Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Essay George. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Research Psychology. Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013.
Web. 16 May 2013. George, Diana. From Analysis to dissertation index, Design: Visual Communication in the Teaching of papers, Writing. College Composition and Communication . 54.1. (2002): 11-38. Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . 16 October 2012. Web.
16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into msee thesis Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014. Web. Online. 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Memorising Tips. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and online papers psychology Worley.
27-44. Rpt. in listeners essay Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes.
The National . 7 April 2013. Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity. BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age . Research. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. The Erasure of Language. Effective Essay. College Composition and Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Print. Marsden, Rhodri.
More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton. A Natural History of Typography.
Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and D.K. Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on research Graphic Design . Vols. 1-2. Msee Thesis. New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Research Papers Psychology. Print. Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986. Print.
Murr, Lawrence E. and outlines papers mla James B. Papers. Williams. Outlines Papers Mla. Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the Left and research psychology Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print. New London Group. A Pedagogy of effective essay, Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print. Rock, Margaret.
From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. Research Papers Psychology. 8 July 2013. Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia. Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. Essay Farm George. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print.
Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Online Psychology. Web. Effective Listeners. 6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the online psychology, Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Stroupe, Craig. Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web.
College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Print. Trimbur, John. Effective Listeners. Delivering the Message: Typography and online the Materiality of Writing. Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Gary Olson.
Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. 188-202. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Essay Orwell. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter.
President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for Father's Day. Business Insider. 17 June 2014. Web. 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove. Research Psychology. The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. Dissertation Index. JSTOR . Online. Web 20 July 2014. Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success.
11 December 2011. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Made Not Only in Words: Composition in a New Key. Dissertation. College Composition and research Communication . 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory. The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/
Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to for research papers mla, be an #emojiethnicity Update. 18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Online Research. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009.
Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Baker’s Blog. 6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Memorising Essays Tips. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas.
Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin. How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps. Web. . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and Shorthand Systems for Dummies. n.d.
Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of Art History. Online Papers Psychology. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004. Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Dayton, Ohio, 1902.
Library of Congress. Web. The purpose of all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the bounds of farm, academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in papers this essay consists of texts, images and one video. In the case of essays tips, text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in their entirety.
The images of emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.
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Essay: Treatments of Cocaine Use Disorder. Cocaine is an alkaloid substance found in the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that grows mainly in online research the tropical region of msee thesis, South and Central America.1 It is used by over 15 million people between the ages of 15 to 64 years worldwide with almost 50% (6.4 million) coming from North America.2 It is the drug responsible for most emergency room visits accounting for 40.3% visits versus 36% and 20.6% for papers, marijuana and heroin respectively.3 Cocaine is essay farm classified by the FDA as a schedule II medication due to its addictive properties as well as its extensive adverse effect on the pulmonary, respiratory and papers psychology, cardiovascular systems. While in the body, cocaine enhances the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine in the central and peripheral nervous systems by blocking its reuptake in the presynaptic cleft.4 The consequent increase of dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit is responsible for its (cocaine) positive psychological effects.5 Cocaine-induced dopamine release is also associated with its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. Its great abuse potential is also in part due to its ability to msee thesis, rapidly cross the online research papers psychology, blood brain barrier and deliver a short-term intense and dissertation index, pleasurable ‘high’.6,7 Depending on the route of administration, the psychological effects of cocaine can be felt within 30 seconds after an Intravenous ingestion to about 90 minutes if orally consumed.6,7 Unlike most stimulants, cocaine has a secondary action of inhibiting voltage-gated membrane sodium ions channels. This property is responsible for its local anesthetic effect and also contributes to its cardiovascular effects. Currently, psychotherapy defined as ‘a psychological treatment that aims to change problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors through creating a new understanding of thoughts and feelings that appear related to the presenting difficulty’8 is psychology recommended as the first line of therapy for tips, cocaine dependence. There are many types of online papers, psychotherapy that have been used in the treatment of listeners, addictive disorders including but not limited to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive expressive therapy (SE), interpersonal therapy (IPT), motivational interviewing (MI) and drug counseling (DC).9 Although psychotherapies have led to mild to moderate reduction in cocaine consumption, their long-term effect of maintaining abstinence is relatively unknown. There is no consensus or evidence depicting the superiority of any psychotherapy over the other ones. Crits-christoph et al10 designed a trial to online research papers psychology, determine the effectiveness of 4 psychotherapies in the treatment of cocaine-dependent patients.
In this multicenter study, 487 patients were randomized into one of the four treatment groups: individual drug counseling (IDC) plus group drug counseling (GDC), CBT plus GDC, SE plus GDC or GDC alone. Msee Thesis! Intervention included a 6 month active phase of treatment and a 3 month booster phase and follow-up of 3 months. All treatment groups recorded significant improvements from baseline mean (SD) 30 days cocaine use of 10.4 (7.8) days (median, 8.0; range, 1-30; n=487) to 3.4 (6.5) days (median, 0; range, 0-30; n = 387) at 12 months. Research Papers Psychology! Among the four groups, IDC plus GDC was superior on the number of memorising tips, cocaine-use days and also on papers the Addiction Severity Index-Drug Use Composite score. The authors noted that despite the low average drug use found in in the for research, IDC-treated patients during the online research, 12 month trial, abstinence was not maintained in most patients as only 36%achieved 3 consecutive cocaine-free months. Discovering an effective pharmacotherapy for for research papers mla, cocaine use disorder remains a top research priority nationally since there are currently no FDA approved medication for the treatment of cocaine dependence.
While several classes of medications have shown some efficacy in online papers psychology some phase two clinical trials, none has been proven to show consistency and lasting efficacy. Recent progress in the understanding of the effect of cocaine on the brain has given insight on dissertation index medications that might prove efficacious. Pharmacotherapy for cocaine use disorder is geared mainly on online research papers two objectives; to assist patient in achieving an initial stage of abstinence and to essay animal george, help those patients avoid relapsing.11 Cocaine withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleep disturbance and fatigue are usually a stumbling block for online papers psychology, patients that are trying to index, attain abstinence.11 The beta-blocker, propranolol has been used effectively to reduce anxiety and restlessness resulting from cocaine withdrawal. Three clinical trials conducted with cocaine dependent subjects have shown that propranolol was effective in helping patients attain an initial period of extended abstinence by alleviating some symptoms of cocaine craving. Online Papers Psychology! Propranolol also helped retain cocaine dependent subjects in outpatient treatment program by process - how become a law, relieving their severe withdrawal symptoms. However, recent reports have recommended against online the use of propranolol in - how patient exposed to cocaine due to online research psychology, its aggravating effects on outlines papers cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction.12. Relapse prevention is the more difficult phase of pharmacotherapy, and it usually involves multiple trials by patients before relapse is completely avoided.11,13 Potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence must be able to either inhibit cocaine-induced euphoria or reduce cocaine craving.13 Animal studies have shown that medications that inhibit the effects of excitatory amino acids like glutamate, or potentiate the inhibitory effects of GABA in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system can reduce the reinforcing effects that are associated with cocaine abuse.11,14 A model drug will thus be one that enhances GABA in online papers psychology the central nervous system, inhibits cocaine-induced dopamine release, increase brain stimulation reward thresholds and attenuate the formation and msee thesis, expression of cocaine-associated triggers. A class of medications that have shown promising efficacy in the treatment of cocaine dependence are the anticonvulsants such as topiramate. Topiramate might be an excellent choice of medication to help attain sustained abstinence and relapse prevention due to its dual activity on online papers psychology both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. Topiramate works by enhancing the cerebral levels of GABA and facilitating GABA neurotransmission, 15 while also inhibiting glutamate neurotransmission by antagonizing AMPA and kainate receptors.16 Animal studies of cocaine relapse have shown that inhibiting AMPA/kainate receptors reduces reinstatement of cocaine abuse.16. In 2013, Johnson et al17 published a report on the efficacy of topiramate for the treatment of msee thesis, cocaine addiction.
This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial that ran between November 2005 and July 2011 at the University of Virginia clinical research facilities. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into online papers psychology, a treatment group of msee thesis, either daily oral topiramate or equivalent placebo. Participants were screened for 2 weeks to online research papers psychology, determine their eligibility for the trial and to record a baseline history of self-reported cocaine use which was also verified by urine drug screens. Eligibility criteria included recent history of cocaine use (defined as one or more positive urine specimen during screening), diagnosed cocaine dependence according to the fourth edition of the process become a law, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and ages 18 years or older. Participants with alcohol dependence were allowed in the trial except for online research papers, those with marked withdrawal symptoms that required clinical interventions. Both groups received treatments through a double-dummy system which made sure that participants received the same amount pill-count irrespective of essay - how become, their assigned groups. During the first 6 weeks, oral topiramate and its equivalent placebo was titrated up from 50mg/day up to a maximum dose of online, 300mg/day. Investigators were allowed to titrate down to a minimum of 200mg/day in cases where participants were intolerable to adverse events. The maximum achieved dose was then continued in patients from weeks 6 to 12. The primary outcome was the weekly difference from baseline in the proportion of essay bills, cocaine nonuse days during weeks 6 to 12, which was computed using an online psychology algorithm created by Elkashef et al. This algorithm determined the number of study days in msee thesis which each participant used cocaine by analyzing the results of urine specimen and the number of research, self-reported cocaine use.
The secondary outcome was urinary cocaine-free weeks during weeks 6 to 12; defined as 3 benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) free urine samples by tips, a participant in 1 week. Any failed or missed test in a study week was regarded as a positive bezoylecgonine test. Online Research! Exploratory outcomes analyzed included participant’s cocaine cravings and global functioning. Craving was measured using both the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale (measures the intensity and frequency of the urge to use cocaine in the past 24 hours) and the Brief Substance Craving Scale, while the Clinical Global Impression-Observer and essay farm, Clinical Global Impression-Self scales assessed the online research, severity of the memorising essays tips, participant’s cocaine dependence symptoms and its improvement during the course of the trial. The study had 142 participants that were divided equally (n=71) to online papers psychology, receive either topiramate or placebo.
The baseline characteristics were similar for both groups with a median age of 43.6 and 43.8; male population of 71.8% and 73.2% and the mean 30 days self-reported cocaine use of 13.3 and 12.3, for topiramate and placebo groups respectively. Out of the 142 randomized participants, 13 failed enrollment by listeners essay, not returning to the clinic for the first double-blind visit. Of the 129 participants remaining, 72 completed the trial with 38 and 34 from the research papers, topiramate and placebo group respectively. Data compiled during the trial was analyzed using the intent-to-treat principle, and it included all participants randomized to a treatment group. Msee Thesis! Missing data due to dropouts were considered as relapses to the participant’s baseline level. For the weekly mean proportion of cocaine non-use days during the last six weeks of the research psychology, trial, topiramate had a significant effect in comparison to placebo (13.3% vs 5.3%; 95% CI, 1.4%-14.6%;effect size, 0.48; F=5.66; P=.02).
There was still a significant difference between both treatment groups after imputing the process essay, missing data to the baseline value (8.9% vs 3.7%; 95% CI, 0.2%-10.1%; effect size, 0.35; F=4.15; P=.04). For the secondary outcome of urinary cocaine-free weeks between the sixth and twelfth weeks, it was noted that those in the topiramate treatment group were more likely to record urinary cocaine-free weeks when compared to the placebo group (16.6% vs 5.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% CI, 1.24-8.32; F=5.77; P=.02). When the results was extrapolated to online research papers, include the duration of the trial (weeks 1 to 12), the topiramate treatment group still had the greater likelihood of recording urinary cocaine-free weeks in comparison to placebo (13.5% vs 6.7%; OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.00-4.71; P= .049) The exploratory outcome variables also showed topiramate’s superiority to msee thesis, placebo. The 2 craving subscales of the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale, when comparing topiramate versus placebo, recorded values of 0.573 vs 0.402 (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01-3.97; P=.048) for research papers, having ‘reportedly no desire at all for cocaine in the 24 hours’; 0.572 vs 0.379 (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.08-4.42; P=.03) for having ‘reportedly no urge at all to use cocaine in msee thesis the last 24 hours’; and 0.553 vs 0.364 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 108-4.34; P= .03) for having ‘reportedly no desire and no urge at online research papers psychology, all for tips, cocaine in the last 24 hours.’ The Brief Substance Craving Scale measured the intensity, frequency and duration of research papers, craving in the past 24 hours and recorded a value of msee thesis, 0.499 vs 0.300 (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.15-4.71; P=.02) for having ‘reportedly no craving at all’ for the topiramate and placebo group respectively. The clinical Global Impression-Observer scale (done by clinicians), also showed an online research papers association with topiramate treatment and essay animal, significant decrease in participants’ levels of cocaine dependence, estimating a mean difference of -1.74 (95% CI, -3.12 to papers, -0.35; P=.02) for topiramate vs placebo.
The self-administered section of the scale noted an estimated proportion of topiramate vs placebo as 0.502 vs 0.310 (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05-4.83; P = .04) for having ‘reportedly no symptoms or borderline symptoms and 0.704 vs 0.550 (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.91-4.17; P = .09) for msee thesis, being ‘reportedly very much improved or much improved’ in the global severity and improvement of cocaine dependence. The number of research papers, adverse events was similar for both treatment groups with 60 participants from the topiramate group reporting adverse events in comparison to 57 participants from dissertation index, placebo. The most frequently occurred adverse events were decreased weight (63.5% and 49.3%), fatigue (45.1% and 35.2%), headache (38.0% and online papers psychology, 38.0%), paresthesia (50.7% and 21.1%), taste perversion (42.3% and 23.9%) and diarrhea (33.8% and 25.4%) for topiramate and placebo respectively. Participants also reports difficulty with concentration, with the topiramate group significantly higher than the placebo group at dissertation, 26.8% vs 11.% No death was recorded during the length of the trial, neither was any report of a serious side effect from participants. The study found topiramate to be effective in increasing the number of cocaine non-use days when compared to placebo. Participants that received topiramate were also more likely to have urinary cocaine-free weeks as determined by research, the absence of benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) in index the urine. Additionally, participants from the topiramate treatment group reported significant reductions in the intensity and frequency of cravings in the past 24 hours and papers psychology, an improvement in their overall global functioning in comparison to index, the placebo treatment group. Limitations of the papers, study include a low retention rate, lack of follow-up with participants, and msee thesis, a short duration of research papers, trial. Memorising Tips! By week 11 of the trial, the research psychology, retention rates were only tips 63.5% and 53.0% for topiramate and placebo recipients respectively. Though these rates were still within study projections, an incentive-based program such as trial completion compensation could have been used to optimize retention. In addition, the study only lasted 12 weeks and psychology, this gave the investigators only 6 weeks to process essay - how become, measure the efficacy of research, topiramate since the optimal dose of 300mg per day was not achieved until the sixth week.
A lengthier period of study will enable investigators to properly assess topiramate’s therapeutic effects as well as the sustainability of tips, such effect after the discontinuation of therapy. Although this study is not without its limitations, it provides promising reports that can position topiramate as an effective choice in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The effect size of topiramate (0.48) is online research papers impressive mainly because other medications such as naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved by the Food and Drug administration for the treatment of another addictive disorder with a much lower effect size of 0.12 and 0.36 respectively. Further studies will be needed to assess the long-term efficacy of dissertation, topiramate and also to determine if such effects are sustainable after medication discontinuation. Another medication that has been extensively studied for the treatment of online research psychology, cocaine dependence is Disulfiram. Disulfiram is primarily used to treat chronic alcoholism and it works by causing an unpleasant reaction to msee thesis, alcohol consumption through its blockade of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase which leads high levels of acetaldehyde in online the body. Disulfiram was evaluated as a possible treatment option for cocaine dependence due to its ability to prevent the breakdown of cocaine and dopamine in the body.18 This enzymatic blockade results in extremely high levels of plasma cocaine thereby producing unpleasant high and negative effects such as anxiety and restlessness.18, 19 Clinical trials done on Disulfiram 250mg daily for - how become, the treatment of cocaine dependence have so far produced conflicting reports. Earlier trials involving patients with co-morbid opioid dependence had shown Disulfiram to be effective in reducing cocaine use,20 but recent larger-scale trials have reported otherwise. There are also general health and safety concerns in papers patients who do not refrain completely from cocaine use because of msee thesis, its (disulfiram) interaction with cocaine and alcohol.20. Oliveto et al21 examined the dose-related effectiveness of research papers, Disulfiram for the treatment of cocaine dependence in outlines for research papers mla 161 patients who had co-morbid opioid dependence and were stabilized on methadone treatment. This was a 14-week, multi-center, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Patients were stabilized on psychology methadone during the first two weeks, and were randomly assigned to receive Disulfiram at doses 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg/day from weeks 3 to 14. They were also given weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Index! Patients were required to report for psychology, a thrice-weekly urine test that tested for benzoylecgonine and to report any cocaine use each week. A total of 104 patients completed the study. There was no significant difference in patients’ baseline characteristics, retention rates and choice of drug use across the four groups. From weeks 2 to 14, the amount of cocaine-positive urine samples were increased over time in the 62.5 (t = 3.74, df = 4806, p = 0.0002; slope = 0.08) and 125 (t = 5.45, df = 4806, p 80%). There was also no significant difference with participant’s drug use as 89% of them reported smoked cocaine as their second drug of choice after prescription opioids.
Furthermore, both treatment groups recorded similar opioid-free urine samples and methadone dosage after the first 2 weeks of methadone maintenance therapy. Out of the 58 participants randomized to the active vaccine treatment group, 55 completed the 5 doses of vaccinations. Listeners Essay! 21(38%) attained efficacious serum IgG antibody levels of 43??g/mL or greater (high IgG levels) while 34(62%) did not attain this threshold (low IgG levels). There was a significant difference in the weekly cocaine-free urine samples as the study progressed from papers psychology, weeks 1 to 16 between the active vaccine (vaccine X time interaction; Z = 8.7, P= .001) and placebo (placebo X time interaction: Z = 5.4, P. Search our thousands of tips, essays:
If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to online research psychology, help you. Listeners Essay! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and research papers, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to dissertation index, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Treatments of Cocaine Use Disorder . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-cocaine/ [06-10-17].
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