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Bibliography management with bibtex. Business Plan. L a T e X supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in essay about season an external file. This article explains how to business plan manage bibliography with the thebibliography environment and the BibTeX system. Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to problems use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible. Standard bibliography commands in L a T e X have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.

The environment thebibliography produces a list of references; such list will be titled References in a article document class, and airlines plan, Bibliography in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, 9 in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99. To create a bibliography entry the command bibitem is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. Abortion. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and business, so on is entered. Share L a T e X provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link. Pro Choice. The example presented in airlines business the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of that list within the document. The command cite insert the number corresponding to retrosynthesis the bibliography entry whose label is airlines plan, passed inside braces. For example, the output of cite is best, [2].

The information printed by airlines plan the command cite depends on essay the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles. [edit] Bibliography management with Bibtex. BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in L a T e X , with BibTeX the business bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document. Once the external bibliography file is auto, imported, the command cite is used just as in the introductory example. Below, a description of the commands: bibliography Imports the BibTeX file sample.bib to display the airlines bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary. Pro Choice. bibliographystyle Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in L a T e X . cite This will print a number of text, depending on airlines the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to best essay for kids the command. In this case, the label einstein produces [2].

Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Airlines Plan. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools . Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields . Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry. This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by: @article This is the first line of a record entry, @article denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an depression mood article. Besides the entry types shown in business the example ( article , book and writer, misc ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide. einstein The label einstein is assigned to this entry, is an business identifier that can be used to refer this article within the pro choice abortion essay document. author = Albert Einstein, This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax key = value , for plan instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the friend for kids reference guide for a list of possible fields. The information in this file can later be used within a L a T e X document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection. [edit] Adding the bibliography in the table of contents. There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).

To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command begin or bibliography. for books and reports or. for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example. Adding the line. to the preamble will print the References or Bibliography in the table of airlines plan contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation].

Standard entry types. article Article from a magazine or journal book A published book booklet A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution conference An article in a conference proceedings inbook A part of a book (section, chapter and white paper writer, so on) incollection A part of a book having its own title inproceedings An article in airlines a conference proceedings manual Technical documentation masterthesis A Master's thesis misc Something that doesn't fit in any other type phdthesis A PhD thesis proceedings The same as conference techreport Report published by an institution unpublished Document not formally published, with author and paper writer, title.

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Картинки по запросу airlines business plan

matt kupchik resume Dr. Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored. FDA Phase 2 pilot study. We need your support so together we can make a difference. BROWSE MDMA INFORMATION: MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 1. Principal Investigator: Michael Mithoefer, MD, with co-therapist Ann Mithoefer, BSN. Location: Charleston, SC (USA) MAPS’ flagship Phase 2 pilot study is the first-ever protocol evaluating MDMA’s therapeutic applications in clinical trials conducted under an plan FDA IND.

Like all of MAPS’ psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy studies, the protocol is randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. All twenty-one subjects with treatment-resistant PTSD, as a result of abortion sexual abuse, crime, or war, have completed the experimental treatment. Business! The study was completed in September 2008. The data analysis, writing a scientific paper for publication, and the one-year follow-up remain to be completed. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 2. Principal Investigator: Peter Oehen, MD, with co-therapist Verena Widmer, RN. Location: Solothurn (Switzerland) Our Swiss MDMA/PTSD pilot study has full approval from an Ethics Committee (Swiss IRB equivalent) and SwissMedic (FDA equivalent). The protocol has also been submitted to and accepted by depression mood FDA under MAPS’ Investigational New Drug (IND) for MDMA. As a result, the study fits into MAPS’ initiative to develop MDMA.

into a prescription medicine approved by both the FDA and the European Medicines’ Agency (EMEA). Over half of twelve subjects with treatment-resistant PTSD from any cause have undergone the experimental treatment. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of plan Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 3. Principal Investigator: Moshe Kotler, MD, with co-therapists Sergio Marchevsky, MD, Rakefet Rodrigez, MD, and problems, Marina Kupchik. Location: Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center (Israel) This study has full approval from the Israeli Ethics Committee and Ministry of Health. The experimental treatments are being conducted at Beer Yaakov Mental. Health Center, near Tel Aviv, under the direction of Principal Investigator Moshe Kotler, M.D., former chief psychiatrist of the Israeli Defense Forces and airlines plan, current Chair, Department of Psychiatry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University. The study will evaluate twelve subjects with treatment-resistant PTSD, mostly.

war- or terrorism-related PTSD. The first subject has competed his experimental treatment and the second an write essay third subjects have been enrolled. Like MAPS’ Swiss. MDMA/PTSD study, the protocol has been submitted to and accepted by FDA under MAPS’ IND for MDMA, and is part of MAPS’ initiative to airlines business plan, develop MDMA into best friend essay for kids, a prescription medicine approved by both the FDA and the EMEA. MAPS has sponsored three international scientific conferences in Israel on MDMA research to facilitate the protocol approval process. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) : Site 4. Principal Investigator: Ingrid Pacey, MD and Andrew Feldmar, PhD. Location: Vancouver, BC (Canada) This study is business, currently in development.

Enrollment is expected to essay, begin in Spring 2009. Treatment Manual for MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Treatment of PTSD. Principal Investigators: June M. Airlines Business Plan! Ruse, PsyD, Lisa Jerome, PhD, Michael C. Mithoefer, MD, Rick Doblin, PhD, Elizabeth Gibson, MS. This detailed manual, an early draft of essay which is already written, provides therapy researchers conducting MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD studies with standardized. methods. It will eventually enable MAPS to plan, train therapists and evaluate therapist adherance to the approach described in the manual.

Outcome Study of Psychological Defense Mechanisms During MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Treatment of PTSD. Principal Investigators: Pal-Orjan Johansen, PhD (cand) and Teri Krebs. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway) IN PROCESS. This study analyzes audio and video recordings of therapy sessions from the ongoing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy studies in for kids, the treatment of subjects with PTSD. The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence on how MDMA influences defense mechanisms in the context of business psychotherapy, to understand how MDMA might facilitate the depression mood therapeutic process, and to inform the development of a standardized treatment manual for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The study has cost $15,000, with the remainder fully funded.

MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Anxiety Secondary to Advanced Stage Cancer. Principal Investigator: John Halpenr, MD. Location: McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA (USA) MAPS conducted the design and airlines, protocol approval process for this study through a direct gift to McLean Hospital. This study of twelve subjects is also being conducted under US FDA IND and has received IRB approval and DEA licensure.

Dr. Depression Mood! Halpern is the airlines business plan Sponsor/Investigator. In his FDA IND application, he cross-referenced MAPS' IND for MDMA and MAPS will have full access to the data generated from his study. The first subject has completed the experimental treatment. Protocol submitted to best essay, FDA on November 26, 2004 (in HTML or PDF format) Protocol approved by McLean Hospital and Lahey Clinic IRBs (in HTML or PDF formats) Informed Consent Form approved by the McLean IRB (HTML or PDF) on November 19, 2004 Prescreening consent (PDF only) approved by airlines business the Lahey Clinic IRB on November 10, 2004 Treatment manual submitted for review to McLean IRB July 21, 2004. Other FDA research with MDMA. MAPS' comprehensive review of the white paper scientific literature on MDMA Periodic updated reviews of the literature for August/September 2001-January 2003, for 2003-March 2004 (HTML and PDF versions), March 2004-January 2005 (HTML and PDF versions), and a significantly reformatted version covering research up through December 2007 (PDF) Monthly updates of MDMA-related literature MAPS MDMA bibliography with abstracts and business, PDFs, including a What's New section A review by writer Alex Gamma, Ph.D. of the major studies exploring the possible link between MDMA and memory.

Rick Doblin has written a paper discussing how the risks of MDMA neurotoxicity have been exaggerated by airlines business government officials and government-funded scientists in a manner that has been used to support prohibitionist policies. The scientific and media critiques of Ricaurte's MDMA neurotoxicity research. Ricaurte's July 2003 NIDA Grant Progress Report, obtained 1/26/04 by MAPS through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. Ricaurte explains how he determined he administered methamphetamine instead of MDMA to retrosynthesis, primates and describes research with genuine MDMA that didn't cause dopamine reductions. The legal record from DEA's 1984-1988 MDMA scheduling hearings Testimony by Rick Doblin, Ph.D. and others before US Sentencing Commission hearing on MDMA, 3/19/01 Why MDMA Should Not Have Been Made Illegal by Marsha Rosenbaum and Rick Doblin Meeting agenda and video archives for MDMA/Ecstasy Research: Advances, Challenges, Future Directions - NIDA-sponsored conference, July 19-20, 2001. February 6, 2009. MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Helps Israeli Subject with PTSD from the 1967 Six-Day War: MAPS President Rick Doblin PhD is delighted to share the success of a recent MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session in Israel.

Rick was told a remarkable story during a check-in with the therapy team that is conducting our Israeli MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) study. Several weeks ago, the Israeli therapists successfully treated a patient who had suffered from PTSD for over 40 years, since the business Six-Day War in 1967. On his second MDMA session, the gentleman became acutely aware of fears he was still harboring within him since the retrosynthesis problems war. He requested to plan, leave the treatment room for the spring, a walk outside on the hospital grounds. The therapists escorted him outside as he had a breakthrough catharsis leading to dramatic healing.

Ironically, planes were flying overhead on the way to bomb Gaza. With so much new trauma being created, it may seem underwhelming to speak of plan treating only 12 subjects each in our Israeli and proposed Jordanian studies. Yet if successful, these pilot projects will lead to paper writer, larger-scale studies. Furthermore, as Charles Mackay, author of airlines business plan Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (published in 1841), observed, “Men, it has been well said, think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one.” The MAPS team is abortion, honored and humbled to help someone who has suffered for business, so long. We hope that in the near future MDMA-assisted psychotherapy will be available legally to all who suffer from white paper, PTSD. We believe that in the future, our successes in plan, the laboratory will translate into a more peaceful world. Rick shared, “in the midst of essay about the spring season war, we are developing the technologies of airlines plan peace and healing.”

February 3, 2009. Health Canada Approves MDMA/PTSD Protocol Design: On January 16, Health Canada first responded to our Canadian MDMA/PTSD protocol design. They accepted almost all elements of the protocol but had some items they wanted changed. We also asked for a change in retrosynthesis, the kind of previous treatments for PTSD the subjects will be required to have tried and failed. On January 20, we submitted our replies, accepting some changes and making our best argument for why it was important to airlines plan, include people who were free from depression mood, substance abuse histories for the last 6 months rather than for business, the last 12 months, as Health Canada had suggested. In addition, we asked to write essay, be able to include subjects who failed on other psychotherapy and either tried and failed, or refused medication. Health Canada had suggested including only subjects who had failed on other psychotherapy, and had tried and failed to obtain relief from medication - excluding subjects who refused to try medication. On February 3, we heard from Health Canada that our responses had been accepted and that our protocol design had been fully approved (Hooray!). This shows yet again that it is possible to negotiate with regulatory agencies that put science first.

On January 12, we heard from Health Canada’s chemistry reviewers. Business! We’ve been gathering our replies ever since, which included obtaining a new analysis of the paper writer heavy metals and residue on ignition of the MDMA. In addition, Health Canada had a series of questions about the capsules, the lactose filler, and airlines, the bottles in which the capsules will be stored. On February 2, Professor Rudolph Brenneisen from Switzerland provided MAPS with documents regarding the chemical make-up of the MDMA that will be imported to Canada from Switzerland. Ironically, the white paper last bit of information we need to airlines business plan, gather is the friend essay batch number of the lactose! We expect to submit the business required chemistry information in the next few days. Once the protocol is approved, we can start the process of essay obtaining the import/export permits for the MDMA from Switzerland, and can then start the study itself. January 20, 2009. Flagship US MDMA/PTSD Study Final Monitoring Visit: On January 20-22, MAPS’ clinical research monitoring team, Valerie Mojeiko and plan, Josh Sonstroem, went to Charleston, South Carolina to conduct a closeout visit for MAPS’ flagship US MDMA/PTSD study.

The data from pro choice abortion essay, this study is airlines business, now ready to be submitted to FDA. With this ending also comes the beginning of the “long-term follow up” extension to this study. During this extension, subjects who were enrolled in the original study will be retested on for kids primary outcome variables one year or more after completion. In the initial study, the last measurement of PTSD severity was taken two months after the last experimental session. Airlines Plan! Since this study took over four years to about the spring season, conduct, some of the data from the long-term follow-up will be from plan, subjects who were treated over four years ago.

The value of the long-term follow-up study will be substantially enhanced as a result of the extra length of time since treatment for essay, most of the subjects. Business Plan! MAPS is pleased to have the help of volunteers Scott Martin MD and Mili Ballard to coordinate this long-term follow-up study. January 2, 2009. Essay Season! MAPS#x2019; International MDMA/PTSD Research Progresses into the New Year. Our Swiss and Israeli MDMA/PTSD studies are continuing to recruit subjects. Our Swiss study has only business, a few subjects still to recruit while our Israeli study has more than half remaining to paper, be recruited. Sadly, the airlines plan current war in auto write, Israel is creating many more people with PTSD. For our proposed Jordanian MDMA/PTSD study, we#x2019;re in the process of having our informed consent form translated into Arabic for review by the Jordanian IRB. We#x2019;re also making progress toward obtaining the necessary insurance to conduct a study in Jordan.

December 19, 2008. The audio version of The Economist article about MAPS' Flagship MDMA/PTSD study is now available in MP3 format. December 18, 2008. Business! MDMA/PTSD Documents Submitted to Health Canada. On December 18, all the documents for our Canadian study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of people with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were submitted to Health Canada (Canada#x2019;s version of the FDA). We've already obtained approval of our protocol and informed consent from a Canadian Institutional Review Board.

We should receive a reply from Health Canada within 30 days of our submission. This is going to be a study with 12 subjects, similar in design to essay for kids, the recently completed US MDMA/PTSD study. Our main purpose for this particular study is to see if we can replicate the airlines results of the US study. The budget for this study is $250,000, all of writer which remains to airlines business, be raised. December 10, 2008. MAPS Releases Year-End MDMA Literature Review: As part of our ongoing clinical research responsibilities, MAPS reviews all of the MDMA- related articles published in scientific peer-reviewed journals to determine whether we need to modify our risk/benefit analysis for our clinical studies. We have now completed our review of the scientific literature published between December 2007 and November 2008 and submitted the paper writer review to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) that oversees our US MDMA/PTSD study. Nothing in the review changes our risk/benefit analysis regarding our research in human subjects.

This review--along with all previous reviews--are compiled by MAPS Research Specialist Ilsa Jerome, and business plan, are posted on the MAPS website at: www.maps.org/mdma/protocol/litreview.html. December 3, 2008. Newly Revised MDMA/PTSD Treatment Manual Now Online: MAPS Researchers Michael Mithoefer MD, Annie Mithoefer BSN, and June May Ruse PhD, have created a revised version of about the spring season MAPS MDMA/PTSD treatment manual. The new version of the manual builds on a previous manual from airlines plan, 2005, and includes lessons learned from our recently completed US MDMA/PTSD pilot study.

The team of researchers reviewed many hours of videotapes of the depression mood therapy sessions with the aim of finding clear examples of the key elements of the therapeutic method. The manual will be continually revised as we identify best practices and gather data to link methods to airlines plan, outcomes. The manual, will also be used to develop measurement tools for identifying key elements of the therapeutic method. December 2, 2008. A family foundation that wishes to remain anonymous donated $50,000 to auto write essay, MAPS for our US MDMA/PTSD research. The foundation had generously supported our US MDMA/PTSD study during the early stages of the research giving substantial donations that played a crucial role in airlines, launching this project. November 11, 2008. MDMA/PTSD Study With War Veterans In The Planning Stage: November 7, 2008.

Canadian IRB Gives Conditional Approval To MDMA/PTSD Protocol: October 15, 2008. The fortieth edition Journal of Psychoactive Drugs published an essay article “MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Using Low Doses in plan, a Small Sample of depression mood Women with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” by José Carlos Bouso PhD candidate, Rick Doblin PhD, Magí Farré MD PhD, Miguel Ángel Alcázar PhD, and Gregorio Gómez-Jarabo PhD. This article reports on the MAPS-sponsored MDMA-assisted psychotherapy study in airlines plan, Spain that was prematurely shut down by the Spanish government. The abstract of the article is as follows: October 10, 2008. From October 6-10, 2008, Michael Mithoefer MD, Annie Mithoefer BSN, and abortion, June May Ruse PhD, worked on airlines plan the MDMA/PTSD treatment manual. This was their second week working together in person, with a third week anticipated in December or January.

They have reviewed many hours of videotapes of therapy sessions from Michael and Annie’s recently completed US MDMA/PTSD pilot study, with the essay about season aim of finding clear examples of the key elements of the therapeutic method. They intend to develop scales of airlines plan approximately ten key elements of the pro choice essay therapeutic method. These scales would then be used by raters to evaluate researchers/therapists’ adherence to our specific therapeutic method. October 7, 2008. On October 7, 2008, MAPS sent a draft of a protocol for a MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PSTD pilot study to Royal Jordanian Military psychiatrist Nasser Shuriquie. Dr Shuriquie needs to show the airlines business protocol to other medical officials to gauge whether there is sufficient support to justify submitting a final draft of the protocol to a Jordanian Ethics Committee and the Jordanian Ministry of Health. This version of our protocol differs from other pilot studies in auto write, several ways.

It begins with a three-subject open label run-in in which both the subjects and the therapists know that MDMA is being administered. Airlines Plan! In this way, the therapist gets a chance to practice our therapeutic technique and become familiar with the therapeutic process before administering MDMA or placebo to other subjects in the context of a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. We believe that it is important for the therapist to get a chance to become comfortable with the essay procedure prior to starting a controlled study. The remainder of the protocol is a nine-person study, where six subjects receive three sessions of full-dose MDMA, 125 mg followed one-and-a-half to two-and-a-half hours later by 62.5 mg. Three subjects would receive active placebo, in this case 40 mg followed 1.5-2.5 hours later by 20 mg. Our Swiss, Israeli and Canadian MDMA/PTSD pilot studies are using 25 mg as the active placebo while our US study used an inactive placebo.

September 17, 2008. Airlines Plan! On September 17, 2008, French psychiatrists Olivier Chambon and Fred Rosenfeld met with Patrick Lemoine MD in Lyon, France to discuss possibilities of starting a MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD pilot study at a clinic where they work and that Dr. Lemoine directs. MAPS President Rick Doblin PhD and Director of Operations Valerie Mojeiko spoke in Paris in March 2008 at a conference about hallucinations in an attempt to essay, catalyze MDMA/PTSD research [Link to article in current MAPS Bulletin on page 17]. On June, 28 2008, Valerie and Josh Sonstroem, MAPS’ Clinical Research Associates, conducted a site visit at the clinic where Drs. Chambon and Rosenfeld work. September 16, 2008. The Institutional Review Board that is reviewing our Canadian MDMA/PTSD study sent us a letter dated September 16, 2008, requesting a few changes to airlines business, the protocol we submitted (PDF) . We were delighted to receive this letter since it is clear now that the study itself will be approved.

The IRB has some issues of concern that need a further exchange of information before being resolved. July 6, 2008. The Sunday Baltimore Sun published an editorial (Tuning In, Not Out) supporting research into auto essay, the therapeutic potential of psychedelics. The editorial mentions the MAPS-supported research into MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD and ends by airlines business stating, Instead of banning drugs that are perceived as bad simply because of their recreational use, scientists should be encouraged to pursue legitimate study - lest we miss out on a valuable medicinal tool. May 4, 2008. The Sunday Times (London) recently published Ecstasy is the Key to Treating PTSD, an in-depth piece on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in essay, people with PTSD, focusing on Dr. Mithoefer's MAPS-supported study and featuring quotes from business, MAPS president Rick Doblin and British psychiatrist Ben Sessa. April 3, 2008. The list of best essay articles and business plan, information on potential risks of MDMA now includes a report of estimated risk of white paper MDMA in people with hepatitis C. While there is nothing in the medical literature on the topic, this report draws on information about business MDMA, heptatitis C, and drugs used to treat it.

February 6, 2008. A letter by white paper writer Krebs and Johansen commenting on and questioning the findings of the prospective study of cognitive function in ecstasy users is now published in the Archives of General Psychiatry. The letter addresses issues relating to the nature of the test score differences, the airlines plan existence of essay about the spring season long-term retest effects, participant durg use history and effects of anxiety arising from stereotype threat. Schilt and plan, colleagues' reply appears alongside the essay season letter. They respond to questions concerning retest learning effects and re-analyze data with respect to drug use history. Krebs and Johansen are conducting an examination of psychological defense mechanisms in airlines, experimental sessions from Mithoefer's randomized, placebo-controlled study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in auto write essay, people with PTSD. November 30, 2007. Airlines! MDMA is not a type of methamphetamine : Despite its title, the recent Science Daily piece Club Drugs Inflict Damage Similar To Traumatic Brain Injury is about studies on the effects of methamphetamine, not MDMA, and describes findings in rats, not people. Read a brief commentary on this news report. November 29, 2007. Sessa and Nutt have recently published an editorial in depression mood, the Journal of business plan Psychopharmacology, MDMA, politics and medical research: Have we thrown the baby out with the white bathwater?, speaking out against airlines plan, the effects of politics and regulation on medical research with MDMA and in favor of more basic and write essay, medical research.

In their editorial, Sessa and Nutt discuss the costs to plan, the research enterprise imposed by regulation of MDMA, and proposes at season, least three avenues of further research. The piece is provocative and uneven, but makes for encouraging reading for supporters of MDMA psychotherapy research. November 25, 2007. Washington Post magazine published an article featured as the cover story about MAPS' and Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MDMA-PTSD research entitled Peace Drug. This article is overall positive with one minor mistake--the idea of airlines plan MDMA being prescribed only by specially trained therapists in psychedelic clinics is attributed to Dr. Michael Mithoefer when it should have been attributed to Rick Doblin Ph.D.'s dissertation.

This article is unique as it is the first time that a reporter has been allowed to interview a research participant from this historic study. You can read the comments about this article here. October 12, 2007. MAPS communications director Jag Davies conducted a podcast interview (mp3) with Dr. Michael Mithoefer, in which Dr. Mithoefer discusses the details of his study, his working relationship with wife and co-therapist Annie Mithoefer, and his musings on the psychological mechanisms involved in auto write, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. October 10, 2007. Sixteen out of twenty subjects have completed the double-blind protocol in business plan, Dr. Michael Mithoefer's flagship MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase 2 study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three new subjects have been enrolled, two of which are close to completion of the essay about the spring season first stage of the protocol. One of these new subjects is a US military veteran whose trauma occurred during combat in Iraq.

Last month, MAPS and plan, Dr. Mithoefer submitted a protocol amendment to auto write, FDA, seeking approval to treat a 21st subject, also a US veteran with PTSD from the Iraq War. We need FDA permission to deviate from our inclusion criteria that requires all PTSD subjects to be treatment-failures from business plan, both drug and non-drug treatments. The FDA has accepted our request, which we have just submitted to pro choice essay, our institutional review board (IRB) for final review. October 1, 2007. American Medical News published a feature article entitled Altered Perceptions: Good Outcomes from 'Club Drugs'? MAPS President Rick Doblin, PhD, and airlines plan, researchers Michael Mithoefer, MD, John Halpern, MD, and Charles Grob, MD, are quoted.

American Medical News is a weekly newspaper for retrosynthesis problems, physicians published by the American Medical Association that is ciculated to business plan, over 230,000 physicians and health policy regulators. September 3, 2007. MAPS and Dr. Mithoefer submitted a protocol amendment to FDA, seeking approval to treat a 21st subject, a US veteran with PTSD from the white paper writer Iraq War. We need FDA permission to deviate from our inclusion criteria that requires all PTSD subjects to airlines plan, be treatment-failures from both drug and non-drug treatments. The request to include a subject who is not a treatment-failure is depression mood, due to the sad fact that this veteran, like several others with whom we have spoken, has been diagnosed with PTSD but has never been offered treatment by the military. We expect to hear from FDA in a few weeks. Michael Mithoefer, MD, and Annie Mithoefer, BSN, have enrolled 18 out of 20 subjects in their MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with chronic PTSD. Another two potential subjects are currently in the screening process.

The completion of MAPS' flagship FDA Phase 2 clinical research study is plan, now in sight. July 10, 2007. The Spring! No cause for alarm: Despite claims to the contrary, the recently published meta-analysis of studies of memory in ecstasy users does not demonstrate that memory is business, impaired even after a few doses of ecstasy. Essay! Here are our conclusions reached after reviewing the paper and correspondence with one of the study authors. June 27, 2007. Yesterday, June 26, the 17th subject out of 20 completed the first experimental session in Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We are still actively seeking to enroll in the study at least two US veterans with PTSD from the Iraq or Afghanistan wars. This Phase II clinical study is the first-ever FDA-approved human study evaluating MDMA's therapeutic applications. Efficacy data is extremely promising so far, making a strong case for continuing research into airlines business, FDA Phase III studies.

June 26, 2007. News coverage of a soon-to-be published research report in depression mood, the journal Human Psychopharmacology vary in depth and accuracy, with some claiming Even Low ecstasy use harms memory, or Taking Ecstasy Once can Damage Memory, while others provide more details suggesting that this is not the case. The research in question is a meta-analysis of previous research studies. Read initial comments and reflections on airlines business plan the news coverage and research report. June 19, 2007. White Paper! On June 3, MAPS-sponsored researchers Michael Mithoefer, MD, Annie Mithoefer, RN, Peter Oehen, MD, and Verena Widmer, RN, presented on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research at the European Conference on Traumatic Stress in Croatia. Also present at the conference was Swiss researcher Dr. Franz Vollenweider, who is airlines business plan, conducting a physiological study of the auto essay subjects in airlines plan, the Swiss MDMA/PTSD study, measuring markers for PTSD before and after treatment. MAPS' MDMA/PTSD research now has preliminary data to share with PTSD researchers around the essay the spring world.

June 5, 2007. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) research team has published yet one more prospective report of business plan ecstasy users and non-users. Essay! In contrast to airlines, their earlier efforts, this report on attention and memory claims to have found differences between the two groups, with non-users performing better on verbal memory tests. However, the essay about season report contains problems both with the analysis and interpretation of the data. May 16, 2007. The latest data from one of the first studies to compare people before and business plan, after they used ecstasy, part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) research program, has just appeared in the second of two reports. Like the first findings reported from this study, the subsequent report also failed to find any indications that ecstasy in low doses impaired selective attention or working memory, and found no ecstasy-use related changes in brain activation either. May 15, 2007. We have learned that the pro choice abortion essay data being generated from the Swiss and Israeli MAPS-sponsored studies will be accepted by the US FDA.

Although these protocols do not need to be approved by the FDA to be conducted in their home countries (they have already been approved by their home country's regulatory agency equivalent to FDA and by local ethics committees), FDA review and approval enables us to submit to FDA the data from these two studies as part of MAPS' Investigational New Drug (IND) application for airlines plan, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in essay, the treatment of PTSD. The data from airlines business, these studies will be used to help negotiate with FDA regarding the auto write essay design of plan larger Phase 3 studies intended to gather data to determine whether or not MDMA meets the requirements necessary to for kids, be approved as a legal prescription medicine. To learn more about the MAPS-sponsored study in Israel evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with war- and terrorism-related PTSD, the protocol is posted on business plan the MAPS Web site. To learn more about the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study in Switzerland, the protocol is also posted on auto write essay the MAPS Web site. May 13, 2007. Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer, the co-therapists for MAPS' landmark US MDMA/PTSD study, were in Norway recently attending a workshop by airlines plan Dr. Edna Foa, an retrosynthesis internationally-recognized expert in airlines, the treatment of PTSD.

The workshop was organized by essay Pal-Orjan Johansen, a Ph.D. candidate at the Trondheim Psychotherapy Research Program, Department of Psychology, The Norwegian University of business plan Science and Technology, and Teri Krebs, B.S., Program in pro choice essay, Neuroscience, Boston University. While in Norway, Dr. Airlines! Michael and Annie Mithoefer were also able to work with Pal and Teri, who are conducting a MAPS-sponsored study reviewing audio and video recordings and transcripts of subjects in the Mithoefer's MDMA/PTSD research, in order to code and retrosynthesis, compare the plan psychological defense mechanisms used in both non-drug therapy sessions and in the experimental MDMA-assisted therapy sessions. This study is designed to identify process variables that may help explain how MDMA can be a useful adjunct to psychotherapy. Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer were also able to white, discuss with Pal and Teri their MAPS-sponsored project using the internet to search for airlines, reports of problems people with Asperger's (a form of high-functioning autism) who have found MDMA to be helpful in their learning to business, cope more effectively in social situations. If we do find at least a handful of such reports, this could become another area of research, if funding becomes available. Drs. Mithoefer, Peter Oehen and Franz Vollenweider, will be presenting their MDMA/PTSD work at the European Conference on Traumatic Stress in Croatia next month.

April 13, 2007. Depression Mood! The MAPS-sponsored study in Israel evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for business plan, subjects with war-and terrorism-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has full government approval and is now in the subject recruitment stage. Friend! The study will be conducted at Beer Yakhov Mental Health Center, near Tel Aviv, under the direction of Principal Investigator Moshe Kotler, M.D., former chief psychiatrist of the Israeli Defense Forces. The therapeutic team has been expanded and will now include Sergio Marchevsky, M.D., in addition to airlines plan, Rakefet Rodrigez, M.D., and Rael Strous, M.D. March 20, 2007. Time Magazine's annual What's Next issue ran a brief story entitled Taking a trip for your mental health, highlighting MAPS-sponsored MDMA, psilocybin, and auto write essay, ketamine research. March 17, 2007. An encouraging advancement is that we may be close to enrolling the final five subjects needed to complete Dr. Airlines Business Plan! Mithoefer's study.

We've focused more attention on recruitment with ads on various psychedelic-related websites and websites for PTSD support groups and currently have more than five subjects going through the screening process. Season! Two of plan these potential subjects are Iraq War veterans. Efficacy data at this stage is promising, so far making a strong case for continuing the research into FDA Phase 3 studies. March 11, 2007. Season! After several years of effort, three rejections, and an appeal, the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for airlines business plan, Dr. Michael Mithoefer's flagship MAPS-sponsored US MDMA/PTSD study approved an amendment to the study's protocol. The IRB decided that it will not object to depression mood, subjects speaking with the media and/or documentary filmmakers following completion of each subject's participation in the study. Business Plan! The IRB originally insisted that patients not speak with the media even after the best friend for kids entire study is complete. After years of careful consideration, the IRB has now determined that it has no jurisdiction to control subjects' decisions about plan whether or not to pro choice, speak to the media. Now that the media policy has been resolved, we are ready to move forward with our 12-month follow-up evaluations, which the IRB has previously approved.

March 10, 2007. Dr. Business Plan! Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been making swift progress. Last Thursday, March 8, the depression mood second subject in Dr. Oehen's study underwent the second experimental treatment session.

The third subject will undergo the first experimental session later this week, and plan, the fourth and 5th subjects have already been recruited. March 6, 2007. Essay! Peter Jennings' special ABC report entitled Ecstasy Rising is available for airlines plan, viewing. Friend! This groundbreaking documentary discusses MDMA's cultural history, its use as a therapeutic tool, the business government's criminalization and exaggeration of its risks, and retrosynthesis, MAPS' recent success with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research. Regarding this clip we would like to plan, give SPECIAL thanks to Nathan for ripping this footage and hosting it onsite ;-) Many gracious THANX. February 28, 2007. MAPS has committed $5,300 to Dr. Franz Vollenweider at the Psychiatric University Hospital in Zurich to depression mood, co-sponsor a secondary study that will gather data for plan, physiological assessments of subjects in Dr. Oehen's MDMA/PTSD study.

The additional study will use several different measures to pro choice abortion essay, assess the psychophysiology of PTSD by using EEG/ERP and other biological measures such as heart rate variability (HRV) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI). Airlines! These parameters will be measured before and essay about the spring season, after the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to airlines, allow researchers to evaluate changes in various areas of the brain and body. We expect that this additional neurophysiological and biological data will document the efficacy of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. The amendment to Dr. Problems! Oehen's protocol to include Dr. Vollenweider's research was previously approved by Dr. Oehen's Ethics Committee (IRB) in September 2006. For more on this study, see Dr. Oehen's article in business plan, the Fall 2006 MAPS Bulletin . February 26, 2007. Retrosynthesis Problems! The UK's Sky News published a short article describing Dr. Peter Oehen's MAPS -sponsored pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

February 14, 2007. Airlines Business! Swiss Radio International's Swissinfo published a brief original article describing Dr. Peter Oehen's ongoing MAPS-sponsored pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder. February 9, 2007. Auto! The Data Safety Review Board (DSMB) for Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase 2 pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) met in airlines, late January for its final review, now that 15 out of 20 subjects have completed the experimental treatment. The DSMB recommended that the friend for kids study continue without modification.

Ironically, the business plan DSMB's only safety concern was that those subjects who received the placebo might see a substantial increase in PTSD symptoms after tapering off of psychiatric medications. Essay For Kids! The DSMB is comprised of an business M.D., a Psy.D. and a Pharm.D. Season! not otherwise involved in the study. Efficacy data at airlines plan, this stage is promising, so far making a strong case for friend essay, continuing the research into FDA Phase 3 studies. We're already looking beyond the next five subjects and the completion of this initial study, to airlines business, future research protocols. January 23, 2007. Slate published a positive description of MAPS' MDMA drug development efforts in a front page article entitled What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been: Ecstasy, the New Prescription Drug? January 12, 2007. MAPS has donated $3000 to Pal-Orjan Johansen and Terri Krebs for a project that will seek to use the internet to essay the spring season, search for reports of people with Asperger's (a form of high-functioning autism) who have found MDMA to be helpful in their learning to cope more effectively in airlines business, social situations. If we do find at least a handful of such reports, this could become another area of auto research, if funding becomes available.

MAPS also awarded another grant of $6000 to Pal-Orjan Johansen and Terri Krebs to expand their work reviewing transcripts of airlines business subjects in retrosynthesis, MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD research, in order to airlines plan, code and pro choice abortion essay, compare the psychological defense mechanisms used in both non-drug therapy sessions and in the experimental MDMA-assisted therapy sessions. This study is designed to identify process variables that may help explain how MDMA can be a useful adjunct to psychotherapy. January 6, 2007. From January 3-6, 2007, MAPS' clinical research team (Amy Emerson, Valerie Mojeiko, and Josh Sonstroem) was in Charleston, SC, conducting a monitoring inspection of Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored IRB-, DEA-, and US FDA-approved MDMA/PTSD study. On January 5, the 15th subject participated in her third and airlines business plan, final experimental MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session.

On January 6, MAPS President Rick Doblin visited Charleston to essay about the spring, meet with Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer and MAPS' clinical research team to review the data, which looks very promising. An additional $125,000 will be required to complete this study. December 14, 2006. In response to the sensationalistic and inaccurate recent news coverage of prospective Ecstasy user studies by Dutch researcher Dr. Maartje M. de Win, MAPS President Rick Doblin, Ph.D. wrote this open letter to airlines, Dr. de Win voicing his concerns, and MAPS Clinical Research Associate Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D., wrote a special report evaluating the media's claims and how they relate (or not) to the actual data. December 8, 2006. While in Thailand to about the spring, testify in a medical MDMA trial, MAPS President Rick Doblin took the airlines plan opportunity to do an season interview with The Nation , Thailand's largest English-language daily newspaper. In the interview, Doblin speculates on the possibility of conducting MDMA/PTSD research with tsunami victims and discusses MAPS' international psychedelic research agenda. November 24, 2006.

Dr. Peter Oehen conducted the second experimental MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session with the second subject in airlines plan, his ongoing MAPS-sponsored MDMA-assisted therapy pilot study for auto essay, subjects with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to Dr. Oehen, the subject delved into some challenging content, but the long-term results appear to be quite positive. She was confronted very hard with anxiety, negative emotions related to the sexual abuse and especially her isolation and avoidance of closeness, said Dr. Oehen. It was hard work for airlines business, her in paper writer, the following days but since then she has made substantial progress.

Therapist reports confirm that the subject confronted very hard with anxiety and with negative emotions related to their tramua - especially isolation and avoidance of closeness. This was followed by hard work for the subject during the following days but since then they have made substantial progress. October 23, 2006. The MDMA arrived on-site today at Harvard's McLean Hospital for Dr. Airlines! John Halpern's MAPS-initiated study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for subjects with advanced-stage cancer suffering from end-of-life anxiety disorders. MAPS has withdrawn from direct sponsorship of this study, but will still have access to the data generated by Dr. Halpern, as will any other organization that requests it. October 22, 2006. The MAPS clinical research monitoring team arrives in Israel today for the Site Initiation visit for the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD pilot study at Beer Yakhov Mental Health Center in Tel Aviv, Israel, under the direction of Principal Investigator Moshe Kotler, former chief psychiatrist of the Israeli Defense Forces.

The study will focus on individuals suffering from war-related PTSD. The MAPS clincial monitoring team consists of MAPS President Rick Doblin, Ph.D., Clinical Research Associate Valerie Mojeiko, and volunteer clinical research expert Amy Emerson. Their job is to help the researchers prepare the study to best, fit the strict guidelines necessary for the data generated to be eligible for consideration by the FDA and airlines business plan, the European Medicines Agency. On October 25, Doblin and Lester Grinspoon, M.D., will join Israeli and friend essay, Palestinian drug policy experts in airlines plan, Jerusalem to talk at abortion essay, the first Arab-Israeli Joint Conference on plan Peace and paper writer, Drug Policy, sponsored by the Ale-Yarok (Green-Leaf) Party. Airlines Business Plan! The conference will focus on issues related to the cultural impacts of marijuana, its regulation, and friend essay, its medical uses and research. While in Israel, MAPS staffers Rick Doblin and Valerie Mojeiko will also be conducting a Psychedelic Emergency Services training seminar for a team of business volunteers organizing a rave near the Dead Sea. October 19, 2006. Principal Investigator Peter Oehen, M.D., officially initiated the Swiss MAPS-sponsored pilot study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for the spring, subjects with treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Today, Dr.

Oehen conducted the first experimental MDMA session with the first subject. Congratulations, Dr. Oehen! September 13, 2006. Dr.

Michael Mithoefer treated the 13th subject with a third MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session today in his MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase II pilot study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for individuals with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The 16th patient out of 20 was also just screened and admitted to the study earlier this week. September 12, 2006. Airlines Business! Dr. Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD protocol has full government approval and the first subject began the screening process last week. The Ethics Committee (the Swiss IRB equivalent, which previously approved Dr. Oehen's MDMA/PTSD protocol) met on September 7 to review an addendum to pro choice, the protocol, and we just learned today, September 12, that the IRB has granted approval, meaning that the study can now officially be initiated!

The addendum is for an associated study by Dr. Franz Vollenweider, University of business plan Zurich, that will examine subjects before and after treatment with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. Dr. Vollenweider is going to writer, measure several physiological factors that have been associated with PTSD (startle response, heart rate reactivity) as well as various EEG parameters to see if the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy results in any changes in these measures. The first applicant for the study will be administered baseline CAPS and PDS tomorrow, and, now that we have full approval, we hope to report shortly that the first subject has been treated with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. August 21, 2006.

The Norwegian Research Council website recently posted Ecstasy: Historien Starter (article in PDF format) (English translation Ecstasy; The History Begins), an article by Pål-Ørjan Johansen that discusses the scheduling history, the research controversies, and new research into the therapeutic potential of MDMA. August 20, 2006. VG, one of the largest Norwegian newspapers, published a very positive piece on MDMA psychotherapy research that includes interviews with Charles Grob, M.D., and Pål-Ørjan Johansen, Ph.D. (View PDF of article). August 15, 2006. Business Plan! In their Newsdesk section, the journal Lancet Neurology published Hallucinogen Research Inspires Neurotheology, a report on developments in research with psychedelic compounds, such as ketamine or psilocybin. Pro Choice Abortion Essay! The piece contains comments from Roland Griffiths, John Halpern and Deborah Mash. August 5, 2006. Airlines Plan! The Israeli Import Permit and the Swiss Export Permit have now been approved. On Thursday, August 3rd, in the midst of war, about white writer 5 grams of MDMA arrived in Israel for MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study, imported into Israel from Switzerland. Business Plan! This study has full government approval and will be initiated in Fall 2006.

July 21, 2006. For Kids! Dr. Michael and Annie Mithoefer treated the 13th subject with the business second experimental MDMA/placebo session in their MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD trial today. Dr. Mithoefer described it as impressive. June 17, 2006. Switzerland's DEA equivalent, the BAG, has officially approved Dr.

Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for auto, subjects suffering from treatment-resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Permission from BAG was the final regulatory hurdle, since Dr. Oehen has already received approval from the Ethics Committee (Switzerland's IRB equivalent) and SwissMedic (Switzerland's FDA equivalent). June 16, 2006. Airlines Business! Dr. Michael Mithoefer initiated the retrosynthesis problems first experimental MDMA-assisted psychotherapy session with the 13th subject out of airlines 20 in his MAPS-sponsored FDA Phase II pilot study. This subject was the first to receive supplemental dosing of half the initial amount of MDMA administered 2 to 2.5 hours after the initial dose in order to retrosynthesis, prolong the plateau of airlines business plan MDMA's therapeutic effectiveness, a change recently approved by Dr.

Mithoefer's Istitutional Review Board (IRB), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The supplemental dose did not seem to intensify the already strongly therapeutic experience but it did prolong the problems period of maximum therapeutic effect for at least 90 minutes. Airlines Plan! This appeared to white, be very useful. We were also happy to see that, as expected, there was no problem with vital signs. June 7, 2006. Switzerland's FDA equivalent, SwissMedic, has now fully approved Dr. Peter Oehen's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study. The protocol design had already been approved, and earlier this week we received approval for the source of the MDMA itself, which MAPS is purchasing from a Swiss manufacturer. Now that Dr.

Oehen has received permission from SwissMedic and airlines plan, an Ethics Committee (the Swiss IRB equivalent), the only regulatory hurdle remaining is licensing from BAG, the Swiss DEA equivalent, which is expected within a month. Initiation of white writer Dr. Oehen's study will take place shortly thereafter. Approval from SwissMedic of the source of the MDMA for the Swiss MDMA/PTSD study will now enable MAPS to airlines plan, move forward with the export of MDMA from Switzerland to Israel. The import/export of the MDMA is the last regulatory step in the initiation of Dr. Auto! Moshe Kotler's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD research at Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center in Tel Aviv, in subjects with war and terrorism-related PTSD. June 4, 2006.

Dr. Michael Mithoefer has received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for several key changes that FDA had recently approved to his MAPS-sponsored study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for PTSD. The changes include (1) adding a third experimental session to the two that are currently included in the protocol to test whether a third session adds significantly to the therapeutic process, (2) providing supplemental dosing of half the initial amount of MDMA administered 2 to 2.5 hours after the initial dose in order to prolong the plateau of MDMA's therapeutic effectiveness, and (3) doing without an ER doctor on standby in the next room since Dr. Mithoefer has become a board-certified ER doctor as well as a board-certified psychiatrist. Now that the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), FDA, and IRB have all approved these changes to our protocol, they will be implemented for the study's remaining eight subjects. May 15, 2006. Plan! The Boston Globe published A Good Death, an article that discussess the resurgence of interest in studying MDMA and psychedelic drugs to help people with cancer deal with anxiety and pain. Pro Choice! The piece describes research MAPS helped design and locate funding for airlines, that will look at the potential therapeutic benefits of MDMA in people who are anxious as a result of advanced stage cancer. The latest MAPS Bulletin contains an article about the woman described in this article who used MDMA to treat cancer-related pain and anxiety.

A PDF of the this piece is now available.. April 14, 2006. Write! A recently published editorial in the Lancet supports research into the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelic drugs and calls for a new legal structure that makes this research easier and less burdensome to conduct. The Lancet editorial was likely inspired by a commentary published in the British Journal of Psychiatry. This editorial was then covered by airlines plan the British newspaper, the Guardian. April 5, 2006. In some fantastic news, philanthropist Peter Lewis has agreed to donate $250,000 directly to Harvard Medical School-affiliated McLean Hospital to fund the costs of Dr. John Halpern's study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in retrosynthesis, subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. Dr.

Halpern's MDMA/cancer anxiety study is already fully approved by the FDA, DEA, two Institutional Review Boards (IRB's, at Lahey Clinic and McLean Hospital) and the Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health. Now that the study is fully funded, Dr. Halpern is preparing to initiate the study and plan, hopes to enroll the retrosynthesis first subject within the next several months. As we reported in the last email update, MAPS has withdrawn from direct sponsorship of airlines business plan this study. The McLean Hospital administration felt that MAPS long-term advocacy for MDMA psychotherapy research and general opposition to Prohibition would cause the pro choice essay results of the study to be challenged as biased if MAPS were to sponsor the study and they did not want McLean Hospital to be involved in a study funded by MAPS. Airlines Business! Therefore, we decided that it would be best for problems, MAPS to airlines business plan, offer to withdraw from further direct financial sponsorship of Dr.

Halperns research so that the study, which many people labored so long to start, could proceed. Sacrifices sometimes need to be made. In this case, we decided that the benefits of the study moving forward substantially outweigh MAPS' withdrawal from direct sponsorship. MAPS will still have access to essay the spring season, the data generated by Dr. Halpern, as will any other organization that requests it. March 7, 2006. Airlines Business! The DEA has, after over one year, issued a license for auto, Dr. John Halpern's study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. The final regulatory approval has thus been obtained. Additional approvals have already been received from two Institutional Review Boards (IRB-McLean and Lahey Hospitals) as well as the airlines plan Food and abortion essay, Drug Administration (FDA) and business, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. MAPS has donated over $94,000 to McLean Hospital over the last five years in an effort to initiate the evaluation of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy.

One fruit of this support has been Dr. Halpern's $1.8 million grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) for a methodologically state-of-the art study started with MAPS funding of the neurocognitive consequences of the use of Ecstasy. Now that the MDMA/cancer anxiety study is best, fully approved, MAPS is withdrawing from any further financial sponsorship. MAPS, independent of McLean and Dr. Halpern, still hopes to business plan, assist with seeking donors interested in now donating directly to McLean Hospital. We believe that this financial distance from MAPS, and more so the rigor of the methodological design of the study itself, will enable the results of the study to be viewed by skeptics as more objective.

If the results of the pilot study are promising, MAPS will again explore options for abortion essay, the support of research at McLean Hospital. February 6, 2006. MAPS' Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) met to airlines, review records for depression mood, the six new subjects who have enrolled since their last meeting in Dr. Airlines Business Plan! Michael Mithoefer's study evaluating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for essay the spring, PTSD. With data from a total of eleven subjects before them, the DSMB reported that they did not have any concerns about the safety of the study, and recommended that it continue without modification. The DSMB is comprised of an M.D., a Psy.D., and airlines business, a Pharm.D. not otherwise involved in the study. Essay Season! Dr. Mithoefer has successfully treated 11 out of an eventual 20 subjects, and is currently treating the twelfth. The DSMB also reviewed and approved three protocol changes that Dr. Mithoefer and MAPS will initially submit to plan, FDA and then, if approved, to our Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Dr. Mithoefer is best friend, seeking permission to: 1) Increase the number of MDMA experimental sessions from two to three, to airlines, evaluate whether this extra session will enable subjects to make more therapeutic progress. 2) Administer supplemental doses of 1/2 the initial dose of MDMA 2 to 2 1/2 hours after the initial dose, in order to prolong the relatively short plateau of MDMA's full therapeutic effectiveness. 3) Since Dr. Mithoefer has recently renewed his Board certification in ER medicine, we have asked to do without the additional Board-certified ER doctor sitting in depression mood, the next room. Airlines Plan! In comparison, Dr.

Peter Oehen's study in Switzerland has been designed and approved for three MDMA experimental sessions and the use of supplemental doses. Friend Essay! Dr. Kotler's study in Israel has been designed and airlines business, approved with supplemental dosing but just two MDMA experimental sessions. January 25, 2006. An article in the New Zealand Herald about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans mentions the use of essay about MDMA for PTSD but makes some incorrect claims. A letter to the editor from airlines plan, Rick Doblin corrects the mistakes. This article demonstrates that there is a widely perceived need for more effective treatments for PTSD and that the MDMA research is increasingly accepted as a necessary and white, not very controversial effort. December 27, 2005. An article in the Washington Post, A Political Debate On Stress Disorde, by Shankar Vedantam, reports that in 2004 the US Veterans Affairs Department spent $4.3 billion on PTSD benefit payments to a total of 215,871 veterans.

If the business results of the second half of our MDMA/PTSD study are as promising as the results of the pro choice essay first half, we will have data suggesting that it would be financially wise for the VA to fund the entire $5 million cost of MAPS' Phase III studies to evaluate whether MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD should become approved by the FDA as a legally-available treatment for airlines, PTSD. MAPS received word from the spring, Dr. Airlines Plan! Peter Oehen, Principal Investigator of the Swiss MDMA/PTSD pilot study cosponsored by MAPS and the Swiss Association for Psycholytic Therapy, that the final written approval from the ethic committee arrived today. Dr. Oehen will now submit the protocol and the other documents to Swissmedic, for a review process that we expect will take a month or two. December 20, 2005. Dr. Writer! Michael Mithoefer, Principal Investigator of the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD psychotherapy study in business, Charleston, South Carolina, filed an Annual Status Report with his Institutional Review Board (IRB).

There have been no drug-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) and the results on treatment efficacy are promising. November 15, 2005. An excellent roundtable discussion about best essay psychedelics and Judaism was published in Jewish Currents, published by the Association for Promotion of Jewish Secularism, Inc. The article is entitled, Just Say Maybe- Psychedelic Drugs, Healing and Politics: An Interview with Four Jewish Researchers (Rick Doblin, Charlie Grob, Julie Holland, Howard Lotsof). November 11, 2005. The Good Drugs Guide Radio show, out of airlines business England, broadcast a show entitled,The State of Ecstasy. The show is described as follows, It's ten years since the death of Leah Betts, a teenager who died after taking a single tablet of ecstasy, also known as MDMA. Her tragic death triggered a huge backlash against the drug here in the UK. Even so, 700,000 people still take E every week in this country.

So what have we learnt about ecstasy in the last decade? Do the stories of terrible comedowns, brains like swiss cheese, and instant death have any credibility? Could MDMA really become a prescription drug? And has the music got any better? We find out. Guests include Dr Julie Holland, author of Ecstasy The Complete Guide, Rick Doblin, president of MAPS.org, and Mike Linnell of drug charity Lifeline. The show also uses clips from the excellent ABC documentary, Ecstasy Rising. MAPS received word that the paper Israeli Ministry of airlines Health has approved our MDMA/PTSD pilot study!! One condition was that the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority write a letter formally indicating support for the protocol, which the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority has done. Now we need to bring the Israeli therapeutic team to best for kids, the US to observe an MDMA/PTSD session conducted by Dr. Michael and plan, Annie Mithoefer and white, we need to bring MAPS Clinical Research Monitoring Team to Israel, to set up the Case Report Forms and the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).

Plus we need to arrange to export MDMA to Israel for the study. Once these steps have all been accomplished, the study itself can begin enrolling subjects. We're anticipating that the study can begin in March 2006. November 8, 2005. Dr. Michael Mithoefer received the disappointing news that the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has rejected our grant application seeking $125,000 over two years for plan, the development of a treatment manual for the use of writer MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

MAPS' grant application was not scored (it was considered in the bottom half of all applications). This rejection isn't really surprising since the business plan last time NIMH gave a grant for anything to do with psychedelic psychotherapy was over 30 years ago, with all NIMH intramural psychedelic psychotherapy research stopping in 1967. MAPS invested $2,768 in the NIMH grant application, but the money is white paper, not wasted. Airlines Business Plan! We have gained a better understanding of what it will take to complete the treatment manual that we have already begun to develop and we now can say that we have indeed tried to obtain funding from paper writer, NIMH. Maybe once we complete the initial pilot study, we can submit the results to NIMH and try again to obtain support. It has been reported that in 2004, the business Veterans Affairs Department (VA) spent $4.3 billion on PTSD disability payments! In 2006, the best friend VA requested $2.2 billion for mental health services. Once we have completed our initial pilot study, we may have a better chance of obtaining some federal funding for MDMA/PTSD research. November 7, 2005. The Daily Texan, the newspaper of the University of Texas at Austin, published a letter about, The harms of MDMA that presented misleading information about MAPS' MDMA research projects. The letter critiqued a previous column entitled, Debunking drug folklore, MAPS President Rick Doblin replied to correct the record.

While taking time to write to a student newspaper may not at first glance represent a wise use of MAPS staff time, in the age of Google, even student letters can be read by a large number of people, especially when the topic is discussed repeatedly in the student newspaper. Indeed, the Daily Texan also published a more reasonable letter, The harm of Ecstacy, II. While MAPS concentrates on scientific research, our educational mission is also of major importance. October 21, 2005. An article in the UCLA Daily Bruin discusses animal rights protesters objecting to airlines business plan, a proposed study in primates, Making Connections: MDMA Research on the Mechanisms of Affiliation and Trust. The article mentions that this research was submitted for funding to MAPS, by Anthropology Professor Alan Page Fiske, who is quoted as saying, The biggest problems we have in the world are people not trusting each other and not feeling a solidarity (and) feeling distant, Fiske said. If we could understand the basis of compassion and caring, that's about the most important thing human and biological sciences could do.

A MAPS Bulletin article about Prof. Fiske's research can be found here. At present, there is no funding for the study. Briefly stated, MAPS has not funded animal research for about ten years but is not categorically opposed to doing so if the research is of sufficient importance. MAPS considers Prof. Fiske's proposed research to be sufficiently important to be worthy of being conducted but the information it would generate isn't essential for MAPS' program of research intended to develop MDMA into an FDA-approved prescription medication. Best Essay For Kids! MAPS' top priority is our human studies into the therapeutic use of MDMA. Airlines! These studies require substantial resources so our intention is to conduct further research in animals only when required by depression mood FDA.

October 14, 2005. A DEA Field Investigator came to business plan, McLean Hospital to test the paper writer alarms on the safes at the Pharmacy, where the roughly 4 grams of MDMA will be stored for plan, the MAPS-sponsored MDMA/cancer anxiety study. Everything seemed to best, be in order and the DEA investigator stated that his report should get processed within one month. We're cautiously optimistic we'll have the final approvals before the end of 2005. October 8, 2005. Dr.med. Peter Oehen submits an airlines business plan MDMA/PTSD protocol for review to a Swiss ethics committee, for a pilot study co-sponsored by MAPS and the Swiss Association for Psycholytic Therapy (SAePT). This study will involve three experimental sessions instead of two and best essay, will use supplemental dosing 2 1/2 hours after the business initial dose. August 2, 2005. Ironically, after NIDA-funded researchers Drs.

McCann and Ricaurte claimed that MDMA damaged dopamine neurons and could cause Parkinson's disease, a claim that they later had to retract, new research conducted at Duke University Medical Center has shown that MDMA is the most effective of 60 drugs tested in reversing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease! This research was discussed in an article in auto, News-Medical.Net; note also a brief commentary on this and plan, other related research into MDMA as an anti-Parkinson's disease treatment. July 22, 2005. The 10th subject had her 2nd experimental session, which went well. Once she completes her final follow-up evaluation in write, about two months, we will have completed half of Stage 1 of the study. We'll then conduct a preliminary data analysis and submit it to MAPS' Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) for review. There have been no Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) during the first half of our study and the outcome data looks promising. Stage 2 is for those subjects who received placebo and plan, wish to reenroll in the study to receive MDMA open-label. The second subject in Stage 2 is auto write essay, scheduled to receive her second MDMA session on Monday, August 1. This session will also be used as a training session for Drs.

Halpern and Naidoo from business, Harvard Medical School. They have the subject's permission to auto essay, observe in order to airlines business plan, help them prepare to white, conduct their MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. We'll still waiting on DEA to issue a Schedule I license before this study can begin. July 19, 2005. Australia's Herald Sun publishes Pill poison, an article about the proliferation of of ecstasy dealing, consumption, and adulteration in the nation's most populated region.

The link also includes and editorial from the Herald Sun demanding that the community take responsibility for the nation's drug problems. July 18, 2005. Austrailia's United Press runs Dealers lacing ecstasy with other drugs, reporting on the widespread adulteration of airlines business plan ecstasy tablets throughout the retrosynthesis country. July 7, 2005. The IRB approved the airlines plan requested changes, conditional to accepting changes in the consent documents. Dr. Friend For Kids! Mithoefer accepted all changes the IRB recommended.

Now the investigators can continue to airlines business plan, plan and best essay for kids, carry out treatment manual development. July 1, 2005. A letter from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) arrived at MAPS today, saying that our grant application, Treatment Manual Development for MDMA-Assisted Therapy, has been received and assigned to a Scientific Review Group (SRG). The initial peer review should be completed by the end of business November 2005, with funding decisions made in January 2006 after the meeting of the pro choice abortion essay appropriate National Advisory Group. MAPS' grant application can be found at: http://www.maps.org/mdma/ptsd_study/grant0605/ June 23, 2005. Business Plan! Michael Mithoefer submitted proposed changes to the MDMA/PTSD, including provisions for videotaping all psychotherapy sessions, a step needed for developing a treatment manual for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD, as needed to best essay for kids, carry out the work proposed in the grant application submitted to NIMH. June 17, 2005. UK News site Guardian Unlimited ran this story about Alexander Shulgin, his history as a pharmacologist, and the repercussions of airlines business plan his 1965 synthesis of MDMA. June 6, 2005. The study protocol for the MDMA/PTSD study to take place in Israel was reviewed and approved by the Beer Yaakov Medical Center ethics committee (IRB).

The study has now been sent to friend, the Israeli national ethics committee. If it is approved by airlines the national ethics committe, it will then be reviewed by the Ministry of best friend essay Health. May 31, 2005. Michael Mithoefer MD submitted a grant application to airlines business, NIMH for developing a treatment manual of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD. May 23, 2005. Depression Mood! Online Publication Nursing Spectrum puts forth an article discussing the Harvard study of MDMA psychotherapy for treatment of anxiety associated with terminal cancer. Author Lisette Hilton quotes Dr. Airlines! John Halpern that the pro choice abortion essay benefits of this therapy would have greater application for nurses who tend to dying patients on a daily basis than for the physicians who prescribe the therapy. The CQ (Congressional Quarterly) Weekly published an excellent cover story by Tim Starks, entitled New Prescriptions for War Trauma.

The article interviews Dr. Michael Mithoefer and discusses the business MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of PTSD. May 19, 2005. Psychology Today offers two articles about psychedelic research constraints in paper writer, the United States, one from airlines business, 2005 and depression mood, the other from 1994. Compare what 11 years can do!

May 18, 2005. Join Together, a drug abuse prevention organization, ran a news summary regarding the recent St. Petersburg Times article on airlines business the MDMA research MAPS sponsors. May 16, 2005. Canadian newspaper Northern Life ran an article in the online police beat section by Jason Thompson in which Dr. Stephen Kish of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, among others, discuss problems and potential of pro choice MDMA use. May 12, 2005. Rick Doblin appeared on Joe Scarborough's MSNBC segment yesterday. Plan! Here is a transcript as well as a video of the interview. May 11, 2005.

Dr. Meg Jordan, Global Medicine Hunter, puts out a podcast about auto write MAPS' research into airlines, the use of MDMA in the treatment of retrosynthesis problems postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Iraq War vets, and about her work with the therapeutic use of MDMA in the late 1970s! May 9, 2005. The International edition of Newsweek published A Psychedelic Cure, a piece similar to the a piece published last week in the domestic edition, but with greater discussion of airlines business plan proposed studies of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in Spain and Israel.. The St. Petersburg Times ran a front page article,Party pill gets tryout in therapy written by auto write Janet Zink, offering reporting on MAPS' mission of airlines business decriminizaling the use of MDMA for therapeutic purposes.

May 2, 2005. Newsweek Magazine runs a story on MDMA research by Eve Conant, Ecstasy: A Possible New Role for pro choice abortion essay, A Banned Club Drug. The changing economics of Ecstasy is leading a rising number of youths to airlines business plan, turn to cheaper, more available drugs. Among them: addictive prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin, inhalants such as paint thinner, and methamphetamines. Depression Mood! Two recent surveys said OxyContin and Vicodin had passed Ecstasy in popularity among teens. And this is considered progress! comments Rick Doblin, MAPS President. April 11, 2005. The LA Times published, Ecstasy's Good Side, reporting on MDMA/cancer anxiety study to be conducted by John Halpern MD, and discussed related studies (such as the study of psilocybin in people wiht cancer-related anxiety conducted by Charles Grob MD, and the ongoing study of MDMA in people with PTSD. Note that the article erroneously reports on the location of the last study, which is at the offices of Michael Mithoefer MD, and not at the Medical University of South Carolina. March 25, 2005. The largest Israeli newspaper, Yediot Ahronot, published a favorable article about MAPS' Israeli conference, which took place the day before, and the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The article was accompanied by airlines plan an incredible graphic of a drowning man holding on to a life preserver that was actually an Ecstasy pill with a smiling face. March 24, 2005. MAPS sponsored a very successful conference in Israel on research with MDMA, ibogaine and marijuana for the Israeli Ministry of Health, the Israeli Society of Addiction Medicine, and representatives from the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority. The conference was intended to educate Israeli regulators and researchers about essay about MAPS' proposed MDMA/PTSD pilot study that we're trying to sponsor in Israel, under the direction of Dr. Moshe Kotler, Chair, Department of Psychiatry, Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine. Airlines Business! After the conference, Dr.

Kotler said that he was ready to submit our draft protocol to the ethics committee for depression mood, review. March 10, 2005. Today the Drug Enforcement Administration will visit Dr. John Halpern of Harvard Medical School's McLean Hospital as a routine procedure before issuing his Schedule I license. Once Dr.

Halpern has received his license, the business MAPS-funded study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety in advanced cancer patients can begin. March 8, 2005. Depression Mood! The NPR show, To the Point, hosted by Warren Olney, discussed Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study and airlines, FDA's newly approved expansion of the study to include subjects with war-related PTSD. Guests include Dr. Andrew Pomeranz (PTSD therapist), Dr. Michael Mithoefer, Rick Doblin, Ph.D. and season, Robert Dupont, Ph.D. (first Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse). Airlines Business! The story runs from write essay, 23:35-50:52.

The Scientist published Renewed Faith in Ecstasy, a brief article on the recent history and airlines, progress of MDMA research, and featuring quotes from best friend, Rick Doblin. March 4, 2005. BBC On-Line published an article describing recently published findings that ecstasy use was associated with increased self-reported symptoms of business depression, but only in people who have a certain form of the serotonin transporter gene. Auto Write Essay! You can also read a commentary on airlines the paper. February 26, 2005. New Scientist published a lengthy and extensive overview of current and planned research into the medical or psychiatric benefits of psychedelic substances, including MDMA, psilocybin, LSD, ketamine and ibogaine, and covernig a wide array of MAPS-supported and Heffter Institute supported studies.. Depression Mood! The article contains a history of medical research with psychedelics. February 23, 2005. The Boston Globe published a lengthy piece on the MDMA/cancer anxiety study that will take place at Harvard University's McLean Hospital. The piece features quotes from airlines business plan, Halpern and from Rick Doblin. National Public Radio (NPR)'s All Things Considered aired an depression mood interview of John Halpern, who spoke about the airlines business plan MDMA/cancer anxiety study.

You can hear a recording of the friend interview on the NPR website or you can read the transcripts of the interview. ABC World News Tonight briefly reported on the MDMA/cancer anxiety study to be conducted by John Halpern MD. February 17, 2005. Business Plan! The Guardian published an extensive discussion of current and planned research into the therapeutic uses of depression mood MDMA and business plan, psychedelic drugs. The article quotes John Halpern, Rick Doblin and Michael Mithoefer, and covers a surprising breadth of current and problems, planned research in this area. The Guardian published another report specifically noting the recent expansion of the MDMA/PTSD study to now accept people with combat-related PTSD. Business Plan! The report features quotes from Michael Mithoefer, the prinicpal investigator. This is not a new study specifically looking at combat stress.

Rather, the ongoing study is now no longer restricted to people with crime-related PTSD. The German newspaper Der Spiegel published a report on the recent expansion of the MDMA/PTSD study to include people with combat-related PTPSD that is even more muddled than the report from the Guardian, above. Not only does this report suggest that a new investigation is underway, but that the US military is involved in this study. As already noted, there is no new study specifically studying MDMA-assisted therapy in writer, people with combat-related PTSD, and the military has not been involved in any step of this research so far. February 16, 2005. The January issue of the Brazilian science magazine Galileu published Da Balada Para o Diva,, an article in Portugese by Juliana Tiraboschi about research into the potentially therapeutic uses of MDMA.. The paper discusses the MDMA/PTSD study and quotes MAPS president Rick Doblin. You can also read a PDF version of the article. Dr. Michael Mithoefer and Annie Mithoefer were guests on Kathleen Brooks' radio show on World Talk Radio, Darkness to Light: Breaking the Conspiracy of Silence, for an hour-long discussion of their MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study.

February 4, 2005. The UCLA newspaper the Daily Bruin featured a report on Charles Grob's research on psilocybin in people with cancer experiencing anxiety relating to their illness. The piece quoted Grob and Dr. John Halpern, the airlines business plan principal investigator of the MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA in people with cancer-related anxiety. Today Michael and Ann Mithoefer performed the first experimental (MDMA or placebo) session for the sixth participant enrolled in essay the spring, the study of airlines business plan MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD. Essay! If all goes well, the next experimental session will occur in three to five weeks. January 30, 2005. January 30, 2005. The New York Times Sunday Magazine published a profile of airlines business psychedelic chemist, Sasha Shulgin, that highlighted the pro choice essay approval of MDMA research at Harvard sponsored by MAPS (though MAPS was not mentioned). The article includes a quote from Dr.

Steve Hyman, Harvard Provost and ex-Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, saying that he is skeptical whether MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer will actually prove beneficial but that he thinks the research should go forward. Business! The ghost of auto Timothy Leary has now definitely be laid to rest at Harvard. Now it's up to us to prove what we have been saying for decades, that MDMA and other psychedelics have remarkable healing potentials. As the saying goes, Beware what you wish for. The challenge of proving the safety and efficacy of psychedelic psychotherapy is formidable, but definitely a goal worth the decades of airlines business plan prior and future work. January 21, 2005. Psychiatry News (a publication of the American Psychiatric Association) reported on the proposed MDMA/cancer anxiety study, with quotes from retrosynthesis problems, principal investigator John Halpern MD.. January 16, 2005. The Boston Globe published an business article contrasting FDA approval of MAPS' study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer with DEA rejection of Prof.

Lyle Craker's MAPS-sponsored application for a license to establish a facility to produce marijuana for federally-approved research. The Week in paper writer, Review section of the Sunday New York Times had a thoughtful but rather snide and inaccurate article on the research into the use of MDMA and psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety associated with advanced cancer. Prof. Mark Kleiman criticizes a NYTimes article on the use of psychedelics in business, treating anxiety in subjects with advanced-stage cancer. He notes the flawed central assumption of the article which is that all drugs are alike, and that drugs have the property of dulling perception and cognition, making people less present to what is happening to them. January 14, 2005. Dr.

John Halpern submitted his application today to DEA for a Schedule I license, the final regulatory approval required before we can begin the MDMA/cancer anxiety study. Dr. Halpern has already received his State Schedule I license. January 8, 2005. Retrosynthesis Problems! Dr. Airlines Business! John Halpern is the guest on C-SPAN's Washington Journal for a live, half-hour national call-in show focused on essay Dr. Halpern's MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. January 7, 2005. The Boston Herald published a short piece describing the MDMA /cancer anxiety study, quoting primary investigator John Halpern and MAPS President Rick Doblin. January 6, 2005. MAPS donated $26,616 to McLean Hospital, Harvard University, for Dr.

John Halpern's MAPS-sponsored study of the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced-stage cancer. This represents the first payment in what we expect will total $250,000 for this study. The approval of this study by McLean Hospital (where the MDMA-assisted psychotherapy will take place), the Lahey Clinic (where the patients receive primary care for their cancer), and the FDA, represents a triumph of hope over fear, hope for the too-long obstructed promise of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy v. Business! fear of the risks of writer MDMA exaggerated by anti-drug crusaders and scientists for their own ends. At a time when the airlines US government has placed all its eggs in the fear basket (war, terrorism, drugs, financial ruin of depression mood Social Security, gay marriage, etc., etc.), the remarkably widespread media reporting of plan FDA's approval of psychedelic research again at Harvard after 40 years shows that people are eager for balance, for hopeful news. It's now clear that the American public would welcome whatever help can be provided in facing directly life's final challenge, to die gracefully and in essay about the spring, peace, even if such help comes from plan, a previously demonized and criminalized substance also used by young people seeking pleasure. January 5, 2005. The Harvard Crimson reported on the MDMA/cancer anxiety study that will be taking place at McLean Hospital. Principal Investigator John Halpern MD is quoted, as well as MAPS President Rick Doblin PhD. The on-line version of this article has a link to a letter written by essay Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) and published in the Crimson in 1962. December 31, 2004.

An amazing editorial, Examining Ecstasy, about FDA approval of MAPS' MDMA/cancer anxiety study, was published today in the Ottawa Citizen. MAPS' Harvard study is considered restrained and Charles Grob is chastised for business plan, speaking of potential spiritual benefits! December 30, 2004. An article in The Australian reports on the FDA approval of essay for kids MAPS' MDMA/cancer anxiety study and quotes Australian Medical Association Queensland public health committee chairwoman Jeanette Tait as saying, The medical community would look askance at this type of airlines business plan trial, except that it is being conducted by essay about the spring season such a respected body, she said. As it is such a fairly substantial body doing the trial, especially with FDA approval, I think the airlines results will be very interesting.

There's so much to be wary about essay about season illicit drugs and their use. Dr. Tait's comments reaffirm the value of MAPS' efforts to conduct MDMA psychotherapy research at Harvard, since the research is being taken more seriously as a result of where it is being conducted. December 29, 2004. Some of the most important Spanish newspapers and journals broke the news about the MDMA/cancer anxiety study, echoing the news report from the Washington Post. These reports are apparently very favorable. These include EE UU ensaya el uso de éxtasis en enfermos de cancer terminal (El País, December 28, PDF), Cientficos de EE UU investigarn el uso del 'éxtasis' en enfermos terminales (El Correo Digital, December 29, PDF) and EEUU aprueba un estudio sobre el uso psiquitrico del 'éxtasis' (El Mundo, December 28, PDF). December 27, 2004. Excellent Washington Post article by business plan Rick Weiss about FDA approval of essay about the spring season MDMA/cancer anxiety research and general renewal of research into airlines business, the therapeutic potential of depression mood MDMA and psychedelic compounds. [ Also see scans of the article. Business Plan! ] The AP Wire Service published a report on the recent FDA approval of the abortion MDMA/cancer anxiety study, with quotes from plan, principal investigator John Halpern MD. December 17, 2004. The FDA approved John Halpern's MDMA/cancer anxiety study today.

November 19, 2004. A fateful step has been taken. Today, MAPS submitted Dr. John Halpern's MDMA/cancer anxiety protocol and associated documents to the FDA. FDA should receive the protocol Monday, November 22 and will then have 30 days from depression mood, that point to review it. FDA will either approve the protocol or place it on clinical hold pending resolution of any issues FDA felt it appropriate to raise. If approved by FDA, the last remaining major hurdle before the study can start will be Dr.

Halpern's need to obtain a DEA Schedule 1 license to dispense the MDMA to plan, be used in the study. Auto Write! After FDA approval has taken place, we feel that DEA will most likely issue the license sooner rather than later, probably voluntarily. Airlines Plan! DEA cooperation will be due to the compelling nature of this study, the amount of existing interest and support, the very low risk of diversion since there are no take-home doses, and, most importantly, the problems regulatory limits on the factors that DEA can use to evaluate applications for Schedule I licenses to conduct FDA-approved research. If fully approved, this study will become the first psychedelic research to take place at Harvard since 1965. A new era will then have begun in plan, earnest 21st Century psychedelic research! November 15, 2004. White Writer! At the request of our Institutional Review Board (IRB), MAPS has established a Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) that works for MAPS reviewing the data from Dr. Mithoefer's MDMA/PTSD study on an ongoing basis. The DSMB met today to review the charts from the first five subjects who have completed their final follow-up evaluation. which takes place two months after the second experimental session. The DSMB concluded that We did not see any significant adverse events that caused us any concerns about the safety of airlines business plan this study. They recommended that the study continue without modification.

The next scheduled meeting of the DSMB will take place after the next five subjects (the 6th-10th) have completed their final follow-up evaluations. The DSMB will also meet if there is a serious adverse event. November 10, 2004. The Lahey Clinic Institutional Review Board (IRB) met this evening to problems, review the MAPS-sponsored pilot study designed to explore the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer, to be directed by plan co-investigators Dr. About Season! John Halpern, Dr. Todd Shuster, Dr. Umadevi Naidoo, and airlines, Dr. Arthur Siegel.

This protocol has to be reviewed and approved by both the the spring season IRB at airlines business, McLean, where the psychotherapy and experimental sessions will take place, and by the IRB at Lahey Clinic, where Dr. Shuster works and from where the subjects will be recruited. After the protocol was introduced by Dr. Shuster, Rick Doblin, Ph.D. and Dr. Halpern responded for about 30 minutes to a series of thoughtful and important questions from members of the IRB. The protocol and second, short informed consent form (covering just the initial screening process at best friend, Lahey) were then. approved! We've already gotten approval from the McLean Hospital IRB at Harvard Medical School (see Oct. Airlines! 27, 2004 entry), so now it's on problems to the FDA. We expect to submit the airlines plan documents to FDA within the next week to ten days. FDA must, by regulation, respond in some manner within 30 days.

The McLean IRB approved the shortened informed consent form for the MAPS-sponsored pilot study designed to explore the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer. October 26, 2004. Pro Choice Essay! Harvard Medical School's McLean Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB) met to review the MAPS-sponsored pilot study designed to business plan, explore the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer, to retrosynthesis, be directed by airlines business plan co-investigators Dr. John Halpern, Dr. Todd Shuster, Dr. Umadevi Naidoo, and Dr. Arthur Siegel. The protocol was. approved! The only conditions were that that the approval was subject to FDA and DEA approval, and we were requested to shorten (!) the informed consent form. October 12, 2004.

As a result of a FOIA request made earlier this year, MAPS now has information on National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funding awarded to Dr. George Ricaurte and Dr. Una McCann in about, 2003 for the study of MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity and functional consequnces of Ecstasy use. The pair of Johns Hopkins researchers were awarded over $1.8 million dollars during 2003. This brings their total government funding to more than $16.4 million since 1989.

October 8, 2004. Business! The October 8-14 Boston Phoenix features an about the spring season interview with MAPS' president Rick Doblin Ph.D. that discusses, among other things, ongoing research into the therapeutic effects of airlines plan MDMA, psilocybin, and marijuana. September 30, 2004. The Salt Lake City Weekly published a piece on Ecstasy Therapy. The piece includes interviews with two therapists practicing underground MDMA-assisted therapy, and an interview with Rick Doblin Ph.D., president of MAPS. September 27, 2004. Wired published a piece charting the pro choice abortion progress of research into the therapeutic uses of psychedelic drugs, including the ongoing studies of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with PTSD, psilocybin in people with OCD, and psilocybin in cancer patient with anxiety, as well as planned studies into MDMA-assisted therapy in people with anxiety associated with advanced stage cancer, and psilocybin and LSD in people with cluster headaches. September 14, 2004. The journal Movement Disorders has recently published two letters in response to a report of parkinsonism in a former ecstasy user, and include a reply from the authors of the airlines business plan case report. The two letters include a letter authored by MAPS' Lisa Jerome and auto, Rick Doblin and MDMA/PTSD study principal investigator Michael Mithoefer, and a report of a transient dystonia appearing after Ecstasy use.

In their reply to both letters, the authors acknowledge the likely rarity of movement disorders associated with Ecstasy use, but fail to discuss the business plan lack of evidence for a relationship between Ecstasy use and movement disorders. August 20, 2004. The second experimental session for the 4th subject in the MDMA/PTSD study took place today. Pro Choice Abortion Essay! The session went very well. Airlines Business! The next Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) meeting will take place after the 5th subject has completed the final follow-up testing, two months after that subject's 2nd experimental session.

August 16, 2004. Dr. John Halpern submitted a lengthy response to the questions that we were asked to address by the IRB reviewing the best essay MDMA/cancer anxiety study. Now we wait until the IRB meeting at airlines business, the end of August to see if there are more questions. We're feeling hopeful about an eventual resolution of all the essay issues. August 15, 2004. Medicine Hope for Psychedelic Drugs, an article from BBC News (UK Web), by Arran Frood, discussed psychedelic psychotherapy research supported by Heffter Research Institute and MAPS. This article is mostly based on an interview with Dr. Charles Grob and leaves the impression that it's about time that research into the therapeutic uses of psychedelics has resumed. August 10, 2004.

MAPS' Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) for airlines, the MDMA/PTSD study met today to review the data on the first five subjects who participated in at least one experimental session. The DSMB was comfortable with the data, and has recommended that the study continue as designed, without any modification. August 6, 2004. . The third subject in the MDMA/PTSD study participated in the second (and final) experimental session. The experimental sessions have all been scheduled on Fridays, which is working out to be a convenient time and retrosynthesis problems, gives subjects the plan weekend to rest and reflect. August 4, 2004. The Charleston, South Carolina Post and about, Courier published an article about the airlines plan MDMA/PTSD study. While the article overemphasizes the problems supposed dangers of MDMA, it does at least give the impression that MDMA may indeed have therapeutic potential. Dr. Mithoefer has written a letter to the editor clarifying some misleading statements made in the Post and Courier article. The Post and airlines business, Courier also published another article on the history of psychedelic research. On August 8, the Post and Courier printed the following correction: A story on Page 1A of Wednesday's editions of The Post and Courier incorrectly stated that Dr.

Michael C. Mithoefer was administering Ecstasy to patients. The story should have made it clear that the drug was being given to research subjects. The federally approved research program is unrelated to Mithoefer's private practice and patients. Dr. Mithoefer also notes that the story would have more appropriately drawn a distinction between dangerous recreational use of Ecstasy and controlled clinical studies if it had noted other studies, including three US studies approved by the FDA, that found no serious adverse events and no evidence of neurotoxicity in retrosynthesis, tests administered under medical supervision.

July 28, 2004. The McLean IRB meet on Wednesday to review the MDMA/cancer anxiety study. They have some concerns that we need to address but it seems like they are rather straightforward issues so it's possible that we will get approval at next month's meeting. If so, then we will start seeking the rest of the approvals (from an airlines business plan IRB at auto, the Lahey clinic where the oncologist works and where the subjects will come from, FDA and DEA). July 25, 2004. Business Plan! A front page article in problems, the Sunday Baltimore Sun discussed MAPS' MDMA psychotherapy research in a favorable light, illustrated with a photo of Rick Doblin. Plan! Of special note is the conclusion, in which Dr. George Ricaurte says that MDMA may one day find a place as an accepted medication. On July 29, the for kids Sun published a clarification to the article. July 21, 2004. Airlines Business Plan! Dr.

John Halpern has integrated preliminary comments from the depression mood McLean IRB and submitted revised versions of a protocol, informed consent, treatment manual, and the most recent update of the MDMA literature review (January 2003-March 2004) for his MAPS-sponsored proposed study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer. July 9, 2004. The third subject participated in his first experimental session in Dr. Business Plan! Mithoefers' MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study, without any adverse side effects. Several additional subjects are also scheduled to pro choice, participate in business plan, their first experimental sessions during this month. July 6, 2004. MAPS' effort to white writer, start research at Harvard into plan, the use of essay MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety associated with advanced cancer began a new phase today, as Dr. John Halpern submitted a draft of the protocol to the McLean Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB) for preliminary review. We anticipate several months of review and discussion before we will be able to determine if the protocol will be accepted. If so, the study then moves to airlines, the Lahey Clinic IRB for further review (Dr. Todd Shuster, oncologist co-investigator, works at Lahey Clinic and will refer subjects to participate in friend, the study), and business, then on to the FDA.

We're hoping that this study will be the vehicle to restart psychedelic research at Harvard again, for the first time since 1965! June 28, 2004. Dr. John Halpern of Harvard Medical School's McLean Hospital submitted a protocol for retrosynthesis problems, review to the McLean Institutional Review Board (IRB) for a MAPS-sponsored study of MDMA in the treatment of anxiety in advanced stage cancer patients. After years of laying the groundwork for this study, and months of protocol development, we have now formally begun the effort to open a new area of research for MDMA and to restart psychedelic research at Harvard for the first time since 1965. If the McLean IRB approves the study, the protocol will then go to the IRB at Lahey Clinic, where oncologist and co-investigator Dr. Airlines Business! Todd Shuster works and from where the subjects will be referred into the study, and then on to FDA. We anticipate that this study will take three to white writer, six months to become fully approved and hope to start treating the first subjects in late 2004 or early 2005. Before MDMA was criminalized in 1985, several psychiatrists and airlines business plan, therapists worked with cancer patients with MDMA with positive results in terms of reduced anxiety and pain. Pro Choice Essay! In the 1960s and early 1970s, LSD was also used successfully in the psychotherapeutic treatment of cancer patients.

MAPS work to resume this line of research at Harvard represents an extremely important effort to start a new era of psychedelic research, at business, a culturally symbolic place where many people think psychedelic research went off the track, evidenced by Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (Ram Dass) being kicked out of Harvard in 1963. After almost 40 years in abortion, the proverbial wilderness, its time for psychedelic research to return to Harvard! May 14, 2004. Airlines Business! The second experimental session took place today for the second subject. (Due to depression mood, scheduling complications, the first subject's second session is scheduled for next week.) The session, which went very well, is the last experimental session for this subject. Business! She will receive some additional non-drug psychotherapy and a final follow-up evaluation two months from now. May 13, 2004. Nature publishes a lengthy article and editorial about MDMA psychotherapy research. The articles, about which Rick Doblin has written a lengthy commentary, are supportive of MAPS' research efforts. Alex Gamma wrote a letter to the editor responding to claims of insufficient knowledge of extent of risks in human trials made in the piece and providing greater detail on depression mood a human trial of airlines business plan MDMA described in the article. May 3, 2004.

Rick Doblin met in Jerusalem with Dr. Miki Reiter, Israeli Ministry of Health, about MAPS' proposed Israeli MDMA/PTSD pilot study in subjects with war and terrorism-related PTSD. Dr. Reiter is supportive of the project and welcomed MAPS offer to donate $75,000 to fund the pilot study. May 2, 2004. An Israeli dentist who survived a suicide bombing in a Jerusalem cafe in March 2002 that killed about 11 people met in retrosynthesis problems, person with Rick Doblin in Jerusalem. The dentist contacted MAPS last week after searching the airlines business internet for pages about MDMA and about the spring, PTSD. The dentist, who has permanent hearing loss but wasn't otherwise seriously wounded, developed PTSD after the airlines bombing.

After treatment with psychotherapy and SSRIs that was only moderately helpful, he discovered on his own that MDMA was of major benefit to him. He contacted MAPS since he felt it was a shame that MDMA had been available to him only depression mood, illicitly and at business, risk to his professional license. Paper Writer! After a long discussion, he surprised Rick by mentioning that the airlines business place he had chosen for their meeting was the same cafe in which the bombing had taken place. He has written a report, which is followed by additional comments from Rick. April 30, 2004. Rick Doblin met in New York City with Israeli psychiatrist Dr.

Moshe Kotler, the Principal Investigator of MAPS' proposed Israeli MDMA/PTSD pilot study in subjects with war and terrorism- related PTSD. Now that the US study is fully approved, Dr. Kotler feels the time is right to move forward with the friend essay protocol design and approval process for the Israeli pilot study. Dr. Kotler used to be the chief psychiatrist for airlines business, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF). April 23, 2004. The second subject participated in her first experimental session (MDMA or placebo). Each subject will receive two experimental sessions, two to essay, three weeks apart, in additional to about 8 non-drug psychotherapy sessions. This study is now well underway and is moving forward steadily.

April 19, 2004. This is the 61st anniversary of the business world's first planned LSD experience. On Monday, April 19, 1943, at 4:20 PM, Albert Hofmann ingested 250 micrograms of white paper writer LSD and neither he nor the airlines business plan world was ever the same again. Auto! Albert was trying to determine if an odd experience he had on Friday, April 16, 1943, was related to the LSD that he was synthesizing. Turns out, it was! April 16, 2004. Historic Days! The first experimental session in MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study took place today. Airlines Plan! Both the subject and the experimental team guessed that the substance that was administered was MDMA instead of the essay placebo. In any case, the session was remarkably therapeutic and seemed to represent a breakthrough for the subject.

Sixty-one years ago, on business plan April 16, 1943, the world's first LSD experience took place due Dr. Albert Hofmann's accidental ingestion of some of the chemical that he was synthesizing. The date of the first experimental session in the MDMA/PTSD study was set several weeks ago. The coincidence of that date being the 61st anniversary of the world's first LSD experience was unintentional, but fortuitous. September 24, 2002. John Mendelson, M.D., Associate Professor at University California San Francisco, commented on Michael Mithoefer, M.D.s proposed MDMA study. Mendelson states that the risk of heart valve changes after two MDMA exposures, as suggested in the study protocol, are very low. April 9, 2004. MAPS issues a report based on documents obtained through Freedom of essay about Information Act (FOIA) requests showing that from 1989-2002, Drs.

Ricaurte and McCann received federal grants totaling over $14.6 million dollars for MDMA and airlines, MDMA-related research. (A FOIA request for 2003 data has been submitted.) This is a rather amazing amount of money and white writer, suggests that Drs. Plan! Ricaurte and McCann had some powerful incentives to exaggerate the risks of MDMA. This also speaks volumes about our society's warped priorities in that not a single penny of federal money has been awarded to explore any of the therapeutic uses of MDMA. This is an imbalance that MAPS hopes to depression mood, rectify over airlines business plan, the coming years. April 6, 2004. In an article in the spring, Talon News (bringing the conservative message to airlines business, America), the fundamentalist drug warrior, Rep, Mark Souder, Chairman of the House Government Reform Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources and author of the infamous law that denies educational loans to students with a prior drug conviction, has strongly criticized Peter Jennings's Ecstasy Rising documentary. Rep. Souder's criticisms of auto write essay Peter Jennings' lack of a moral compass demonstrate yet again that the Drug War is a holy, moral crusade where facts are subjugated to business plan, ideology. The first psychotherapy session with the first subject took place today! In addition, a second subject passed the screening process and paper writer, has qualified for the study.

This study is definitely underway, full speed ahead. April 5, 2004. Video archives of the airlines business plan Peter Jennings special, Ecstasy Rising, are now available. April 1, 2004. Ecstasy Rising. Problems! Federal Campaign to Curb Club Drug Use Hasn't Dimmed Its Popularity, ABCNEWS.

March 30, 2004. A new study of business plan MDMA self-administration in monkeys found MDMA to be far less toxic than assumed from abortion essay, previous studies. Study findings suggest that when monkeys take doses of MDMA similar to those used by airlines business Ecstasy-using humans, there are no signs of harm to serotonin or dopamine cells. Study findings also suggest that monkeys, like humans, may slowly lose interest in taking MDMA over pro choice abortion, time, and that this change of heart is airlines business, not a sign of pro choice abortion brain toxicity. March 24, 2004. A DEA-licensed pharmacist, a Randomization Monitor, and Dr. Mithoefer are creating the MDMA and placebo capsules today for use in the MDMA/PTSD study.

The process is being filmed by business plan a camera crew from ABC for use in a feature story about the MDMA/PTSD study to be aired on World News Tonight at 6:30PM EST on April 1. Later that evening Peter Jennings' Ecstasy Rising documentary will be broadcast at 10PM est/pst, 9PM cst/mst. March 16, 2004. IRB approval was extended another six months, to September 15, 2004, or until the first Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) report is available. Approval is conditional upon review of the data on an ongoing basis by the DSMB. Depression Mood! The first DSMB report will take place after the first subject has participated in the first experimental session and before any subject has had their second experimental session. This first DSMB meeting will most likely take place in late April or early May. The second DSMB report will take place after the first five subjects have undergone the first experimental session. The third DSMB report will take place after the first five subjects have completed their final follow-ups, the fourth after the 6th-10th subjects have completed their final follow-ups and the fifth and final scheduled meeting will take place after the 11th -15th subjects have completed their final follow-ups. Airlines Plan! Unscheduled meetings will take place if ever there is a Serious Adverse Event (SAE). March 12, 2004. About The Spring! MDMA arrives!

Today the tiny amount of MDMA required for the MDMA/PTSD study (4 grams) arrived, shipped with all the appropriate DEA forms and procedures. Patients are being scheduled for screening to business, see if they meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study is now fully underway. The tentative date for the first experimental session is April 16, completely coincidentally the same date that, in problems, 1943, Albert Hofmann first accidentally discovered the psychedelic properties of LSD. March 10, 2004. The Ecstasy Factor - Bad Science Slandered a Generation's Favorite Drug. Now a New Study Aims to Undo the plan Damage, by Carla Spartos, Village Voice. This is a strong, hard-hiting article.

March 4, 2004. Depression Mood! Jose Carlos Bouso has been invited to participate in a Spanish TV program on March 12, 2004, along with the following other guests: - The Director of the Spanish Antidrug Agency (Plan Nacional sobre Drogas). - The Director of the Madrid Antidrug Agency. - The President of the airlines Help Against Drug Addiction Foundation (FAD, Fundacion de Ayuda Contra la Drogadiccion), the most important private organization against drugs in Spain. - One famous Spanish sociologist expert in drug abuse.

Jose Carlos has an problems excellent opportunity to raise the issue of the airlines business plan willingness of supporters of the Drug War to suppress science and ignore the about the spring season welfare of PTSD patients in business plan, order to support Drug War propaganda. The Drug Policy Alliance reports on DEA approval of the MAPS' sponsored MDMA/PTSD study. DEA Accedes to Ecstasy Test by Kristen Philipkoski, Wired News. This article contains a remarkable quote from George Ricaurte giving qualified support for essay, the MDMA/PTSD study. March 1, 2004. The Israeli newspaper, Maariv, published an article about the approval of the MDMA/PTSD study, entitled United States Approves Ecstasy to Treat Trauma: The FDA says the party drug will be used to treat people who have been sexually assaulted by Alex Doron. February 26, 2004. One of most important national Spanish newspapers (El Mundo) published an article regarding the airlines business final approval of the US MDMA/PTSD study in its Science section. Depression Mood! The article is quite favorable and also tells that the MAPS-sponsored Spanish MDMA/PTSD study was shutdown for business, political reasons. White Writer! We will continue to struggle to reopen the Spanish MDMA/PTSD study.

CNN Show: American Morning, 7 AM. Dr. Drew Pinsky thinking too reductionistically_ about the use of MDMA for the treatment of PTSD, . Business Plan! it's quite legitimate. I think the idea that it creates a psychological effect may be somewhat naive, the idea that somehow people are more open to looking at the narrative around their trauma because of the white paper sort of subjective effects of the drug, that, to me, is kind of naive because it's so biologically powerful. It's almost like looking at airlines business, electric shock therapy again.

February 25, 2004. Rick Doblin was the guest in a live email chat on the Chronicle for Higher Education website. To read the abortion exchanges, see the transcript. Corrections and comments on the CNN announcement by Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D and airlines business plan, Rick Doblin, Ph.D. Watch the CNN announcement (RealPlayer is required) February 24, 2004. The DEA issued Dr.

Mithoefer a Schedule 1 license. Abortion Essay! The first MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research project since MDMA was criminalized in 1985 now has the necessary regulatory approval from the FDA, the business IRB and write, the DEA and airlines plan, can proceed. February 23, 2004. Essay About The Spring! MAPS donated $11,000 to McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, for Dr. Halpern's work on airlines plan the protocol design and approval process for a study of best essay for kids MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with anxiety as a result of end-stage cancer, with outcome measures to evaluate anxiety, pain and quality of life. MAPS has previously donated $15,000 to plan, McLean for depression mood, this study on June 2003.

We plan to submit the protocol to the McLean IRB before the end of airlines business Summer 2004. Ecstasy Agonistes A retracted study on a controversial substance raises questions about the reliability of government-sponsored research on drugs, By Thomas Bartlett, Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education's February 25, 2004 colloquy live email chat with Rick Doblin is depression mood, available in the Chronicle archive. February 18, 2004. Business Plan! Inching closer! Dr.

Mithoefer spoke with Dr. Belinda Hayes at DEA headquarters. She indicated that DEA has received a fax of the document they need from FDA but not the retrosynthesis hard copy which they need to issue the license. She says the person at FDA claimed to have mailed it 2 weeks ago. Airlines Business! She said it should only be a matter of friend for kids days once they get the document before they get it entered into the system and then issue the license. January 27, 2004. Business Plan! Dr.

Mithoefer received a call from DEA indicating they have not received the official reply from auto, FDA yet in response to business, their request for a consultation. However, they know that FDA recommended that he be given a Schedule I license and as soon as DEA receives the official reply, they will be issuing his Schedule I license. Depression Mood! This is the first time we have heard from the DEA that Dr. Mithoefer will receive his license and the study will be able to move forward. January 26, 2004. NIDA responds to MAPS' FOIA request for documents about Dr. Ricaurte's MDMA research. January 16, 2004. Rick Doblin has written a paper discussing how the risks of MDMA neurotoxicity have been exaggerated by government officials and government-funded scientists in a manner that has been used to support prohibitionist policies. Read a critique of a recently published study of self-reported memory problems in Ecstasy users, along with additional comments. Airlines Business Plan! You can also view the full text of the report in PDF format.

January 15, 2004. MAPS received a call from FDA reporting that DEA's request for a consultation about Dr. Mithoefer's qualifications to conduct research has finally arrived at FDA. Furthermore, FDA's recommendation has already been sent back to DEA. We are inching ever closer. According to the Code of Federal Regulations [section 304(a) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 824(a))], DEA must issue Schedule I licenses to researchers with FDA-approved protocols within 10 days of DEA receiving a recommendation from FDA that an applicant is best for kids, qualified to do the research, unless the applicant can be denied on plan any of the white paper grounds specified in airlines business, section 304 (a) and has either 1) lied on friend essay for kids the application, 2) been convicted of a drug felony, or 3) no longer has State registration to administer controlled substances. Since none of these criteria apply, we may be quite close to airlines, being able to start this study.

However, there could be some delays caused by the uncertain amount of auto write time between when FDA sends its recommendation to DEA and when DEA acknowledges receiving it, with interagency mail notoriously slow. MAPS will now work to expedite this process however we are able. January 14, 2004. Dr. Michael Mithoefer has been flown to New York City and is being interviewed today for the upcoming prime-time Ecstasy documentary being created by Peter Jennings' documentary team. We're encouraged that a large national audience will learn of our efforts to conduct MDMA psychotherapy research. The documentary will probably be aired in late February or March. January 13, 2004. We're still waiting on DEA to issue Dr. Business Plan! Mithoefer his Schedule I license.

DEA claims it is waiting to hear from FDA regarding a requested consultation about Dr. Mithoefer's qualifications to conduct research. We've inquired at FDA to determine whether DEA's request for consultation has actually arrived yet and, if so, when FDA will reply. We expect to hear back from FDA shortly. According to the Code of Federal Regulations, DEA must issue a Schedule I license for FDA-approved research within 10 days of receiving favorable recommendation from FDA unless the retrosynthesis problems applicant has lied on his application, has had a drug-related felony conviction, or no longer licensed by the State. Since Dr. Mithoefer cannot be refused his license on any of these grounds, we're cautiously optimistic we will be able to plan, start the study shortly after FDA responds to DEA's request for consultation. January 6, 2004. The Spring Season! MAPS submits a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to FDA seeking copies of all correspondence between FDA and either the DEA, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, or the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, regarding the MDMA/PTSD protocol.

We'd like to airlines, see what, if anything, these organizations have been communicating to FDA regarding this study. December 17, 2003. Dr. Mithoefer learned today that on December 11, 2003, the South Carolina DEA office submitted its recommendation to DEA headquarters that it give Dr. Mithoefer his Schedule I license for retrosynthesis problems, the MDMA/PTSD study. DEA headquarters told Dr. Mithoefer last week that it is still waiting to receive a recommendation from FDA's Controlled Substances Staff but we have no information as to whether the FDA has actually received DEA's request for a consultation. Step by step we move closer to starting.

December 7, 2003. A recent media report appeared, making some unduly alarming claims about airlines business plan MDMA and best, DNA mutations. However, the claims turn out to airlines, be false. Read a commentary on the research and what it actually meant. You can also read the full text (PDF) of the original research report. Science Gets Recruited in the Drug War, by Ronald Bailey. Reason Magazine Online. Rick Doblin, President of MAPS, published these comments on the NYT article. The Drug Policy Alliance have issued this related press release today. November 28, 2003. White Writer! The politics of rEsearch by business Harry Shapiro, is published in the Nov/Dec issue of the retrosynthesis British magazine, Druglink.

This article reports that Ricaurte's mislabeling error came to light when a student attempted to replicate the airlines plan study and then made an official complaint when permission to publish the new findings was denied. Pro Choice Abortion! In order to plan, verify if this was accurate, Rick Doblin called the Johns Hopkins press office and was informed that Dr. Ricaurte says that there is no substance whatsoever to white paper, this allegation. November 26, 2003. MAPS sent a letter today to NIDA Director Nora Volkow, Ph.D., responding to a November 18, 2003 letter from Dr. Business! Volkow to retrosynthesis, Rick Doblin. This exchange of letters was part of a package of material that MAPS sent today to members of NIDA's National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse (NACDA) requesting that NACDA recommend to plan, NIDA that it release information about the MDMA research of Dr.

Ricaurte. Dr. Volkow indicated in her thoughtful but careful letter that she didn't think it was necessary for NIDA to pro choice essay, proactively release the information about the MDMA research of Dr. Ricaurte that MAPS requested and business plan, noted that MAPS will obtain some information as a result of its Freedom of abortion essay Information Act (FOIA) request. In reply, Rick Doblin noted that, NIDA should be forthcoming with the information requested. To do otherwise leaves the airlines plan impression that NIDA is friend essay for kids, not actively and aggressively trying to clear up this disturbing episode that has damaged the credibility of NIDA's educational efforts regarding the airlines risks of pro choice abortion essay MDMA and other illegal drugs.

November 24, 2003. The British newspaper The Guardian published a positive article today about MAPS' progress towards final approval of airlines business plan our MDMA/PTSD study. Later today, BBC Scotland will interview me about the MDMA/PTSD study during its drive-time rush hour show. BBC World News just called about doing an interview that it will send out tonight to stations all over the place, and BBC London called for its Five Live national show. Also, the the spring season youth station in Dublin, Ireland (Spin1038) will conduct an interview. Just the struggle to obtain permission for the study is presenting us with some good opportunities to do public education about MDMA.

The BBC published this news article today on its highly regarded website. November 21, 2003. Editorial published in Movement Disorders by Stephen Kish, Ph.D., What is the airlines plan Evidence that Ecstasy (MDMA) Can Cause Parkinson's Disease? This strong editorial examines the evidence that ecstasy can cause Parkinson's and suggests that the evidence is very weak. It also critiques the flawed McCann/Ricaurte PET evidence that MDMA causes substantial reductions in serotonin transporter. November 15-17, 2003.

MAPS' MDMA/PTSD research team met in essay about the spring season, Charleston, South Carolina to review the forms and procedures that will be used to conduct the study. The meeting went extremely well. Amy and Todd, the clinical research monitors who are volunteering to help us implement pharmaceutical-level monitoring and checks and airlines business plan, balances, were impressively professional. This study will be conducted with a level of formality and oversight that MAPS is depression mood, implementing for the first time but that will become standard on all our MDMA research projects. November 12, 2003.

Dr. Mithoefer receives his Schedule I research registration (R1) from airlines business plan, South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). Dr. Mithoefer is still waiting on his DEA Schedule I license, which is all we need to get started with the study. November 10, 2003.

RTI denies it made mistake that torpedoed results of a $1.3M study. Triangle Business Journal, by Leo John. October 28, 2003. DEA Inspection goes very well. Several DEA agents inspected Dr. Mithoefer's facility today as part of DEA's review of his application for a Schedule I license to essay, handle the 3.5 grams of MDMA needed for the entire study. The inspectors focused on issues of business plan diversion control and checked out the paper writer safe, the alarm system and the forms and procedures that will be used to track all of the MDMA and placebo capsules. Business! The DEA agents were interested in helping Dr. Pro Choice Essay! Mithoefer understand and follow their rules and were quite reasonable. Dr. Mithoefer was told he will probably receive his license in airlines business plan, several weeks to several months.

October 23, 2003. Protocol Improvements Recommended by IRBs. Though MAPS' long series of interactions with multiple IRBs was often frustrating, several improvements have been incorporated into the protocol design as a result of recommendations/requirements made by problems various of the IRBs. MAPS has prepared a document listing these improvements, with the primary ones consisting of having patients remain overnight in airlines business, the treatment facility which will be staffed by an RN, having data periodically reviewed by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), requiring subjects to take a quiz after reading the informed consent form to essay for kids, make sure the primary risks were understood, and requiring a minimum score on business plan the questionnaire assessing the severity of PTSD that reflects a moderate severity. October 20, 2003 MAPS sends a letter to retrosynthesis, all members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, requesting that it recommend that NIDA release all the airlines business information about Dr.

Ricaurte's research that MAPS has requested in its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. (also in Word format) October 17, 2003. Promising news from DEA. DEA has now scheduled an inspection of Dr. Mithoefer's facility on October 28, by agents from both the regional DEA office and the South Carolina Bureau of Drug Control. This is a routine step in the processing of a Schedule I license. It's encouraging to essay season, see that DEA is finally moving forward with its responsibilities, now that IRB approval for the protocol has been obtained.

October 14, 2003. An article by Kelly Morris, entitled Concern over airlines business, research reawakens ecstasy neurotoxicity debate is published in the journal Lancet: Neurology Vol 2, November 2003. October 9, 2003. About The Spring! Nature publishes a short news story (PDF and HTML) on the MAPS sponsored MDMA/PTSD study. Nature 425, 552 (09 October 2003) MAPS has a few comments on the article. October 8, 2003. Could MDMA help people with Parkinson's disease ? A recently published study in marmosets suggests that MDMA can reduce side effects of some medicatios used in the treatment of airlines plan PD. October 2, 2003.

MAPS responds to Ricaurte et al.'s retraction letter. MAPS addresses the evidence that Ricaurte et al. cite in their retraction letter in which they fail to depression mood, give up the ghost and airlines plan, make a feeble attempt to claim that MDMA could, after all, actually cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity and Parkinson's Disease. October 1, 2003. MAPS Submits FOIA Request to NIDA. MAPS receives a confirmation letter from NIDA's Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) staff that it has received our request for specific information about the studies that Drs. Best Essay For Kids! Ricaurte et al. conducted with genuine MDMA that failed to find dopaminergic neurotoxicity, and about the studies that were conducted with the mislabeled bottles of MDMA and methamphetamine. The letter seems to airlines, indicate that there is a good chance that NIDA will release most or all of the information we requested, but that remains to essay about season, be seen. September 23, 2003. Triumph. Plan! The Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviewing Dr. Mithoefer's MDMA/PTSD protocol made its final decision -- and approved the study!

This is essay, a historic moment for MAPS and for airlines, MDMA research. The approval marks the end of a three-month process with this IRB, and a 22-month IRB process overall. Dr. Mithoefer and MAPS have been struggling to obtain IRB approval since November 2001, when the FDA approved the study. This is the eighth IRB to abortion, which we've tried to submit the protocol.

Five refused to accept it for review (after varying periods of consideration), one approved it then revoked that approval for political reasons, and another finally tabled the review, after spending months formally reviewing the study before making it clear, through unreasonable demands, that the committee did not want to approve it. Along the way, we also established a MAPS IRB, but fortunately, we didn't need to business plan, use it. The last remaining step before we can begin the study is for write essay, Dr. Mithoefer to airlines business plan, obtain a DEA Schedule I license. DEA received Dr. Mithoefer's application more than 15 months ago. We hope to receive a license somewhat quickly now that IRB approval has been obtained, but you can never tell with DEA. After Dr. Paper! Mithoefer does obtain a Schedule I license, we can finally begin the study of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in business plan, subjects with chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

September 18, 2003. MAPS sends a letter to NIDA Director Nora Volkow noting the many unanswered questions in the Ricaurte et al. retraction and requesting the release of additional information. MAPS states that the credibility of NIDA is at stake. These sentiments are also expressed in a powerful editorial just released by essay the scientific journal, Nature. September 6, 2003. Amazing Retraction! Dr. George Ricaurte retracted his paper published in Science on business Sept. Friend Essay! 27, 2002. He originally claimed that MDMA caused severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates injected with a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA, and suggested that Ecstasy users could develop Parkinson's.

Dr. Ricaurte now reports that his research team administered methamphetamine instead of MDMA to airlines business plan, his monkeys, a mistake which came to light after he failed to replicate his findings after the problems oral administration of MDMA of plan even higher doses of MDMA to additional monkeys. Dr. Ricaurte's claims were challenged by MAPS in an exchange of letters in Science in June 6, 2003. Those letters, and essay the spring, a series of media articles about today's retraction can be found here. September 5, 2003. George Ricaurte, Ph.D.'s retraction of his paper Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is published in Science. August 25, 2003. For the last several months, another independent Institutional Review Board (IRB) has been reviewing Dr. Michael Mithoefer's MAPS -sponsored MDMA/PTSD protocol. Today, we submitted our response to another series of questions and a revised protocol and informed consent form.

We anticipate hearing from the airlines business plan IRB in several weeks. MAPS had considered forming its own IRB and had written a set of required standard operating procedures and essay, obtained commitments from a group of illustrious people to plan, serve on essay the MAPS IRB. However, before launching the airlines business plan MAPS IRB, we decided to try one more time with an Independent IRB. So far, this IRB has restored our faith in the IRB review process since the review is being based on the scientific merits of the design. If MAPS does obtain IRB approval, the final step in retrosynthesis, the approval process will be for Dr. Mithoefer, the Principal Investigator, to obtain a DEA Schedule I license to handle a total of 3 grams of plan MDMA for administration to all the subjects in the study (12 subjects will each receive a dose of essay for kids 125 mgs on two occasions, three to five weeks apart, with another 8 subjects will receive placebo on two occasions, also three to five weeks apart). While DEA has held up Dr. Mithoefer's application for a Schedule I license for MDMA for over a year, and has previously indicated that it might refuse to approve Dr.

Mithoefer's license on the grounds that it considered the airlines business study not to be in the public interest, we have more recently gotten the impression that DEA will indeed approve the for kids license once IRB approval for business plan, the protocol has been obtained. A legal analysis submitted to DEA by MAPS President Rick Doblin has been helpful in that it showed that the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was written by a Congress that was suspicious the DEA would seek to block medical research into Schedule I drugs, which has indeed turned out to white paper, be the case. Fortunately, the CSA does not permit the business plan DEA to take the vague category of public interest into account when it reviews applications for Schedule I licenses for FDA-approved research but is restricted to using a much more limited set of criteria relating exclusively to whether the retrosynthesis problems physician can be trusted to administer the drugs to the research subjects and not divert any to non-medical uses. While nothing can be predicted with certainty, it seems that MAPS' 17-year struggle to start MDMA psychotherapy research (MAPS was founded in 1986) may finally be successful within the next several months. Business! Time will tell. June 19, 2003. Drs. Paper! Mithoefer, Jerome and Doblin have written a reply to the Ricaurte et al. letter published in Science on airlines June 6, 2003. We have submitted our reply to Drs. White! Ricaurte and McCann and airlines, indicated that we would be happy to post their response to the MAPS website if they want to continue this debate. Read more.

June 9, 2003. MAPS donated $15,046.25 to McLean Hospital, affiliated with Harvard Medical School. The donation is to essay, enable Dr. John Halpern to develop a protocol for the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of anxiety and business plan, depression in end-stage cancer patients, and for work related to obtaining approval for the study from the McLean Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the FDA. The donation will support a portion of Dr. Halpern's time from now until the end of December 2003. If this project is approved, it will represent the first psychedelic research at Harvard since 1965 and will signal the beginning of the post-Leary era. June 6, 2003.

Letters in Science. An exchange of pro choice abortion letters about business plan MDMA dopaminergic neurotoxicity between the MAPS MDMA/PTSD team and the NIDA-funded research team of pro choice abortion Ricaurte et al. appeared in the journal Science, June 6, 2003, Vol. Airlines Business! 300, p. 1503-4. MAPS has already submitted to retrosynthesis, Science a request for a correction to a misleading statement in the Ricaurte et al. Business Plan! letter, in which only one of the primates was claimed to have died from the doses of MDMA administered, as compared to essay season, two primates reported to have died in the initial paper. For details, see MAPS' discussion of the Ricaurte et al. study.

MAPS is in airlines business, the process of preparing a response to problems, the Ricaurte et al. letter for business, the MAPS website and Forum. In brief, Ricaurte et al. state that dopaminergic deficits will only be found in paper, binge users, but then discount all the studies in heavy MDMA users that found no dopaminergic changes by saying that they contained no or only a few binge users. This raises the plan obvious question of auto essay just how common is this binge use pattern, since they allege in the title of their paper that the doses they administered to the primates represented a common recreational dose regimen. Ricaurte conclude their letter by saying that we remain of the opinion that there are not sufficient data to conclude that clinical MDMA research can be conducted without running the risk of monoaminergic brain neural injury. First, it's impossible to ever prove that there is no risk. Nevertheless, by Ricaurte et al.'s own admission that binge use isn't even the same as heavy use, it is possible to conclude that there is no evidence that the clinical use of MDMA will in any way cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity or lead to Parkinson's. Note also that Ricaurte et al. Business Plan! conclude with a general statement about both serotonergic and dopaminergic risk, and dismiss as being unpublished evidence from Dr. Franz Vollenweider's PET scan study that showed no evidence of paper serotonin changes in MDMA-naive subjects administered doses of MDMA in the therapeutic range. April 11, 2003.

Yet Another Dead End. The new IRB informed MAPS today that it has decided not to airlines plan, accept the protocol for review. MAPS was clearly told in writing a month ago that this IRB would accept the protocol for review. Now, after we spent all the essay staff time to prepare and business, submit the necessary documents and yet another month has gone by, that decision is reversed. We were told that the IRB believes that the local IRB has to take responsibility. However, there is no local IRB, since the project is not affiliated with any local institution. A fear of liability was also mentioned. This is also rather puzzling since MAPS has been able to arrange for an insurance policy for several million dollars that would indemnify the IRB from lawsuits, in the extremely unlikely event that a subject in the study would choose to sue the problems IRB.

Proposing to research a potentially beneficial use of airlines one of the most demonized drugs in America, and around the world, could be considered a fool's mission. But it's not, it's just extraordinarily difficult and extraordinarily important. About Season! After all, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy really can promote healing in plan, a unique manner unlike any other prescription medicine. A moment of despair is essay the spring, now in order, after which MAPS will select a new strategy for moving forward with this project. March 7, 2003. Business! Yet Another New Start. A new IRB has reviewed the pro choice abortion essay documents from the airlines business plan first two IRBs that led to dead-ends and agreed to review the protocol. Documents were submitted, with feedback expected in depression mood, a month or so. March 6, 2003.

A Decision to Let the Review Stay Tabled. Two weeks have passed without MAPS receiving an estimate for the costs of consultants from the IRC-IRB. In any case, MAPS has decided to let the review remain tabled, not to pay for consultants, and start over with another IRB. We didn't immediately inform the IRC-IRB since we expected to hear any day about the costs of the consultants, at which time we planned to explain our decision. The proverbial straw that broke the camels back was that the plan IRB indicated that even though a majority of its members agreed that MAPS has offered persuasive arguments against best essay, the use of airlines plan a CRO and the multi-site design, the panel will not withdraw those suggestions unless and until an unanimous decision is reached after a report from for kids, consultants on seemingly unrelated matters.

After waiting until March 25 without being informed of the costs of the consultants, over a month after MAPS requested in writing that these costs be provided, MAPS sent a letter to business, the IRC-IRB saying that we were withdrawing the application. MAPS then learned that the staff person at the IRC-IRB with whom MAPS has primarily interacted has left the IRC-IRB for reasons unrelated to our protocol. March 3, 2003. No Decision Unless Unanimous, and After Consultation. The IRC-IRB sends a letter indicating that it needs to receive the advice of consultants before making a decision on the issues of the CRO and the multi-site study. While the IRC-IRB does indicate that a majority of the members of the panel find MAPS' arguments that a CRO is not needed to be compelling and that a majority are willing to consider abandoning the request for a multi-site study, we are told that no decision will be made unless it is best friend essay for kids, unanimous, which MAPS is claimed to have previously agreed to though this was never mentioned before and is not standard practice.

February 25, 2003. A Request for A Decision. MAPS phones the business plan IRC-IRB and requests that the panel make a definite decision on whether it would require MAPS to hire a CRO and/or move to the spring, a multi-site design, neither of which MAPS is willing to do, before MAPS decides whether to pay for consultants which the letter from the IRC-IRB seems to indicate would be focused on issues unrelated to airlines, the need for a CRO and a multi-site study. February 21, 2003. Essay! IRB Review Tabled. Airlines Plan! The IRB informed MAPS that it cannot proceed with its review until it obtains the advice of two qualified, objective psychiatric consultants, with fees for the consultants required to be paid by MAPS.

An estimate of costs will be submitted to MAPS for approval prior to the IRB's engaging the services of these consultants. February 14, 2003. More Documents. Write! MAPS submitted a document detailing our standardized procedures for responding to agitated subjects, or those with suicidal ideation associated with study procedures. We also submitted a document discussing the $175,000 bid that we received from a Contract Research Organization (CRO) for airlines, monitoring the study, along with information about the volunteer who would monitor the study for MAPS who had the exact same credentials as the person who would be assigned by the CRO. February 10, 2003. An Exhaustive and friend essay for kids, Exhausting Reply. MAPS submitted a twelve page basic reply (which included in a bit of comic relief a required menu of the snack foods and drinks that we would offer to subjects on the MDMA therapy days and our plans for airlines business, handling the issue of food-related allergies), and assorted other documents including a letter from the researcher conducting the screening and outcome measures explaining that he had never met Dr. Mithoefer in person and had no particular interest in white writer, MDMA an eight page informed consent form for the friend/partner who would pick up the subject after the plan MDMA session a release form for sharing of subject's personal medical information a wallet card for write essay, subjects showing there had participated in a legal MDMA research project in case they were drug tested for any reason in the several days after the business plan experimental sessions during which time they might test positive for problems, MDMA or amphetamines, and a confidentiality agreement for any physicians or therapists who referred subjects to the study. February 6, 2003. Business! A Rapid Response.

MAPS submitted a six page response focusing just on the issues of the Contract Research Organization and the multi-site study requirements, to be following up within a week or so with a more detailed discussion of these and other issues raised by the IRC-IRB. February 4, 2003. An Astonishingly Depressing Response. After the extensive discussions and good feelings of the January 28, 2003 in-person meeting, at best friend essay, which we seemingly discussed all the outstanding issues, the totally surprising reply sent by the IRC-IRB came with several scientifically misguided new demands. One of these (hiring a Contract Research Organization to take over the conduct of the study to avoid unconscious bias) was unusual, exorbitantly expensive and airlines, unnecessary since the study was already a placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study, with blinded, independent raters. Another (redesigning the study into a multi-site study with two different therapeutic teams) would probably not even be approved by the FDA since single-site studies to standardize the intervention precede multi-site studies. The IRC-IRB response, which included quite a few other requirements, indicated a profound misunderstanding by the IRC-IRB of the generally-accepted scientific research process and communicated that the IRC-IRB was deeply fearful of approving this protocol. Though I (Rick Doblin) am by nature happy and depression mood, optimistic (which some friends of mine have teasingly referred to as evidence of MDMA brain damage), the IRC-IRB response resulted in two days of a dark depressive funk, the business plan likes of white writer which I haven't felt for plan, almost 30 years, back when I was working through early difficult LSD experiences. The resolution of the depression came with the best friend for kids decision to business plan, throw myself into responding in detail to the IRC-IRB letter, in retrosynthesis, the hopes that a clearer presentation on our part of the business qualifications of our research team members, the logic behind our protocol design choices, and a willingness to retrosynthesis, give the IRC-IRB whatever information it asked for, would result in airlines, a return to generally-accepted scientific research principles.

January 31, 2003. White Paper Writer! A Productive Dialogue. The January 28 meeting with the airlines business plan new IRB, at which Dr. Michael Mithoefer and Rick Doblin, Ph.D. appeared in person, involved a series of thoughtful questions about protocol design, risk assessment, confidentiality procedures and write, the nature of PTSD and currently available treatments. The meeting was characterized by plan mutual respect.

We expect to depression mood, receive a written report outlining the IRB's decisions within the next several weeks. January 21, 2003. A Substantive Reply to IRB. MAPS submitted a series of documents today to the IRC-IRB, in response to their initial comments about the protocol which MAPS received on January 6. Airlines! These documents represent a very substantial amount of staff time on MAPS' part and include a twenty page primary response letter, a five page protocol summary, a two page plan for external evaluation, a two page phone script for the initial screening calls from potential volunteers, and a sixty page updated review of the essay MDMA literature published since our initial review was completed. Dr.

Michael Mithoefer and Rick Doblin will meet in person with the IRB review panel on January 28 to discuss the issues under consideration. January 21, 2003. History Lesson for the DEA. MAPS submitted a letter to airlines plan, DEA from Rick Doblin concerning Dr. Michael Mithoefer's July 2002 application for depression mood, a Schedule I license to possess the MDMA that will be used in the MDMA/PTSD study. DEA has indicated that it has safety concerns that need to be addressed before it will issue the license. However, DEA is only legally charged with diversion control (preventing drugs approved for medical use to be diverted to non-medical uses) and has no legal mandate to review safety concerns, which are the responsibility of the FDA. In 1994, DEA tried to use similar arguments to justify its delay in issuing a Schedule I license to airlines plan, Dr. Retrosynthesis! Donald Abrams for his FDA-approved marijuana/AIDS wasting study. Fortunately, FDA Commissioner Dr. David Kessler protested to Dr.

Lee Brown, Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy (the Drug Czar), who wrote a letter to DEA Administrator Tom Constantine reminding him that DEA has no authority to review scientific matters. Dr. Brown told DEA that established lines of responsibility and business, authority should be respected and that national policy was to permit research with Schedule I drugs. MAPS' letter reminds DEA of pro choice essay this history and urges it to respect the national interest in facilitating, and not obstructing, important research into new treatments for PTSD. January 6, 2003. Renewed hope. Business Plan! Today, MAPS received the initial set of comments of the IRC-IRB. My initial impression is that we will eventually be able to get some protocol approved, but that we might need to limit enrollment to more severe PTSD patients who have failed on psychotherapeutic treatments as well as an SSRI, and are 21 or older. We have been requested by the new IRB to provide a substantial amount of about additional information.

We hope to submit our response within several weeks for the next review, which Dr. Michael Mithoefer and airlines business plan, I will probably attend on either January 28 or February 4. Writer! Despite the additional work that is ahead of us, it's a profound relief that the airlines plan new IRB is willing to approach this issue based on the science. December 17, 2002. Write Essay! A New Start. MAPS submitted the MDMA/PTSD protocol for airlines plan, review to the Independent Review Consulting Institutional Review Board (IRC-IRB), with the protocol to the spring season, be discussed by the review board on January 2, 2003. Officials at the IRC-IRB have read the entire correspondence between MAPS and the Western IRB and have indicated that they will carefully review the protocol on its merits without bias due to business, the controversial nature of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research. This IRB has a reputation for being rigorous but fair, a set of characteristics that inspires confidence. December 10, 2002.

A Shameful Conclusion. On November 20, after the Western IRB decided not to review MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol, Rick Doblin spoke to James Baldwin, Ph.D., Executive Director of the Western IRB. Dr. Baldwin informed Rick that he was not authorized to speak about what motivated the Western IRB to decide not to engage in retrosynthesis, a dialogue about the business rationale for WIRB's decision to revoke approval, to refuse to continue to review the depression mood protocol, and to refund MAPS' fee. Instead, Dr. Baldwin suggested that for more information, Rick should contact Mr. Ron Warren, Senior Vice President of the plan Western IRB.

After Rick Doblin made repeated attempts over several weeks to speak with Mr. Warren, his secretary finally informed Rick Doblin on December 10 that he was unwilling to speak and had nothing to add to the letter. So it ends, with a shameful silence. November 27, 2002. MDMA/PTSD Research in Israel. MAPS sent a draft of the MDMA/PTSD pilot study that MAPS is depression mood, seeking to airlines plan, sponsor in Israel to Dr. Moshe Kotler and Dr.

Jorge Gleser, Israeli Ministry of essay Health, for their review. MAPS' conference on airlines MDMA/PTSD research, held at Beer Yakov Mental Health Center near Tel Aviv on retrosynthesis November 14 for airlines plan, members of the Israeli Ministry of depression mood Health, the Israeli Society of Addiction Medicine, and the Israeli Anti-Drug Authority, was very well received. The conference and the proposed pilot study were discussed in plan, a positive article mentioned on the front page of Maariv, Israel's second largest newspaper. The protocol design meeting, held at Beer Yakov on depression mood Nov. Business! 17, was also productive, with the draft protocol submitted today reflecting design choices made at that meeting. November 20, 2002. Pathetic News.

Ron Warren, Senior Vice President of the Western IRB, wrote a letter to auto essay, Dr. Michael Mithoefer, reporting the outcome of the November 19 meeting of the WIRB's Executive Policy Committee. The WIRB letter was two short sentences, The Western Institutional Review Board, Inc. (WIRB) has made the decision not to provide institutional review board services for the Multidisciplinary Association for business, Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). Please find enclosed a refund of your previously paid fees, along with the retrosynthesis material you submitted for IRB review. The WIRB retreated from airlines business plan, its supposed scientific rationale for revoking approval for MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study, as described in its September 6, 2002 letter and critiqued in MAPS' October 10 letter, and fell back on no rationale whatsoever. The WIRB has shown itself to be scientifically out of its depth and lacking of sufficient integrity to acknowledge its mistakes and refocus on a rational, data-based, risk/benefit analysis of MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol. Most importantly, MAPS will very soon start the process of submitting the protocol to essay about season, another IRB for review.

November 18, 2002. Plan! MAPS submitted a short letter to the Western IRB's Executive Policy Committee, in advance of its November 19 meeting at which it will discuss its review of MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol. The letter discussed MAPS' Israeli MDMA/PTSD project, briefly reviewed US government and international treaty policies regarding research with Schedule I drugs, and reported that MAPS had submitted unpublished data to FDA about write MDMA and heart valve tissue, data which the WIRB cited as partial justification for revoking approval which neither MAPS nor FDA had seen. October 17, 2002. Airlines Business! A Surprising New Issue. After reviewing MAPS' letter, Dr. James Baldwin of the WIRB informed RIck Doblin that the problems October 30 meeting was canceled, but not for the reasons MAPS had hoped. Dr. James Baldwin said that the meeting was premature because the WIRB now needed to convene its Executive Policy Committee (EPC) to discuss whether the WIRB should be involved with research with Schedule I drugs. The next EPC meeting is scheduled for business plan, November 19.

The WIRB is no longer reviewing the protocol based on the science but on non-scientific, internal policy issues, not a very encouraging development. October 11, 2002. White Writer! A Comprehensive, Strong Response. MAPS submitted a lengthy written response to airlines business, the WIRB letter, along with 14 letters of information and support from MDMA scientists around the world. MAPS' letter addressed every point raised in the WIRB letter and was so solid that we thought perhaps the WIRB would conclude that the October 30 meeting was not necessary. October 3, 2002. A Glimmer of Hope. Rick Doblin speaks with James Baldwin, Ph.D., Executive Director of the WIRB. Retrosynthesis! Dr. Baldwin apologized for the tone of the WIRB letter and seemed to view favorably MAPS' arguments.

He was informed that the one scientist whom the WIRB letter claimed was against the study was actually in favor of the study (subject to two conditions that MAPS could easily agree with), that the second scientist cited in the WIRB letter was strongly in favor of the study, and that the third scientist was probably not fully informed about the details of the protocol and was neither opposed to or in favor of the study. Dr. Baldwin tentatively scheduled a meeting between Rick Doblin and Michael Mithoefer and the WIRB for October 30, in Olympia, Washington. September 27, 2002. Outrageous News. Business! Dr. George Ricaurte publishes an article in Science reporting on depression mood primate data that he claims suggests that even one night's recreational use of Ecstasy can lead to Parkinson's. This government-funded research, which ignored the high mortality rate of the test animals and airlines business, directly contradictory human data, is a classic example of risk amplification and the demonization of illegal drugs. MAPS obtained a copy of this article before publication and responded by depression mood sending out our first press release ever. MAPS' critique was favorably reported in articles in airlines plan, the New York Times and Washington Post and friend essay, elsewhere.

MAPS has also written a letter to business, the editor of best friend essay Science. September 6, 2002. Terrible News. The Western IRB, which approved the MDMA/PTSD protocol on July 10, informed us by airlines business letter that approval was withdrawn. The revocation was based on secondhand reports of conversations (not on data!) that a WIRB staff person had with three MDMA researchers. Best Friend Essay For Kids! The WIRB letter was written in a surprisingly insulting manner and contained numerous mistakes. MAPS was not informed that the protocol was being reevaluated and did not have an opportunity to respond to the reports by the WIRB staff person, who didn't like the fact that the airlines business WIRB had approved the protocol. July 17, 2002. Essay Season! Tremendous news. On July 10, we received word that the Institutional Review Board (IRB) had approved MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study! We can now definitely say that the US study will take place.

Dr. Michael Mithoefer still needs to obtain his DEA Schedule 1 license, which should take about 4-6 weeks, but this is just a matter of time. There is airlines business, now an excellent chance that the Israeli Ministry of Health will approve an Israeli MDMA/PTSD study. Michael and I are tentatively planning to go there in late Sept. Best Essay For Kids! or early Oct. for a one-day seminar organized by the Ministry to discuss the latest findings in MDMA research, and protocol design options for the Israeli study. Here are the financial implications: We still need to raise an additional $60,000 for the US MDMA/PTSD study and airlines plan, another $60,000 for the Israeli study. Retrosynthesis! MAPS is also seeking $10,000 for airlines, our National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant application for support for the development of a treatment manual that describes in essay, detail hw MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD should be conducted and provides specific ways to evaluate whether the therapy technique itself is being delivered appropriately. Business Plan! We are also seeking $20,000 for our ongoing MDMA literature review.

Any help or suggestions would be greatly appreciated. June 19, 2002. MDMA/PTSD protocol submitted to the Western Institutional Review Board (WIRB). Review expected to take 3-5 weeks. June 14, 2002. FDA gives final approval to conduct the treatment sessions in Dr.

Michael Mithoefer's office, with a crash cart and an Emergency Room doctor and nurse in the next room in white paper writer, case they are needed. May 14, 2002. Conference call with Dr. Mithoefer, Rick Doblin and airlines plan, FDA o fficials, in which we come to tentative agreement to pro choice abortion, conduct the study in Dr. Mithoefer's office, as long as we hire both an ER doctor and nurse to sit in the room. May 10, 2002.

FDA rejects our request, primarily saying that they would like a larger emergency response team. March 14, 2002. Request submitted to FDA to change the location of the treatment sessions from the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to Dr. Airlines! Mithoefer's office. We propose renting a crash cart and hiring an emergency room nurse to be on about the spring site in the room next to the treatment room for airlines business plan, the first five hours of auto essay each session, in case Dr. Airlines Business! Michael Mithoefer and Annie Mithoefer, R.N. need help responding to best essay, an adverse event. November 28, 2001. The fourth patient in the Spain MDMA/PTSD dose-response study was treated on November 28, 2001. We have now completed the 50 mgs dose group (3 patients received 50 mgs and 1 received a placebo). Plan! The next dose level is 75 mgs (5 patients will receive 75 mgs and 2 will receive a placebo). November 2, 2001.

It's my pleasure to report some excellent news. About 10 AM, Friday, November 2, FDA contacted me to say that MAPS' MDMA/PTSD protocol was approved. This approval marks the culmination of 16 years of efforts to obtain permission from FDA for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research, since MDMA was criminalized in 1985. This approval also marks the beginning of what I hope will be a $5 million, 5-year project to develop MDMA into a prescription medicine. On Wednesday, Dr. Michael Mithoefer, the principal investigator, and I had a conference call with FDA during which we discussed various design issues. The conference call was calm, serious and respectful. We agreed to make several design changes, mainly closer monitoring of blood pressure and omitting the opportunity for placebo subjects who still met inclusion criteria for PTSD at the final evaluation to enroll in an open label extension study during which they would receive MDMA. We argued against several other possible changes, mainly the idea that patients should be required to have had prior experience with MDMA.

On Thursday, I faxed an addendum specifying the changes we had agreed upon and the auto write places where the protocol needed to be changed. Last night, I saw on CNN that anthrax was discovered in the FDA mailroom at Rockville, where the FDA officials reviewing the protocol work. Today, FDA officials were still at work and informed me that the protocol was approved without the need for any additional changes. Of course, we still need to obtain Institutional Review Board approval from the Medical University of South Carolina. This should take several additional months. I've already let the Israeli Ministry of Health know that the FDA approved the study. According to airlines, Dr. Moshe Kotler, the principal investigator of the about the spring proposed Israeli MDMA/PTSD protocol, FDA approval was need for business, an MDMA/PTSD study before he would feel comfortable submitting a protocol to the Ministry.

The subjects in the ongoing Spain MDMA/PTSD study are women survivors of sexual assault with chronic PTSD. The subjects in the FDA-approved study are women and men survivors of pro choice abortion criminal assault with chronic PTSD. The Israeli study will hopefully include subjects whose PTSD was the result of war and terrorism. The formal approval letter from FDA will arrive next week. -- Rick Doblin, Ph.D. October 1, 2001. MAPS submitted to the FDA today the protocol for Dr.

Michael Mithoefer and Dr. Mark Wagner's MAPS-supported pilot study into airlines plan, the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of patients who have experienced criminal victimization and as a result have suffered from chronic, treatment-resistance posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The submission of this protocol to FDA marks a major milestone in essay, the history of MAPS, and business, hopefully in the history of MDMA research. FDA has 30 days to essay for kids, respond to plan, the protocol. We fully expect FDA eventually to approve the study in some form. (Faster download - without individual case reports from Phase 1 study; longer version - with individual case reports from Phase 1 study) July 18, 2001.

As part of its submission to retrosynthesis problems, FDA of a protocol designed to study the airlines use of MDMA in the treatment of PTSD, MAPS' commissioned an pro choice abortion essay extensive review of the scientific literature on MDMA. This literature review was developed under the direction of Matt Baggott with Ilsa Jerome, Ph.D., and is now being made available to airlines business, regulatory agencies, other researchers and the public. The literature review will be updated on a regular basis as new research is published. July 16, 2001. A draft of the MDMA/PTSD protocol that MAPS has been working for 2 years to develop, with Dr. Write Essay! Michael Mithoefer and Mark Wagner, Ph.D., at the Medical University of airlines business South Carolina, has now been posted to the web. The protocol will submitted to FDA shortly after NIDA's scientific meeting on MDMA, held at pro choice abortion, the National Institutes of Health campus in Bethesda, MD, on airlines business plan July 19-20.

If and when it becomes approved in problems, some form, this protocol will be the first FDA-approved study of the therapeutic use of MDMA since MDMA was placed in Schedule 1 in 1985. March 19, 2001. Airlines! The US Sentencing Commission held an open hearing concerning its proposal to increase penalties on MDMA. Testimony about MDMA opposing the increase was presented by Rick Doblin, Ph.D., David Nichols, Ph.D., Charles Grob, M.D., Julie Holland, M.D. and Richard Glen Boire, Esq. Testimony about legal issues by opponents of the depression mood increase was presented by Ed Mallet, Executive Director of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NACDL), Julie Stewart, Executive Director of Families Against Mandatory Minimums (FAMM), and Bill McColl, Legislative Director of The Lindesmith Center/ Drug Policy Foundation (TLC/DPF). The testimony had little effect and the Sentencing Commission recommended substantial increases in penalties.

MDMA is now, dose for dose, punished more heavily than heroin. Judge Diane Murphy, Chair of the airlines plan U.S. Sentencing Commission, explained the rationale behind the Commission's recommendation during a hearing of the Senate Caucus on International Drug Control on March 21, 2001. (See also visual presentation) February 3, 2001. Depression Mood! MAPS convened a protocol design meeting in San Francisco to discuss the details of a protocol evaluating the business use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The meeting included. among others, the principle investigator and therapists of the retrosynthesis South Carolina team (Dr. Michael Mithoefer and Annie Mithoefer, RN), the MAPS team that has for the last year and a half been reviewing the MDMA literature for submission to FDA (Matt Baggott, Ilsa Jerome), the team that has been creating the MDMA bibliography of all scientific papers on MDMA published in plan, peer-reviewed journals (from erowid.org), and scientific consultants including Dr. Charles Grob, Dr.

George Greer, and Dr. Pro Choice Abortion! Dave Nichols. The meeting was quite productive, with the airlines business plan protocol expected to be submitted to FDA in April 2001. February 2, 2001. Rick Doblin outlines MAPS' strategy for the development of the therapeutic use of MDMA into an FDA-approved prescription medicine, at the State of Ecstasy conference in San Francisco, sponsored by the Lindesmith Center- Drug Policy Foundation. Write Essay! Additional transcripts of other speakers have been helpfully archived by airlines business plan an anti-drug group. November 9, 2000. The first patient was treated in the MAPS-supported MDMA/PTSD study being conducted in white paper writer, Madrid, Spain, under the director of Jose Carlos Bouso, Ph.D. candidate.

Jose Carlos and Marcela Ot'alora were the co-therapists. The four hour session went very well and airlines business plan, the patient seemed to have gotten to a deeper, more therapeutic level. Of course, we won't know for some time whether the patient received a dose of 50 mgs or a placebo! What we do know is that study is off to a great start. Read more about this study, including the protocol and informed consent form. November 1, 2000. A Journal of the Amreican Medical Association (JAMA) letter reports on the DanceSafe/MAPS pill testing program (the letter says people paid for their own testing but that was a mistake. MAPS paid for most of the testing of these pills). August 15, 2000. A discussion about Raves, Ecstasy and the spring season, Youth was held at the Shadow Convention 2000 in Los Angeles.

A celebrity panel of MDMA researchers, experts and psychonauts was assembled by the Lindesmith Center/Drug Policy Foundation; video and audio coverage of this unique event can be found at the Shadow Conventions 2000 website. May 5-6, 2000. The California Association of Toxicologists held a conference in North Hollywood, California, the first day of which was devoted to drugs that are commonly found at raves. Read summary and airlines, comments by Earth and Richard G. Boire. March 2000 - New York Lindesmith Center.

Hear in RealAudio MDMA ('Ecstasy') Research: When Science and Politics Collide . Sound quality is excellent except for the first few minutes, so be patient. Speakers: Julie Holland, MD, attending psychiatrist, Bellevue Hospital Psychiatric Emergency Room and faculty, NYU School of Medicine; John P. Morgan, MD, professor of pro choice abortion essay pharmacology, City College of New York; and Rick Doblin, president, MAPS) and Ph.D. candidate, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, assessed scientific and political efforts to airlines plan, conduct MDMA research in the US and depression mood, abroad. See also the transcript of Holland's talk. February 2000 - Spain. A pilot study of MDMA therapy in the treatment of PTSD has been approved and will be the airlines business plan first formal therapy study with MDMA ever conducted. (Read current update. MAPS has pledged $54,000 for this study; we have raised $23,000 and essay, are seeking additional contributions. Autumn 1999 - MAPS Israel MDMA Conference. MAPS organized an international symposium on the medical utility of MDMA.

Talks from this event, held August 31 to September 1, 1999, are posted on this site (talks by George Greer, Juraj and Sonja Styk and Mark Kleiman). Business! See also video clips of some of the talks. July 24, 1999 In a teleconference with the FDA concerning MDMA psychotherapy research to treat anxiety, depression and essay for kids, pain in cancer patients, the FDA indicates a willingness to approve a proof of principle study. MDMA was synthesized in 1912 and patented in Germany by Merck in 1914 but was not the subject of human research at that time. In the 1950s it was briefly researched by the U.S. Business! Government as part of the paper CIA's and the Army's chemical warfare investigations.

It was forgotten until the business plan middle 1970s when it was rediscovered by the psychedelic therapy community and began to be used as an adjunct to retrosynthesis, psychotherapy by psychiatrists and therapists who were familiar with the field of psychedelic psychotherapy. Business! MAPS published a book, The Secret Chief, about the leader of pro choice this therapy community. In the business early 1980s, the writer drug began to be used non-medically, particularly in Texas, under the airlines business plan name Ecstasy. Both the non-medical and therapeutic use of MDMA were made illegal in 1985 despite the Drug Enforcement Administration Administrative Law Judge Francis Young's recommendation that physicians be permitted to continue to administer it to their patients. Pro Choice Abortion! Rick Doblin, Alise Agar and plan, Debby Harlow helped coordinate the pro-MDMA contingent in the DEA lawsuit. For an excellent history of the early use of depression mood MDMA, see Pursuit of Ecstasy by Beck and plan, Rosenbaum. In 1986, with the goal of white paper developing MDMA's therapeutic potential through FDA-approved protocols, Rick Doblin founded MAPS as a non-profit research and educational organization with the mission to act as a psychedelic and medical marijuana pharmaceutical company. MAPS immediately opened a Drug Master File for MDMA with data gathered from the standard preclinical animal toxicity studies required by airlines business plan FDA . Subsequently, five different applications for permission to conduct human research with MDMA were submitted to FDA between 1986 to 1988, to the Neuropharmacologic Drug Products Division directed by Dr. Paul Leber.

All five applications were rejected. Essay About! Three protocols for double-blind controlled trials were from researchers at, respectively, Harvard Medical School, UC San Francisco Medical School, and U. of New Mexico Medical School, and business, were all rejected. Two applications submitted by pro choice individual physicians were for single case studies, one for business, a terminal cancer patient who had been successfully treated for pain with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy prior to the criminalization of MDMA and the other for a unipolar depression patient for whom all available treatments had been attempted without success. Both of these single-patient INDs were also rejected. The FDA based its rationale for rejecting all protocols and retrosynthesis problems, single case studies on the hypothetical risk of functional consequences of potential neurotoxicity from MDMA. MDMA research claimed that the rejection of all efforts to conduct FDA-approved MDMA research was based not on rational risk/benefit assessments but on airlines plan an underlying cultural prejudice against medical research with drugs that were criminalized and on one or more FDA officials' personal opposition to human research with psychedelics. Since FDA Review Divisions are sometimes described as operating like fiefdoms under the control of their Directors, proponents felt profoundly stymied. Proponents claimed that concerns about MDMA neurotoxicity, which numerous studies had failed to essay the spring, link with functional or behavioral consequence and which in any case had not been clearly demonstrated to occur at all at therapeutic does levels, were reminiscent of scientific research in business, the 1960s that claimed to prove that LSD damaged chromosomes.

These reports were effective in write, generating public disapproval of LSD and in hindering research but were later determined to have no clinically significant effect. MAPS continued to fund animal toxicity studies at plan, Stanford (1986-1988) and human safety studies at Stanford and Johns Hopkins (1988-1991). In 1992, FDA reviewed a MAPS-supported protocol submitted by Dr. Charles Grob, then at UC Irvine, for a study of the use of MDMA in the treatment of pain, anxiety and essay about the spring, depression in business plan, cancer patients. FDA's Drug Abuse Advisory Committee recommended that the cancer patient study be postponed and that a Phase 1 dose-response safety study be conducted first. The protocol was redesigned, with FDA giving final approval for the Phase 1 safety study on essay about the spring November 5, 1992. The safety study was completed in 1995. Data from the safety study revealed no unusual risks and indicated that MDMA could be safely administered within a clinical research context.

Dr. Airlines! Grob submitted the essay season first draft of the airlines protocol for the study of the spring cancer patients in 1997. Negotiations with FDA moved very slowly, due to initial FDA decisions to put MDMA psychotherapy research on a slow track to nowhere. However, FDA opposition eventually lessened as MAPS and Dr. Grob persisted in our efforts to obtain permission for airlines, research into problems, the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in cancer patients.

A July 24, 1999 teleconference with the FDA concerning MDMA psychotherapy research to treat anxiety, depression and airlines plan, pain in essay, cancer patients went very well, with the FDA indicating a willingness to approve proof of principle study. Unfortunately, Dr. Plan! Grob's other work-related responsibilities made it difficult for him to find the time to work on the approval process for this research project. On March 18, 2000, Rick Doblin and Michael Mithoefer met at an ayahuasca conference in San Francisco, sponsored by Ralph Metzner, and begin talking about conducting MDMA psychotherapy research in the US. This marks the beginning of their effort to depression mood, study subjects with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. On November 9, 2000, the first subject is airlines, treated in Jose Carlos Bouso's MAPS-sponsored MDMA/PTSD study in Madrid, Spain. On May 13, 2002, the Spain MDMA/PTSD study gets shut down due to political pressure, after six subjects have been enrolled in the study without any persisting adverse effects. Dr. Grob subsequently decided to retrosynthesis, focus on business plan the use of psilocybin, instead of MDMA, in cancer patients, on the accurate theory that psilocybin research would be less controversial than MDMA research. In June 2003, MAPS starts formally working with Dr. Paper! John Halpern, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, on the design of business a study administering MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to end-stage cancer patients.

Late in 2003, Dr. Grob managed to obtain approval for his psilocybin/cancer patient study. Merck's official history of MDMA: Journal article and essay, media report Historical Articles about MDMA 1984-1993 MAPS in the Media Archive: 2000-current. Parkinson's Disease MDMA reduces symptoms of airlines plan Parkinson's. Dr.

David Nichols of Purdue University says The story results from lack of knowledge about what Ecstasy does in the brain, Self Development/General Therapeutic Through the Gateway of the Heart -- a collection of over 50 personal accounts of the essay therapeutic/spiritual/personal growth uses of MDMA, first published in 1985. MDMA in a severely disturbed man with psychosis, administered by his brother MDMA helped after therapy, pills and ECT didn't MDMA: a catalyst for healing my fears and depression MDMA in business plan, a woman with Ovarian Cysts Potentials for retrosynthesis problems, MDMA in neuromuscular therapy Alleviation of emotional and physical pain in an elderly man MDMA as adjunct to therapeutic bodywork. Confessions of airlines a middle-aged Ecstasy eater (son introduces father) A series of letters on MDMA and cancer (daughter introduces father) A Family's Perspective on the Use of best MDMA (parents introduce daughter)

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Unit 2: Design and Making Practice. Amended due to Changes to GCSEs. Short courses are no longer included in performance table headline measures. The assessment criteria which follow do not reflect a linear designing and making process. The project undertaken by the student should be viewed holistically and credit awarded wherever in the project it can be identified that a particular criterion has been met. As in any holistic assessment, a weak performance in one aspect of a student's work may be balanced by a strong performance in another. The principle of airlines business 'best fit' should be applied when using these criteria.

For example, it is not necessary for a student's work to meet all of the bullet points in a particular mark band in order for pro choice abortion essay, a mark in plan that band to be awarded. It should be noted that some marks attributable to the finished outcome can be obtained from criterion other than Making, for example they may be evidenced in the folder or seen as part of the development process. Candidates should undertake a single design and best for kids, make activity which is selected from a range of board-set tasks. The tasks will be reviewed every two years. Candidates should submit a 3-dimensional outcome and a concise design folder and/or appropriate ICT evidence. The design folder should consist of approximately 20 pages of A3 paper or equivalent A4 paper or ICT equivalent. It is expected that candidates should spend approximately 45 hours on this activity. All candidates should provide photographic evidence of the finished outcome and business plan, it is strongly recommended that photographic evidence at various stages of making is submitted. Within the controlled assessment component, levels of control are defined for the following three stages of assessment: Students are required to submit a single design and make project which should be selected from a list of tasks provided by AQA at the start of the academic year. The Spring? These tasks are broadly comparable and students can only submit a project which has been selected from this list.

In certain situations it may be appropriate for centres to airlines plan contextualise a given task in order to best suit their centre specific circumstances. In such a situation the centre should contact the controlled assessment adviser allocated to writer their centre in order to seek guidance. The list of airlines board set tasks will be reviewed every two years and amended/added to as appropriate. Authenticity control – research and preparation may be completed under limited supervision. Best Friend Essay? However, all work, with the exception of business research and preparation, should be completed by students under informal supervision. This means that the centre must ensure that plagiarism does not take place, that sources used by students are clearly recorded and that each students' preparation for the final production of the work is depression mood his/her own. Feedback control – teachers may review students' work and may provide advice at a general level.

Teachers, however, must not provide detailed and specific advice on how the draft may be improved to meet the assessment criteria. The nature of any guidance provided and the details of airlines plan any feedback given must be clearly recorded. Essay? Students may be guided as to the approach they might adopt but the outcome must remain their own. Likewise, feedback may evaluate progress to date and propose suggested broad approaches for improvement but the detailed correction or annotation of work for feedback purposes is not allowed. Time control – each student should produce a design folder (paper or electronic) and a completed outcome. It is expected that the plan total activity should take approximately 45 hours to complete, including preparation but not including additional time for the teaching and best essay, learning of the subject content.

We are keen to encourage succinctness and a focussed approach to this task and for this reason it is expected that the design folder should consist of approximately 20 pages of A3 paper (or the A4 or electronic equivalent). Examinations Officers should contact AQA Candidate Services for advice on any students who may need special consideration and, therefore, may require additional time. Collaboration control – the business plan work of individual students may be informed by working with others, for example when undertaking research, but students must provide an individual response in the task outcome. Resources – students' access to resources is likely to be determined by the availability in centres. Examinations Officers should contact AQA Candidate Services for advice on paper writer any students who may require the use of any special equipment.

Teachers should mark the controlled assessment using the assessment criteria which follow. Business Plan? Further details regarding this process are given in section 6. Auto Essay? Moderation of the controlled assessment work is by inspection of airlines business plan a sample of students' work sent by post or electronically through the e-Portfolio system from the centre to a moderator appointed by auto write essay AQA. Further details are provided in section 7. Summary of Controlled Assessment Criteria. Summary of Controlled Assessment Criteria. The following is a summary of the assessment criteria for the Controlled Assessment together with an indication of airlines business plan how these marks relate to the assessment objectives.

Discrimination shown when selecting and acquiring relevant research that will promote originality in designing Excellent understanding and analysis of the design context Detailed analysis of relevant existing products or systems undertaken related to design intentions Comprehensive analysis of relevant and focussed research undertaken Clear and specific design criteria identified, reflecting the analysis undertaken Target market identified and retrosynthesis problems, the intended consumer/user profiled. Good understanding and airlines business, analysis of the design context Good analysis of relevant products or systems undertaken Good analysis of retrosynthesis relevant research and airlines, context Design criteria which reflects the abortion analysis undertaken Target market for product has been identified. Basic understanding and analysis of the design context Some analysis of related products or systems undertaken Made a superficial analysis of most of the airlines business plan research material and the context Design criteria reflects most of the analysis undertaken Some consideration has been taken of the likely consumer/user. Limited understanding or analysis of design context Minimal analysis of other products or systems undertaken Provided little evidence of research and analysis of context Design criteria is white paper very general and is lacking in any detail Limited understanding of the target market/user evident. Development of business plan Design Proposals.

Imaginative and innovative ideas have been developed, demonstrating creativity, flair and originality. Further developments made to take account of ongoing research A coherent and appropriate design strategy, with clear evidence of a planned approach, adopted throughout The implications of a wide range of issues including social, moral, environmental and sustainability, are taken into consideration and inform the development of the essay about season design proposals Excellent development work through experimentation with a wide variety of techniques and airlines plan, modelling (including CAD where appropriate) in order to produce a final design solution Appropriate materials/ingredients and components selected with full regard to their working properties Fully detailed and essay, justified product/manufacturing specification taking full account of the analysis undertake. Imaginative ideas demonstrating a degree of creativity, which are further developed to take account of ongoing research An appropriate design strategy, with evidence of planning, adopted for most aspects Development of design proposals take into account the main aspects relating to a variety of social, moral, environmental and sustainability issues Good development work achieved through working with a variety of techniques and modelling (including CAD where appropriate) Appropriate materials/ingredients and components selected with regard to their working properties Product/manufacturing specification is complete and reflects key aspects of the analysis undertaken. Design ideas show some degree of creativity and further development An appropriate design strategy, with some evidence of business plan planning, adopted for some aspects Developments of design solutions are influenced to some extent by factors relating to social, moral, environmental and sustainability issues Adequate development work achieved through working with a range of techniques and modelling (including CAD where appropriate) Materials/ingredients and components selected with some regard to their working properties Product/manufacturing specification reflects most aspects of the analysis. Ideas show some variation in approach or concept A limited design strategy, with some evidence of planning, is evident Some consideration taken of social, moral, environmental and white, sustainability issue in development of design solutions Development work is lacking in detail but makes reference to a number of techniques and modelling (including CAD where appropriate) Materials/ingredients and components selected with limited regard to their working properties Limited product/manufacturing specification which reflects most obvious features of analysis. Ideas are lacking in imagination with minimal development or further research Little evidence of a logical approach being adopted, with no indication of planning Development work shows little consideration of social, moral, environmental and sustainability issues Basic development work undertaken using a limited range of techniques Materials/ingredients and airlines business plan, components selected with little regard to their working properties Produced a simple product/manufacturing specification which is general in friend essay for kids nature. Final outcome(s) shows a high level of making/modelling/finishing skills and accuracy Selected and used appropriate tools, materials and/or technologies including, where appropriate, CAM correctly, skilfully and safely Worked independently to airlines business produce a rigorous and demanding outcome Quality controls are evident throughout the project and it is clear how accuracy has been achieved. The outcome has the potential to depression mood be commercially viable and plan, is suitable for the target market. Final outcome shows very good level of making/modelling/finishing skills Selected and used appropriate tools, materials and/or technologies including, where appropriate, CAM correctly and best friend, safely Outcome demonstrates a high level of demand Quality control checks applied in the manufacture of the business plan product The outcome is suitable for the target market and could be commercially viable with further development.

Final outcome shows good level of making/modelling/finishing skills Used appropriate materials, components, equipment and processes correctly and retrosynthesis, safely (including CAM) Parts of plan outcome show high levels of demand Applied quality control checks broadly but superficially The outcome requires further development in retrosynthesis problems order to airlines be suitable for the target market. Final outcome is largely complete and problems, represents a basic level of making/modelling/ finishing skills Used materials, components and equipment correctly and airlines business, safely (including CAM if appropriate) Some aspects of outcome are demanding Some evidence of limited quality control applied throughout the process The outcome has some weaknesses which limit its suitability for friend, the target market. Final outcome is incomplete or represents an undemanding level of airlines business making/modelling/ finishing skills Used materials, components and equipment safely under close supervision Worked with some assistance to paper produce outcome of business limited demand There is limited evidence of any quality control and levels of retrosynthesis accuracy are minimal The outcome has significant weaknesses which limit its suitability for the target market. Detailed testing and evaluation as appropriate throughout the designing and making process taking account of airlines client/user or third party opinion All aspects of the final outcome have been tested against depression mood the design criteria and/or the airlines business product/manufacturing specification Evaluate and justify the auto essay need for airlines, modifications to problems the product and consideration given as to how the airlines plan outcome might need to be modified for commercial production. Appropriate testing and evaluation of depression mood product evident throughout the designing and making process Most aspects of the final outcome have been tested against the design criteria and/or the product/manufacturing specification Evaluate and justify the needs for improvements or modifications to the product. Evidence of some testing and airlines business plan, evaluation leading to the production of the final outcome Some evidence of testing against essay the design criteria and/or the product/manufacturing specification Some improvements or modifications to product suggested. Minimal testing and evaluation throughout the designing and airlines, making process Limited or no testing of final outcome against the design criteria and/or the product/ manufacturing specification Limited mention of some improvements or modifications that could be made to the product. Design folder is focussed, concise and relevant and white paper writer, demonstrates an appropriate selection of material for inclusion All decisions communicated in a clear and coherent manner with appropriate use of airlines technical language The text is friend legible, easily understood and shows a good grasp of grammar, punctuation and spelling. Design folder shows some skill in choice of material for inclusion but includes some irrelevant content Most decisions communicated with some clarity and with some use of technical language There are a small number of errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling. Design folder shows excessive duplication of airlines business information and depression mood, a lack of airlines plan brevity and focus resulting in irrelevant content Ideas and decisions communicated at a simplistic level with a limited grasp of the concepts involved and a limited use of technical vocabulary Numerous errors in friend essay for kids grammar, punctuation and spelling. AQA is not responsible for the content of external sites.

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I’m going to be my own fairy godmother and abortion essay, the first thing I’m going to take care of is. Business Plan! I can still see her standing near the shore, a giant tropical print towel tied under her armpits and her feet buried in the sand. It was the end of summer and. Best For Kids! Thunderstorms really wig me out. Business Plan! Not heebie-jeebies like, I’m talking about the shakes and hyperventilating and everything in between. I used to pass out on a regular basis in the spring season grade school and high school. I swear, we lived in the thunderstorm capital of the business world. You would think my parents would have.

Ever since I was five, I have always liked to surround myself with my favorite things. Retrosynthesis! Back then it was ribbons and patent leather shoes. Today it’s pearls and. I should have known when I saw the first few hints of green that something had gone terribly wrong but it wasn’t until my hairdresser Sondra completely removed the towel that. There are ten secrets about living in Odessa Springs that every newcomer wishes they had known before they had called the movers and airlines, filed for their change of address. Let me go through them for you one at a time. Number ten. Cane’s vehicle began to slip on retrosynthesis the ramp.

I could hear a mad screeching as he jammed his foot onto the brake. When the spin started, all I could think. Airlines Plan! The gash in his leg slowed him some but Jonathon carried her from Myers Bridge all the way to Tuckers Corner with little. I met Court down by Rayborn’s swimming hole. He splashed me on purpose and retrosynthesis, I got mad at him on purpose. He laughed, and I flipped my wet hair and swam away. I didn’t think he would. He was standing in the center of the dimly lit back room. In the airlines business distance, he could hear a train beating the rails.

On the other side of an retrosynthesis abused oak desk sat Mr. Simms, sucking back his cigar. When it came down to it, all Jake could ask was “Why. The news anchor's voice continued to airlines, crack, A lethal virus has been released in Las Vegas. Depression Mood! At the business plan moment we know of four stages.

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Seeing Marcus laid out with a meter-wide red polka dot under him wasn't beautiful. It was downright hysterical. Not hysterical as in funny, hysterical as in write I can't control my reaction. I remember looking at airlines, Denise who stared back at me dumbfounded and. I always wanted to be a creator. I didn't know what I wanted to create. Write! I just wanted to create. Airlines Plan! So when I saw the little blue plus sign, I knew I had found my.

Derek and I were like two weather fronts that collided in the night. On that first night the resulting storm was full of pro choice essay, heat and electricity. Airlines! It continued for auto the first ten years of our marriage until something out of business, our control happened. He died. He left me alone. Essay! Had I known what alone really felt like, I probably would have never invited him in that first night. I would have avoided the rapture. I would have.

I'm a winner. He was definitely a loser. I should have felt guilty but I didn't. Even if people had known the plan truth behind how I won, I don't think I would have cared. The important thing was they didn't and I was the one going to New York on an all expense paid trip. Sure it was a business trip, but.

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We were less than a year apart in age so it was almost like we were twins. We even went out of our way to look like twins, dressing and wearing our hair the same. It wasn't until mom and dad decided to airlines business, call it quits that a shift in our family dynamics somehow changed what I thought was an inseparable connection. You wouldn't think something as small as. I've often wondered what it would be like to write, be on the inside looking out instead of always on business the outside looking in. Are those people even aware of for kids, how great their lives are? Do they relish in business the fact that everything in pro choice life comes easy for them? Or are they totally oblivious? These were actual thoughts that ran through my head as I watched Susanna Merrytown walk over, sidestep me, and introduce herself to my date. Okay, my escort.

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When we signed up, volunteered really, we never expected it to be more than a six month term. Three years later, we are still battling over who. Sandra Arbuckle took a controlled breath before she tentatively lowered her hand into the murky. The day we decided to clone an extinct animal was the day life as we knew it was changed forever. Even with all that genetic information we had at our fingertips, nothing prepared us for. He wasn't abusive when we fell in love.

I guess we all change in relationships, don't we? I never would've thought that ten years later I'd be arrested for murder, but here I was being fingerprinted and questioned under harsh lights. The truth is. It was raining cats and dogs. Seriously, the wallpaper in Emily's room was raining cats and dogs. But I didn't hold it against her.

She was my best friend and I could always. Plan! For my mother, sweat stains on about the spring season silk was a catastrophe. For me, the earth would have to crack open and a giant. It all started with a rash on my. Sylvie! Sylvie! Damn it, where are you child? I peeked through the planks of the porch stairs at Aunt Hinie's uneven stockings.

Her worn shoes disappeared from view and I heard the porch door squeak and slam. I'd get the airlines strap later but I just wasn't ready to. There are three important rules you should live by if you want to survive in this world. White Paper! First, always look over your shoulder. Second, never trust anyone. And third. It was 1986.

The Fly was in the theater and The Phantom of the Opera was a musical, I hadn't seen either of them. My mom dressed me in airlines the most hideous pink frock with puffy sleeves and. Depression Mood! Write from the soul, not from some notion what you think the marketplace wants. The market is fickle; the soul is eternal. Jeffrey A. Carver. I wasn't scared. I mean, sure, I jumped, but that was just a habitual response. I wasn't scared. In fact, I've never been scared a day in my life. You wouldn't think.

He could feel its prickly tendrils poking through the business plan thin cotton of his denim pockets. He wanted to remove it but was afraid. The sweet scent of essay, gardenias mingled with beer made me want to retch. I fought the urge as they looked in my direction. Were they looking at airlines plan, me? Or was it my wild imagination taking over again? One of the men nodded in my direction. Yep, they were looking at me. Of course it could be something as harmless as. June was never particularly exciting in our neighborhood. Not until the summer Rachel and Owen moved in friend essay next store.

It was. She kept picking at it. Business! First her index finger to gain entry. Abortion! Followed by all of them. Digging deeper and deeper, despite the increasing pain. Airlines Plan! Logically, she knew she should stop, but it kept. I wasn't sure why I decided to friend, visit Charlie when I did. But looking back it seemed kismet that I should show up when I did. He really. The hand-sized moth wings flutter around his face.

Tenderly at first, then. Stop yanking on my arm! screeched Alice. She pulled her tender arm across her chest and. He whispered in Dan's ear, You are in for a real surprise when. Her eyes followed the line of shiny tools arranged strategically from left to right on the wooden table in front of her. The tips of her fingers wandered over the handles, as if trying to decide which one. Dusk was long gone and the cafe was quiet except for airlines plan a middle-aged man sitting near the door who. Gossip can either make or break a woman's career. Unfortunately, there is a fine line between good gossip and bad gossip. The trick is being able to manipulate both in your favor.

I had become a master gossip manipulator by the time I was 23 but by the time I was 27, things had gone haywire. It all started when I picked up. I was waiting at the bus stop, sucking back an Iced Capp, the first time I saw Mr. Tall Dark and Handsome among the other construction workers. This is pretty much what I do every day on the way to about the spring season, work. Airlines Business! The only difference today was that one of the guys fell from the about season scaffolding. Airlines Plan! He fell like a rag doll except his body didn't make a rag doll noise when it hit the pavement. Mr. Retrosynthesis! Tall Dark and Handsome was the airlines first to reach the body.

For some reason he looked across the essay street at me and mouthed. Sex is not the business only thing that happens in essay airplane bathrooms. Of course there are the business obvious other bodily functions, but I am talking about the depression mood other things no one talks about. The primping, the airlines plan flushing of best essay, contraband, and for me, pre-flight panic attacks. Every time I board a plane I stuff my bag in the overhead compartment above my seat then make a beeline for plan the bathroom, where I hyperventilate until someone bangs on the door or I pass out. Ok, I only passed out once, but it is always a possibility. On the flight back from Phoenix I was especially.

In all my twenty-five years I had never been so confused as I was at auto write, that moment. Not quite the plan reaction a man hopes to see in a woman's face when he professes his love but what is a girl to think when the guy she grew up with and thought she knew suddenly talks about love when he should be. I hate clowns. But mostly I hate people who make me explain why I hate clowns and the look on pro choice abortion essay their faces when I. Plan! I used to be a friendly child. I would think nothing of retrosynthesis, stopping to airlines, chat with neighbors on the way home from school or from the store. It is depression mood, amazing how one incident with one person can change your perspective. Business! When the nameless old man from down the street reached over his fence and grabbed my wrist like a snake snatching its prey, I remember feeling sick to my stomach and writer, the intense satisfaction in his eyes as he. There is business plan, nothing more uncomfortable than when you are driving down a deserted stretch of highway with a full bladder. Guys have it easy. They can pull over anywhere, discreetly pull it out, and go.

Women, women have to make a production of untying, zipping, pulling, and who knows what else. Not to mention we have to worry about some freak jumping out of the bushes. Retrosynthesis Problems! But I couldn't hold it anymore. In hindsight, I should have just peed my pants and kept going but how could I know. Maxie's deft fingers pulled at business, the hair wire sewn into the tweed jacket. Depression Mood! Now that she had the information she needed it had to be removed before.

The worst part of an unhealthy relationship is not the business years of stagnation, it is depression mood, following through with your decision to end it. And in a long term relationship, it is not only the airlines business couple who are affected. Pro Choice Abortion! The shared friends, the extended family, they all end up bruised. The day I ended it with Mike, I. One of my favorite authors is Stephen King. The funny thing about this is that the first book I ever read of his was On Writing , a blend of autobiography and writing advice. This book turned me on to The Stand , a very large book I managed to read in business plan four days (normally, I am a very slow reader).

From then on, I have been hooked. If you are not a fan of the horror genre, I still recommend not skipping his writing book. My imagination makes me human and about the spring season, makes me a fool; it gives me all the world and exiles me from it. Ursula K. Le Guin. PLEASE NOTE: You are free to business, use these writing prompts within your creative writing, but please do not post them on your website or elsewhere— provide a link to this page instead. Many thanks.

Writing Prompts to Help You Write Short Stories. by friend, Anna Haven 63. 10 Persuasive Writing Prompts for 3rd Graders. by business plan, Brian Rock 3. 36 Blog Writing Prompts for pro choice abortion any Niche. by Christin Sander 6. Airlines Business Plan! Oh What A Twist: 29 Writing Prompts. by Trina Lynne 6. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Summary of an Article. by Virginia Kearney 18. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by depression mood, Virginia Kearney 129. What do you think? What works for you? I love to read and write. I do it all the time but the airlines business I just started is making a chapter book.

Is it okay if we use the prompt in our creative writing story and post it on a website such as wattpad but, leave a link to this website giving credit for the idea? Oh and best for kids, awsome prompts going to do so much writing. Airlines Business! Wow this site literraly saved my life for the finals (exams tmrw) cant wait too write my short story now. I went to the book store to find dozens of these books with story starters, but all of them had price tags of $25 and essay, up, for business 20 stories. Finding some for free was great! THESE IDEAS ARE THE BEST!

I love to write so this was really useful. I did the first one and essay, this is what I came up with though I changed it up a bit: Jim stuck his hand in the box and immediately pulled it out. Ow! he cried. He licked the side of his index finger as if it had honey on it. Miranda looks up from her book concerned. “ What happened Jim?” she asks walking over next to Jim. “ Something in that box bit me.” complains Jim still rubbing the business plan side of his index finger. “ Bit you?” says Miranda quite shocked. Jim looks at his index finger that was now red. “ Yes, bit me.” mummers Jim lost in thought. The story that takes place in paper writer Norwood, Virginia sounds like a story, I had started writing years ago. I never published it though. Like the prompt is really similar. ChocoholicAlert 13 months ago. Love these prompts.

Will use if there is nada in airlines business the brain. Any good protagonist names? Preferably teen names? Artemis Winters 13 months ago. Write Essay! Some pretty awesome prompts right there! Sometimes I find it useful if you read your favourite book/watch your favourite movie to get inspo. SOOO MANY IDEAS. Awesome prompts! Can you reccommend any cool names for teenaged protagonists?

I am NEVER good with names. Airlines Business! White Fang 13 months ago. Some really good prompts. I always fallback onto a few failsafes to start a story: beginning of school year/term/holidays, camping (recreational or educational), a cruise or a family holiday. And what are some cool girl's names? I ALWAYS use either Alicia or Artemis. Walt Hussain Obama 14 months ago. Auto Write Essay! When I opened my eyes, I found myself sitting on a stool in an empty bar. Airlines! There was a drink in front of me that I didn’t remember ordering.

I shielded away from the lights above me, wincing as my eyes refused to adjust. Pain rippled across my chest. I couldn’t breathe A man sat down next to me, the smell of smoke clinging to his leather jacket. White Paper! He rapped the wooden table. “A scotch on the rocks, one third ice.” I glanced over at airlines business, him, meeting his steady gaze. He smiled at me. “Name’s Thanatos.” I could feel the temperature in auto essay the room dropping, one degree at a time. Shivering, I told him my name. My breath clouded in airlines plan the air.

I fought to depression mood, keep my eyes open, and pain again worked its way through my chest. I closed my eyes, trying to airlines business plan, ignore the voices calling I opened my eyes. Best Friend Essay! A thin bartender brought his drink over, eyes hollow and cheeks gaunt. I wanted to talk to him, but something about his posture warned me against it. Plan! He ever so quickly glanced at depression mood, me before hurrying away. “Are you ready?” asked Thanatos, swirling his drink with his left hand.

The ice cubes hugged the outer edge of the cup, clinking together noisily. He leaned back against the counter, and again he met my gaze. “Yes, or no?” I swallowed, frozen in my seat. “I don’t understand. What are we ” My breath caught in my throat. I couldn’t breathe Thanatos gently touched my shoulder, and the weight on business my chest disappeared. My breath came back, and I felt the abortion pain dissolve away. Plan! For a brief moment, a smile flickered across his face. He looked much older than I originally had thought, the stubble on his chin more grey than black. “My dear girl,” he began, pausing to sip at his drink. “Are you ready to die?” I understood my situation then. The pain, the inability to breath, the voices calling to me. “I’m dead,” I whispered, putting a hand to my stomach. “Someone shot me.” “Yes,” he agreed. “It is quite unfortunate.

You have my condolences, and white paper, all that.” “Then who are you?” My voice shook. He let out a breath, not quite a sigh, and stared at airlines business, his amber-colored scotch. “From the beautifully infinite set of days I have existed in this universe, I have learned one thing, and auto write essay, one thing only; we fear endings.” I folded my arms, resting them on business plan the scratched bar counter, and waited for him to continue. “I’m no more powerful than you. Who am I to play God? I am no creator. Depression Mood! I am merely a side effect.” “Of life, my dear. I am a side effect of awareness, of the universe wanting an audience, of human nature.” He said this with his eyes resolutely fixed on the lights above us. “If the tale of airlines business plan, humanity is an epic poem filled with glowing hope, then the universe is an untold tragedy which has no end.” “You never answered my question,” I said. “Who are you?” He crookedly smiled, and I doubted he would give me a straight answer. “I have been given many names, though I doubt I have a true name. I do not believe I was born, or even created. I simply am.” He leaned in closer to me, setting the write drink down. “My name is business, Death.” I could feel him gauging my reaction. Depression Mood! “I hate to say it, but I was expecting a little more cloak and dagger and a little less alcohol.

Though I’m not objecting. This is airlines, a nice change.” I took a sip of my drink and raised an depression mood eyebrow at airlines, him. Pro Choice Abortion Essay! He threw back his head and airlines business, laughed, shoulders shaking. “I like you,” said Death, fighting to keep his face straight. He stood, downing the rest of his drink. “Truly, I do. But don’t let me keep you. Places to go, people to see, right?” I didn’t know how to respond. White Writer! “Until the next time, darling,” he said, giving me a wink. Death raised his arms.

The lights flickered, rattling in their fixtures. Business! On the wall behind him, I saw the shadow of dark wings unfurling. Abortion Essay! He reached forwards, his leather jacket becoming a cloak of darkness, draping over his shoulders, and touched his hand to my forehead. Ice ran through my veins as I felt the bullet wound on my abdomen reappear, blood dripping down my chest. Then I was gone. Credits to Witt.Stanton.

You have no idea how much this saved me. Business Plan! :) I was so happy when I found this site, I even combined some. White Writer! Thanks for these! I might use one if I get stuck. Kurt Frazier Sr 2 years ago from airlines plan Mobile Al. Thanks for writer all of the resources. I will take your challenge of using all of these prompts for a writing project on airlines business plan my blog. The category will list the name of your article here as well as a link in the post to it also. Moe Wood 2 years ago from Eastern Ontario. I am glad you are finding them inspiring. Not that I am aware of.

These are so inspiring! I am taking just five minutes each morning to continue one of friend, these (chosen at random the night before, so I've had time to sleep on it) and usually don't want to stop - I sneak back later in the day and business, add a little more or flesh out background details. I would love to be able to see how other people have chosen to continue the depression mood same prompts I have used - is business, it possible to find anything of this nature? Thank you so much. I used the last one and got a 98% You saved my life. White Paper! Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @stephie-braley: But of course! stephie-braley 3 years ago. Business Plan! Can I combine writing prompts? Hello and white paper writer, thanks. lots of prompts. thanks for sharing.

I am hoping I can use some of these prompts in my writing on my Blog. Airlines Business! Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @meherzaidi: Thank you! Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @brittabucketlist: Thanks for stopping by. Happy writing! brittabucketlist 3 years ago. Great Lens!

Thank you for sharing :) Very helpful post.In great detail. Moe Wood 3 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @Eszabella: Hi Eszabella, yes you may post the writing you create using my prompts. Thanks you for asking and for linking. Have a great challenge! Hi!

I was wondering if I could use these prompts to challenge myself with writing. I would like to post whatever I happen to come up with every day, using one prompt per friend essay, day, on Wattpad.com. However, I wanted to ask your permission first. I would credit you and this website. So, may I use these prompts on wattpad?

Thanks so much. This is superb! Really provocative! More than enough here to airlines, stimulate even the most blocked writer. Essay! Thanks, BigGirlBlue. Airlines Business! I enjoyed pausing over friend for kids a number of these, considering where they might take me. Business! Marilyn McKay 3 years ago from essay North East, Victoria, Australia.

I like this lens, your prompts are sparking thought, this I thank you for. Treasures By Brenda 3 years ago from Canada. Wow, this is quite a list of story prompts! Great lens. Thank you. Host of great ideas! Thanks! Samuel Wright 3 years ago from Bakersfield, Ca. Thanks for airlines business this. something to whet the depression mood pump. Nice to have things like this when you have moments of writers block. TheCozyDinosaur 3 years ago.

This is really impressive. I wish I had your creative juices! MoreThanAMama 4 years ago. Great prompts! I'm bookmarking this page for future reference. Great tips and plan, I love the quote from Jeffery A Carver. Thanks! Writing prompts are basically pump primers, it seems. I know of an essay author, Harlan Ellison, who would sit in airlines plan the window of a book store and crank out stories using this method. steadytracker lm 4 years ago. A great short story can be born from just about any experience.

Thanks for sharing such a wonderful lens with us. Pro Choice! Thanks, I'm sure these will help some other folks in myself in my creative writing class. I'll pass on the URL. thank you for business this. @PromptWriter: Thanks so much. You really helped me. I had an extreme case of writers block, but thanks to you it's gone. You have created an awesome lens. I can see you have put in a lot of work. Thanks for it. I found it very helpful as I am new to writing amp; you have come with some excellent ideas that I guess can help me get more creative. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: Yes you can use these in your stories. BUT after you let the story rest a bit I suggest going back and changing the prompt text to your own -- rewrite a new start if you use it for the opening line as you don't want to pro choice essay, submit a story somewhere and have someone else with the airlines same beginning.

These are just prompts to get you going and what you write after that is all you. Can we use these in best friend essay for kids our stories? At least the business plan ideas? Wow these are some incredible writing prompts. Thank you so much for being an inspiration for aspiring writers and providing a template of sorts on where to start. Your lens where writing is concerned are truly a joy to read. Doc_Holliday 4 years ago. Thanks for a great list. I have a number of ideas from depression mood these already, after a quick read.

Good exercises to business plan, use in a writing group, or if you are really stuck for ideas. Wow ! That's truly helping me now. Best Essay! Great suggestions - I love seeing where a prompt takes me! Hi! Great Reads and plan, writing prompts. Thanks. Great lens and great prompt suggestions!

Hehe, most of my short stories stay in my head but now you've made me think about retrosynthesis problems writing those actually down. Anyway, thanks for the great inspiration. ;) @Lensmaster. Business! Holy cow! A place to write prompts for stories and pro choice essay, novels!! Now I know what to airlines plan, do with those four bank boxes of ideas I've saved over time! Thanks for this Lens! I have never had trouble with creative writing (yet), and never knew that there was such a thing as prompt or books teaching how to essay about the spring, write prompts.

Incredible! Thank you for plan your lens, the prompts here are very interesting. Crumbs, that's a lot of prompts. I'll start from the top. Essay About The Spring Season! :-) Mary Norton 4 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Airlines! Prompts do help and thank you for friend essay your suggestions. These are truly great. After reading The Write Prompt I was browsing your other lenses and found this excellent article. Great work. In short story writing, conceiving good plot may not be as difficult as penning first line/para and business plan, your article is good way to master the start. Thank you. Awesome lens, thanks!

Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. Paper! @Dandelia23: Happy writing! :D. Great writing prompts to use as little writing challenges or to just unlock my mind. Business! Bookmarked. What a great lens idea. It's really helping me get past my writer's block. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: YOU'RE WELCOME! Happy writing! I've been discouraged about best friend essay not having enough story idea, but now thanks to plan, this set of write, prompts, my mind is swimming with ideas. Airlines Business! THANK YOU SO MUCH. Moe Wood 4 years ago from Eastern Ontario. @anonymous: Yes, that would be interesting. Occasionally someone will post some of their results on my blog and it is always interesting to white paper, see what they came up with.

What an interesting concept. It would be fun to see a page of airlines business, people's different stories using your prompts, or do you have one? I enjoyed the comments by Steven King regarding short stories. My writing preference is either to write journal entries that can sometimes lead to a story, or to essay the spring season, create short stories or novellas. I've only written one novel length book and that was through NaNo in 2007. Thank you for sharing the video. A fantastic set of prompts! I need to return here whenever I can't find the business inspiration to write. Thank you! So many great prompts collectively making a great resource for retrosynthesis writing exercise.

I might just finish a story soon and send you.. Double likes! Renaissance Woman 5 years ago from Colorado. These prompts are incredibly stimulating. My mind is airlines plan, racing. Thanks for stirring my creative juices this morning. Friend! Appreciated! Thank you for plan the inspiration! :) This is excellent information.

Thank you for a helpful lens. You are a master. Kim 5 years ago from Yonkers, NY. added to my Creative writing 101 lens. wow, interesting lens. haven't heard of it or haven't tried one. definitely gonna go back here for reference, might need some of pro choice, it during those writer's bloc days. liked the quotes too. Love, love, love this lens - well done, you. I have bookmarked it so that I can refer to it often for writing prompts. I will happily add this lens as a related lens to my Fish Flash Fiction lens (I was over the moon to be long-listed for this year's competition). Airlines Business Plan! This is such an inspiring lens that I don't want to do my uni study now, I just want to write, but . Spiderlily321 5 years ago. Essay About Season! Love this great lens.

You have come up with some really good writing prompts and ideas. Thank you for sharing! Interesting lens. Liked. Another great lens! Good Information . you must be Canadian. LOL . Airlines Plan! I am now using Squidoo to publish my short story The Diary of Moses Jenkins. Not my best work but does have a surprise ending. I was selling it for a whopping 99 cents but after I finally had enough to buy a cup of coffee, decided to abortion, let it go free . duh . This method of writing seems very interesting and business plan, creative. A great lens for all ages!

This seems like a very interesting method of writing that I haven't tried yet. Seems to be the write essay perfect thing for short stories, but I wonder if anyone has ever tried to develop a novel out of plan, one of your prompts. corinnemwestphal 6 years ago. Some of these have come in pro choice very handy on those days when I just can't get my creative juices flowing on their own. Thanks very, very much! Nice lens! You gave me a great idea for my story and saved me from failing English so thanks! Here's the link if you want to read it: https://hubpages.com/literature/my-short-novel. This is a great selection of writing prompts. My fingers are itching to airlines, start typing. Ann 6 years ago from Yorkshire, England. great lens, angel blessed and it will feature on my summer reading lens when it is updated soon. Excellent resource!

Thanks for retrosynthesis problems putting this one together. I will have to bookmark it for airlines business later. David Stone 6 years ago from New York City. Another high quality lens. Very nice and original. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of paper, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of airlines business plan, HubPages, Inc. Depression Mood! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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file help writing In most cases, the methods defined here will delegate to the associated file system provider to perform the file operations. Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object. The options parameter determines how the file is opened. If no options are present then it is airlines business, equivalent to opening the file with the pro choice abortion, READ option.

In addition to the READ option, an implementation may also support additional implementation specific options. This method opens or creates a file in exactly the manner specified by the newByteChannel method with the exception that the READ option may not be present in the array of options. Airlines Plan. If no options are present then this method works as if the CREATE , TRUNCATE_EXISTING , and WRITE options are present. In other words, it opens the file for writing, creating the file if it doesn't exist, or initially truncating an existing regular-file to a size of season 0 if it exists. The options parameter determines how the file is opened. The READ and WRITE options determine if the file should be opened for reading and/or writing. If neither option (or the APPEND option) is present then the file is opened for reading. By default reading or writing commence at the beginning of the file. In the addition to READ and WRITE , the airlines business, following options may be present: An implementation may also support additional implementation specific options. The attrs parameter is essay, optional file-attributes to set atomically when a new file is created.

In the case of the default provider, the returned seekable byte channel is a FileChannel . This method opens or creates a file in airlines business exactly the manner specified by auto write, the newByteChannel method. When not using the try-with-resources construct, then directory stream's close method should be invoked after iteration is completed so as to free any resources held for the open directory. When an implementation supports operations on entries in the directory that execute in a race-free manner then the returned directory stream is business plan, a SecureDirectoryStream . For example, suppose we want to iterate over the files ending with .java in a directory: The globbing pattern is specified by white, the getPathMatcher method. When not using the try-with-resources construct, then directory stream's close method should be invoked after iteration is completed so as to free any resources held for the open directory. When an implementation supports operations on entries in airlines the directory that execute in about a race-free manner then the returned directory stream is a SecureDirectoryStream . When not using the airlines business, try-with-resources construct, then directory stream's close method should be invoked after iteration is completed so as to free any resources held for the open directory. Where the filter terminates due to an uncaught error or runtime exception then it is propagated to the hasNext or next method. Where an IOException is thrown, it results in the hasNext or next method throwing a DirectoryIteratorException with the IOException as the auto write, cause. When an implementation supports operations on entries in plan the directory that execute in a race-free manner then the paper, returned directory stream is a SecureDirectoryStream . Usage Example: Suppose we want to iterate over the files in a directory that are larger than 8K. The attrs parameter is optional file-attributes to airlines set atomically when creating the file. Each attribute is identified by its name . Problems. If more than one attribute of the same name is included in the array then all but the last occurrence is ignored.

The attrs parameter is business, optional file-attributes to set atomically when creating the write, directory. Each attribute is identified by its name . If more than one attribute of the plan, same name is included in the array then all but the last occurrence is ignored. The attrs parameter is optional file-attributes to depression mood set atomically when creating the nonexistent directories. Each file attribute is identified by its name . Airlines Business Plan. If more than one attribute of the depression mood, same name is included in the array then all but the last occurrence is ignored. If this method fails, then it may do so after creating some, but not all, of the parent directories. The details as to how the name of the file is constructed is implementation dependent and therefore not specified. Where possible the prefix and suffix are used to construct candidate names in plan the same manner as the File.createTempFile(String,String,File) method. As with the File.createTempFile methods, this method is only part of a temporary-file facility. Where used as a work files , the resulting file may be opened using the DELETE_ON_CLOSE option so that the essay about season, file is deleted when the appropriate close method is invoked. Plan. Alternatively, a shutdown-hook , or the File.deleteOnExit() mechanism may be used to essay delete the airlines business, file automatically.

The attrs parameter is optional file-attributes to set atomically when creating the file. Auto. Each attribute is identified by its name . If more than one attribute of the same name is airlines plan, included in the array then all but the last occurrence is ignored. When no file attributes are specified, then the resulting file may have more restrictive access permissions to files created by the File.createTempFile(String,String,File) method. This method works in exactly the friend for kids, manner specified by the createTempFile(Path,String,String,FileAttribute[]) method for airlines plan, the case that the dir parameter is the temporary-file directory. The details as to how the name of the writer, directory is constructed is implementation dependent and therefore not specified. Where possible the business plan, prefix is used to construct candidate names. As with the createTempFile methods, this method is retrosynthesis problems, only part of a temporary-file facility. Airlines. A shutdown-hook , or the File.deleteOnExit() mechanism may be used to delete the directory automatically. The attrs parameter is optional file-attributes to set atomically when creating the directory.

Each attribute is best friend, identified by its name . Airlines Business. If more than one attribute of the same name is included in the array then all but the depression mood, last occurrence is ignored. This method works in airlines business exactly the manner specified by createTempDirectory(Path,String,FileAttribute[]) method for the case that the dir parameter is the temporary-file directory. The target parameter is the target of the link. It may be an depression mood absolute or relative path and may not exist. Airlines. When the pro choice, target is a relative path then file system operations on the resulting link are relative to the path of the link. The attrs parameter is airlines, optional attributes to set atomically when creating the pro choice, link. Each attribute is identified by its name . If more than one attribute of the same name is included in business the array then all but the last occurrence is pro choice, ignored.

Where symbolic links are supported, but the underlying FileStore does not support symbolic links, then this may fail with an IOException . Additionally, some operating systems may require that the Java virtual machine be started with implementation specific privileges to create symbolic links, in which case this method may throw IOException . The link parameter locates the directory entry to airlines create. The existing parameter is the path to an existing file. Auto Write Essay. This method creates a new directory entry for business plan, the file so that it can be accessed using link as the path. On some file systems this is known as creating a hard link. Whether the file attributes are maintained for the file or for each directory entry is file system specific and therefore not specified. Typically, a file system requires that all links (directory entries) for depression mood, a file be on the same file system. Furthermore, on some platforms, the airlines, Java virtual machine may require to be started with implementation specific privileges to create hard links or to create links to directories. An implementation may require to examine the essay season, file to airlines business determine if the file is a directory.

Consequently this method may not be atomic with respect to other file system operations. If the file is a symbolic link then the symbolic link itself, not the final target of the link, is best, deleted. If the business plan, file is a directory then the directory must be empty. In some implementations a directory has entries for special files or links that are created when the directory is paper, created. Business. In such implementations a directory is considered empty when only the special entries exist.

This method can be used with the walkFileTree method to delete a directory and all entries in the directory, or an entire file-tree where required. On some operating systems it may not be possible to remove a file when it is open and in pro choice use by this Java virtual machine or other programs. As with the delete(Path) method, an implementation may need to business plan examine the file to determine if the file is paper, a directory. Consequently this method may not be atomic with respect to other file system operations. If the file is a symbolic link, then the plan, symbolic link itself, not the final target of the link, is deleted. If the file is a directory then the directory must be empty. Friend. In some implementations a directory has entries for special files or links that are created when the directory is created. In such implementations a directory is considered empty when only the airlines business plan, special entries exist. On some operating systems it may not be possible to remove a file when it is open and in use by this Java virtual machine or other programs. This method copies a file to the target file with the options parameter specifying how the copy is performed. By default, the copy fails if the target file already exists or is a symbolic link, except if the source and auto write target are the same file, in which case the method completes without copying the business, file.

File attributes are not required to be copied to the target file. Retrosynthesis Problems. If symbolic links are supported, and the file is a symbolic link, then the airlines business plan, final target of the link is copied. If the file is a directory then it creates an empty directory in the target location (entries in the directory are not copied). This method can be used with the walkFileTree method to copy a directory and all entries in the directory, or an entire file-tree where required. The options parameter may include any of the following: An implementation of this interface may support additional implementation specific options. Copying a file is not an atomic operation. If an IOException is about the spring, thrown then it possible that the target file is incomplete or some of its file attributes have not been copied from the source file. When the REPLACE_EXISTING option is specified and the target file exists, then the target file is replaced. The check for the existence of the file and the creation of the new file may not be atomic with respect to other file system activities. Usage Example: Suppose we want to copy a file into a directory, giving it the same file name as the source file:

By default, this method attempts to move the file to the target file, failing if the target file exists except if the source and target are the same file, in which case this method has no effect. If the file is a symbolic link then the symbolic link itself, not the target of the link, is moved. Airlines Business. This method may be invoked to move an best essay for kids empty directory. In some implementations a directory has entries for special files or links that are created when the directory is created. In such implementations a directory is considered empty when only the special entries exist. When invoked to move a directory that is not empty then the directory is moved if it does not require moving the airlines business, entries in the directory. For example, renaming a directory on the same FileStore will usually not require moving the entries in the directory. When moving a directory requires that its entries be moved then this method fails (by throwing an IOException ). Depression Mood. To move a file tree may involve copying rather than moving directories and airlines business this can be done using the copy method in conjunction with the Files.walkFileTree utility method. The options parameter may include any of the following: An implementation of pro choice essay this interface may support additional implementation specific options. Where the move requires that the file be copied then the last-modified-time is copied to the new file.

An implementation may also attempt to copy other file attributes but is not required to fail if the file attributes cannot be copied. When the move is airlines business plan, performed as a non-atomic operation, and a IOException is thrown, then the state of the files is not defined. The original file and the target file may both exist, the depression mood, target file may be incomplete or some of its file attributes may not been copied from the original file. Usage Examples: Suppose we want to airlines plan rename a file to newname, keeping the file in the same directory: Alternatively, suppose we want to move a file to new directory, keeping the essay, same file name, and replacing any existing file of that name in the directory: If the file system supports symbolic links then this method is used to read the target of the plan, link, failing if the file is depression mood, not a symbolic link. The target of the link need not exist.

The returned Path object will be associated with the same file system as link . Once a reference to airlines plan the FileStore is obtained it is retrosynthesis, implementation specific if operations on the returned FileStore , or FileStoreAttributeView objects obtained from it, continue to depend on the existence of the file. In particular the behavior is not defined for the case that the file is deleted or moved to a different file store. If both Path objects are equal then this method returns true without checking if the airlines plan, file exists. If the two Path objects are associated with different providers then this method returns false . Otherwise, this method checks if both Path objects locate the same file, and paper depending on the implementation, may require to open or access both files. If the file system and files remain static, then this method implements an equivalence relation for non-null Paths . It is reflexive : for Path f , isSameFile(f,f) should return true . It is symmetric : for airlines business, two Paths f and g , isSameFile(f,g) will equal isSameFile(g,f) . It is transitive : for three Paths f , g , and h , if isSameFile(f,g) returns true and isSameFile(g,h) returns true , then isSameFile(g,h) will return return true . Depending on best essay for kids the implementation this method may require to access the file system to determine if the file is considered hidden. This method uses the installed FileTypeDetector implementations to probe the business plan, given file to problems determine its content type. Each file type detector's probeContentType is invoked, in turn, to probe the file type. Airlines Business. If the file is recognized then the content type is retrosynthesis problems, returned. If the file is plan, not recognized by retrosynthesis problems, any of the installed file type detectors then a system-default file type detector is invoked to guess the content type. A given invocation of the Java virtual machine maintains a system-wide list of business plan file type detectors.

Installed file type detectors are loaded using the service-provider loading facility defined by the ServiceLoader class. Installed file type detectors are loaded using the system class loader. If the system class loader cannot be found then the essay for kids, extension class loader is airlines plan, used; If the extension class loader cannot be found then the bootstrap class loader is used. File type detectors are typically installed by placing them in a JAR file on essay season the application class path or in the extension directory, the JAR file contains a provider-configuration file named java.nio.file.spi.FileTypeDetector in the resource directory META-INF/services , and business plan the file lists one or more fully-qualified names of retrosynthesis concrete subclass of FileTypeDetector that have a zero argument constructor. If the business, process of locating or instantiating the installed file type detectors fails then an unspecified error is thrown. The ordering that installed providers are located is implementation specific. The return value of this method is the string form of the value of a Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) content type as defined by RFC 2045: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies . The string is guaranteed to essay be parsable according to the grammar in the RFC. A file attribute view provides a read-only or updatable view of a set of file attributes. This method is intended to be used where the file attribute view defines type-safe methods to plan read or update the file attributes.

The type parameter is the type of the attribute view required and the method returns an write instance of that type if supported. The BasicFileAttributeView type supports access to the basic attributes of a file. Invoking this method to select a file attribute view of that type will always return an instance of that class. The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled by the resulting file attribute view for the case that the file is a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. This option is business, ignored by implementations that do not support symbolic links.

Usage Example: Suppose we want read or set a file's ACL, if supported: The type parameter is the type of the attributes required and this method returns an instance of that type if supported. Depression Mood. All implementations support a basic set of file attributes and so invoking this method with a type parameter of airlines BasicFileAttributes.class will not throw UnsupportedOperationException . The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the file is a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the link is read. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. It is implementation specific if all file attributes are read as an atomic operation with respect to about the spring other file system operations. Usage Example: Suppose we want to read a file's attributes in bulk: Alternatively, suppose we want to read file's POSIX attributes without following symbolic links: The attribute parameter identifies the attribute to be set and airlines business plan takes the form: [ view-name : ] attribute-name where square brackets [. Auto. ] delineate an optional component and airlines business plan the character ':' stands for itself. view-name is the name of a FileAttributeView that identifies a set of file attributes.

If not specified then it defaults to depression mood basic , the name of the file attribute view that identifies the basic set of airlines business plan file attributes common to many file systems. Essay. attribute-name is the name of the attribute within the set. The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the file is a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the link is airlines, set. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is retrosynthesis problems, present then symbolic links are not followed. Usage Example: Suppose we want to set the business, DOS hidden attribute: The attribute parameter identifies the attribute to be read and takes the form: [ view-name : ] attribute-name where square brackets [. ] delineate an optional component and the character ':' stands for itself. view-name is the name of a FileAttributeView that identifies a set of file attributes. If not specified then it defaults to basic , the name of the file attribute view that identifies the about the spring season, basic set of file attributes common to many file systems. attribute-name is the name of the attribute. The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the airlines business plan, file is a symbolic link.

By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the link is read. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. Usage Example: Suppose we require the user ID of the file owner on a system that supports a unix view: The attributes parameter identifies the attributes to be read and takes the form: [ view-name : ] attribute-list where square brackets [. ] delineate an best optional component and airlines business the character ':' stands for itself. view-name is the name of depression mood a FileAttributeView that identifies a set of file attributes. If not specified then it defaults to airlines business basic , the name of the file attribute view that identifies the basic set of file attributes common to many file systems. The attribute-list component is white, a comma separated list of zero or more names of attributes to airlines plan read. If the list contains the value * then all attributes are read. Paper Writer. Attributes that are not supported are ignored and will not be present in the returned map. It is implementation specific if all attributes are read as an atomic operation with respect to airlines other file system operations.

The following examples demonstrate possible values for the attributes parameter: The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the file is essay, a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the link is read. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. The path parameter is associated with a FileSystem that supports the PosixFileAttributeView . This attribute view provides access to file attributes commonly associated with files on file systems used by operating systems that implement the Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) family of standards. The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the airlines business, file is a symbolic link.

By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the essay for kids, link is read. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. The path parameter is associated with a FileSystem that supports the PosixFileAttributeView . This attribute view provides access to airlines file attributes commonly associated with files on white writer file systems used by operating systems that implement the Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) family of standards. The path parameter is associated with a file system that supports FileOwnerAttributeView . This file attribute view provides access to a file attribute that is the business plan, owner of the file. The path parameter is associated with a file system that supports FileOwnerAttributeView . This file attribute view provides access to a file attribute that is the owner of the file. Usage Example: Suppose we want to white make joe the business plan, owner of a file: Where is depression mood, it required to distinguish an business plan I/O exception from the case that the essay for kids, file is not a symbolic link then the file attributes can be read with the readAttributes method and the file type tested with the BasicFileAttributes.isSymbolicLink() method.

The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the file is business plan, a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the essay, final target of the link is read. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. Where is it required to airlines distinguish an I/O exception from the case that the file is not a directory then the file attributes can be read with the readAttributes method and the file type tested with the BasicFileAttributes.isDirectory() method. The options array may be used to depression mood indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the business plan, file is a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the link is essay the spring, read.

If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. Where is it required to distinguish an I/O exception from the case that the file is not a regular file then the file attributes can be read with the readAttributes method and the file type tested with the BasicFileAttributes.isRegularFile() method. The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the file is a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed and the file attribute of the final target of the link is read. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. Usage Example: Suppose we want to set the last modified time to the current time: The options parameter may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for airlines, the case that the file is paper, a symbolic link.

By default, symbolic links are followed. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. Note that the result of this method is immediately outdated. If this method indicates the airlines business, file exists then there is essay the spring season, no guarantee that a subsequence access will succeed. Care should be taken when using this method in security sensitive applications. The options parameter may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled for the case that the file is business plan, a symbolic link. By default, symbolic links are followed.

If the best friend essay for kids, option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then symbolic links are not followed. Note that this method is not the complement of the exists method. Business. Where it is not possible to determine if a file exists or not then both methods return false . As with the exists method, the result of this method is abortion, immediately outdated. If this method indicates the file does exist then there is no guarantee that a subsequence attempt to business create the file will succeed. Depression Mood. Care should be taken when using this method in security sensitive applications. Note that the result of this method is immediately outdated, there is no guarantee that a subsequent attempt to open the file for reading will succeed (or even that it will access the same file). Care should be taken when using this method in security sensitive applications.

Note that result of this method is immediately outdated, there is no guarantee that a subsequent attempt to open the file for airlines business, writing will succeed (or even that it will access the same file). Care should be taken when using this method in security sensitive applications. Depending on the implementation, this method may require to read file permissions, access control lists, or other file attributes in the spring order to check the airlines, effective access to the file. Consequently, this method may not be atomic with respect to other file system operations. Note that the result of this method is immediately outdated, there is no guarantee that a subsequent attempt to execute the file will succeed (or even that it will access the same file).

Care should be taken when using this method in security sensitive applications. This method walks a file tree rooted at a given starting file. The file tree traversal is depth-first with the given FileVisitor invoked for each file encountered. File tree traversal completes when all accessible files in the tree have been visited, or a visit method returns a result of essay about the spring season TERMINATE . Where a visit method terminates due an airlines IOException , an uncaught error, or runtime exception, then the paper, traversal is terminated and the error or exception is propagated to the caller of this method. For each file encountered this method attempts to airlines business read its BasicFileAttributes . If the file is season, not a directory then the visitFile method is airlines, invoked with the file attributes. If the file attributes cannot be read, due to an I/O exception, then the visitFileFailed method is invoked with the I/O exception. Where the file is best essay, a directory, and the directory could not be opened, then the visitFileFailed method is invoked with the airlines, I/O exception, after which, the file tree walk continues, by default, at the next sibling of the directory.

Where the directory is opened successfully, then the entries in the directory, and their descendants are visited. When all entries have been visited, or an I/O error occurs during iteration of the directory, then the directory is closed and the visitor's postVisitDirectory method is invoked. Pro Choice Abortion. The file tree walk then continues, by default, at the next sibling of the directory. By default, symbolic links are not automatically followed by airlines, this method. If the options parameter contains the FOLLOW_LINKS option then symbolic links are followed. When following links, and the attributes of the target cannot be read, then this method attempts to get the BasicFileAttributes of the link. If they can be read then the visitFile method is invoked with the attributes of the link (otherwise the visitFileFailed method is invoked as specified above). If the options parameter contains the FOLLOW_LINKS option then this method keeps track of directories visited so that cycles can be detected. Friend. A cycle arises when there is an entry in a directory that is an ancestor of the business plan, directory. Cycle detection is done by depression mood, recording the file-key of directories, or if file keys are not available, by invoking the isSameFile method to test if a directory is the same file as an plan ancestor. When a cycle is detected it is treated as an I/O error, and retrosynthesis problems the visitFileFailed method is plan, invoked with an instance of FileSystemLoopException . The maxDepth parameter is the maximum number of levels of directories to visit.

A value of 0 means that only the starting file is white writer, visited, unless denied by the security manager. A value of MAX_VALUE may be used to indicate that all levels should be visited. The visitFile method is invoked for all files, including directories, encountered at airlines plan maxDepth , unless the basic file attributes cannot be read, in which case the visitFileFailed method is invoked. If a visitor returns a result of null then NullPointerException is thrown. When a security manager is installed and it denies access to a file (or directory), then it is ignored and the visitor is not invoked for that file (or directory). This method works as if invoking it were equivalent to evaluating the expression: In other words, it does not follow symbolic links, and visits all levels of the file tree.

The Reader methods that read from the file throw IOException if a malformed or unmappable byte sequence is read. The Writer methods to write text throw IOException if the text cannot be encoded using the specified charset. By default, the copy fails if the target file already exists or is a symbolic link. If the REPLACE_EXISTING option is specified, and the target file already exists, then it is replaced if it is not a non-empty directory. If the target file exists and essay season is a symbolic link, then the symbolic link is replaced. In this release, the REPLACE_EXISTING option is the only option required to be supported by this method. Business Plan. Additional options may be supported in future releases. If an I/O error occurs reading from the input stream or writing to the file, then it may do so after the pro choice, target file has been created and after some bytes have been read or written. Consequently the input stream may not be at end of airlines business stream and may be in an inconsistent state.

It is retrosynthesis problems, strongly recommended that the input stream be promptly closed if an I/O error occurs. This method may block indefinitely reading from the airlines, input stream (or writing to best essay the file). The behavior for the case that the input stream is business plan, asynchronously closed or the thread interrupted during the copy is highly input stream and file system provider specific and therefore not specified. Usage example : Suppose we want to capture a web page and save it to a file: If an I/O error occurs reading from the file or writing to the output stream, then it may do so after some bytes have been read or written. Consequently the output stream may be in an inconsistent state. It is strongly recommended that the output stream be promptly closed if an abortion essay I/O error occurs. This method may block indefinitely writing to airlines the output stream (or reading from the file).

The behavior for the case that the output stream is asynchronously closed or the thread interrupted during the copy is highly output stream and file system provider specific and therefore not specified. Note that if the given output stream is Flushable then its flush method may need to retrosynthesis problems invoked after this method completes so as to flush any buffered output. Note that this method is intended for simple cases where it is convenient to business read all bytes into a byte array. It is not intended for reading in large files. This method recognizes the following as line terminators: u000D followed by u000A , CARRIAGE RETURN followed by LINE FEED u000A , LINE FEED u000D , CARRIAGE RETURN. Additional Unicode line terminators may be recognized in future releases. Note that this method is intended for simple cases where it is convenient to retrosynthesis read all lines in a single operation. It is airlines plan, not intended for reading in large files.

Usage example : By default the method creates a new file or overwrites an existing file. Suppose you instead want to append bytes to an existing file: The options parameter specifies how the the file is auto essay, created or opened. If no options are present then this method works as if the CREATE , TRUNCATE_EXISTING , and WRITE options are present. In other words, it opens the file for writing, creating the file if it doesn't exist, or initially truncating an existing regular-file to plan a size of 0 . The method ensures that the file is closed when all lines have been written (or an I/O error or other runtime exception is thrown).

If an I/O error occurs then it may do so after the file has created or truncated, or after some bytes have been written to the file. Summary: Nested | Field | Constr | Method Detail: Field | Constr | Method. For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java SE Documentation. That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.