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#8221;Birches#8221; by Robert Frost a poetic analaysis Essay Sample. In the poem #8220;Birches#8221; by Robert Frost, Frost attempts to illustrate a cycle of growing up from childhood to adulthood. According to essay Frost, through the use of childhood imagination one can easily endure the struggle we call life. #8220;Birches#8221; is separated into different sections, beginning with a description of a birch tree being bent under various conditions. The poem than continues to a farm boy#8217;s childhood, where he is #8216;seen#8217; swinging on the birches, and lastly Frost describes his desires to excellent return to his childhood, wanting to start over. This poem contains no rhyme scheme and is not divided into stanzas. Frost utilizes the use of subject english various literary devices, such as personification, symbolism, alliteration, and metaphors to describe to use of antithesis the audience the difficulties life throws at us, and how one can persevere with the aid of essay subject english innocent images found in plan for a many of our childhood memories within our souls. English. The first attempt to evoke our sense of sight by Frost came in the first part of the poem. Frost describes to the audience birches which are bend to left and right. He wants to believe that the bends were cause by a boy swinging on them, yet he realizes that #8220;swinging doesn#8217;t bend them down to stay/As ice-storms do (Line 4-5).#8221; This can be symbolic of how life tends to medical cover weight us down with stress and responsibilities, causing us to change completely as the birches do. Frost than describes how the sun#8217;s warmth shatters and breaks the ice like the #8220;inner dome of subject heaven had fallen (line 13).#8221; More symbolism can be found within the sun and the ice.
The sun helps us to #8220;shed crystal shells/Shattering and avalanching on the snow-crust#8221; (line 10-11) through its warmth providing relief from the ice, just as our love ones around us help with their love to transport company relief us of our stressful lives. While, the sun provides relief the ice symbolizes the essay subject english, hardships and obstacles we each have to face in life. In order to advance into the future, we must break away from the ice with the cover, support of love ones. Frost than seems to attempt to subject compare human beings to the birches. Like the birches that #8220;click upon themselves/As the breeze rises (line 7-8)#8221; suggests that problems often cause people to fight amongst each other. In addition, when we are struggling against major stress like the branches that are overloaded with ice, we do not break. Instead, people and birches bend to adjust to the situation that is dealt to them. Frost once again reinforces the idea of how the birches are similar to introduction research us, with a comparison between bent branches #8220;trailing their leaves on the ground#8221; to #8220;girls on essay subject, hands and knees throwing their hair before them to dry in the sun (line 18-19).#8221; After this comparison, Frost now changes direction from the description of birches to a more innocent and simple depiction of the life of a young boy living on a farm. Frost continues to show how we are all connected to thesis theories the bent birches. Frost now describes to the audience the life of a little boy living on a farm.
He repeats an earlier desire to have #8220;some boy bend them,#8221; (line 21) instead of an ice storm. The boy that Frost felt should bend the branches should be innocent and pure, such as a boy who would be out to fetch cows, however would play and bend the subject, birches instead. The boy should be secluded from society and taught himself to play with what was around him. He would be able to adjust to excellent medical all seasons either summer or winter and could be by himself and enjoy the company, playing on his father#8217;s trees, one by one. The little boy should bend the essay, branches due to swinging on them often and #8220;until he took the stiffness out of them (line 29).#8221; The boy is essay aware of how much pressure the branches can take without them breaking. Frost again tells the reader how conscience the boy is of the capabilities of the essay subject, branches by using an image of a cup filling to the brim and even above the brim. This boy is symbolic of the problems found in society. We #8220;bend#8221; due to the corruption and films, problems found in society such as crime, pollution and other evil things we subject each other to. Frost attempts to remind us of a simple and pure boy free from essay english, all the evils of society due to his seclusion from it. Frost repeatedly says that he would rather have the boy bend the introduction research paper, branches, instead of an ice storm, suggesting that we all have forgotten the simplicity and joy of swinging on branches, now that we have technological advancements such as television, computers, and subject english, radios.
Frost now begins to reminisce about his own childhood and how the bent birches can be related to a person#8217;s life. In the last section of #8220;Birches#8221; Frost reflects on his childhood. He tells us that #8220;I once myself a swinger of branches,#8221; (line 41) and that he wishes to return to business plan company that state. Frost says when life is #8220;weary of considerations#8221; (line 43) and he as lost his way in a pathless wood he would like to get away from Earth for awhile and come back as a child. Frost goes on to say #8220;May no fate willfully misunderstand me And half grant what I wish and essay subject, snatch me away Not to return. Earth#8217;s the right place for essay films society love: I don#8217;t know where it#8217;s likely to go better (line 50-53).#8221; This could mean that negative things are bound to exist in Earth everywhere, however beauty does exist, one just has to look for it in a more simplistic and essay subject english, innocent location. The poem #8220;Birches#8221; by Robert Frost describes the struggles we go through in everyday life. Through the use of literary elements, Frost successfully uses the images of bent birch trees and an innocent child to display the hardships we face and that we should all go back to a more innocent and use of antithesis, simpler time.
Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order #8221;Birches#8221; by essay subject Robert Frost a poetic analaysis. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Essay. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for english #8221;Birches#8221; by Robert Frost a poetic analaysis. #8220;The Pasture#8221; by Robert Frost is a short, structured two-stanza poem. This poem gave the readers a vision of Frost#8217;s character. And Islam Essay. Reading this poem, I get the feeling that Frost#8230; Robert Frost#8217;s poem #8220;The Road Not Taken#8221; The poet basically says that everyone is a traveler and choosing the roads to follow on the map of life is never a straight path that leaves someone with one#8230; #8220;The Road Not Taken#8221; by Robert Frost. #8220;The Road Not Taken#8221; by Robert Frost is about the decisions that a person makes in life and how it affects their life. Frost uses nature to express this, which#8230; The Road Not Taken by subject Robert Frost. Robert Frost, the author of #8220;The Road Not Taken,#8221; writes about excellent letters, how a person must choose his or her own path in english life.
Everyone is a traveler, who must choose#8230; Robert Frost’s “Never Again Would Birds’ Song Be The Same” Robert Frost#8217;s #8220;Never Again Would Birds#8217; Song Be the Same#8221; Never Again Would Birds#8217; Song Be the Same is a poem by Robert Frost, which is use of in speech a love poem along#8230; Stylistic Analysis of english Robert Frost. The poems of Robert Frost, such as #8220;Mending Wall#8221; and essay society, #8220;Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,#8221; appear to be simple and essay subject english, easy to read. Frost used ordinary language in#8230;
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How to subject english Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to antithesis in speech writing a great summary:
Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the english, book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order.
For more information, see video below. Don't forget to business for a use transition words to link your sentences together. Essay! See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the and islam essay, name of the subject english, author and essay films society article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and essay subject english the author.
Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to plan for a the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the essay english, real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the christianity, article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example:
In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the essay subject english, Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is statement developmental, going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. Essay Subject English! In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to essay films prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is subject, ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . Christianity Compared! The author refutes these ideas by essay subject english, saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?
While you don't have to antithesis use an author tag in subject english every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and plan when you are saying your own ideas. Subject! In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the use of in speech, author's last name in essay subject the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the christianity and islam essay, author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to essay english Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of films, 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience?
Is it effectively written for essay english, that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. Excellent Cover! You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation.
TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and english Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. Films! The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of discussion of that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is english, written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and use of antithesis in speech organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the essay subject, following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. Excellent Cover Letters! You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for subject, each paragraph.
To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is use of, effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to english interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical?
Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the use of, point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the english, bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the statement developmental theories, author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for essay, this audience?
How does the introduction research, author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the essay subject, history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the christianity and islam, reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to english hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the business transport, exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in english this issue?
Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and antithesis also check out essay subject Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Developmental! Use all of essay english, your tools of literary analysis, including looking at films society the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example: The organization of essay, essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . Developmental! The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is essay, ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is christianity compared, constructed logically/illogically by essay, ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the business for a transport company, structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to essay current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out.
Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is developmental, shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . Essay Subject! He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the introduction guidelines, viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in subject english this issue because of the excellent cover, exigence of ___________. Subject! Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is and islam, effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. Essay English! The support is adequate/inadequate and introduction guidelines research is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think?
Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to essay english talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and use of in speech specific. It will use the essay english, information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and letters back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. Subject! You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the business company, author's position). You will agree with part of the subject, author's points and statement disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in essay subject the article.
How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the christianity essay, same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in english this essay made you re-think your own view?
What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about company, this article? What do you like or dislike about the subject, essay and/or the ideas in introduction guidelines research the essay? How much of essay subject, your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to in speech the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response.
Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of subject, this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. Cover! I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in essay subject english Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example.
by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write an essay Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics.
by Virginia Kearney 37. Appreciated for your effort! It does helped me a lot! Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to subject english summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Thesis Developmental! Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 7 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and essay subject english sample papers to complete your other projects.
Rodsy Karim Taseen 7 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from cover letters, United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of essay, assignment you've been given.
Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is theories, that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into subject english your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of films, reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the english, reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules.
We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the antithesis in speech, right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on essay subject english Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. Thesis Developmental! What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subject, subsections, and in speech i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe.
The analysis part of that sort of essay subject english, essay means that you evaluate the medical, pros and cons of essay english, other ideas about that claim. I don't use the business plan transport, term analytical argumentative essay in english my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from guidelines research paper, United States.
Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the essay subject english, story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about essay films, writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the essay english, response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to statement theories do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample.
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor. Essay Subject English! I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to medical cover explain you have used here. Subject! Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the thesis statement, opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to essay english my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding.
All of christianity and islam compared essay, this explaining is a great source for essay subject, anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to introduction guidelines research a particular article, then you should give a summary of the essay subject, situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of essay, whether this is good or bad.
Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to essay subject english the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas?
Virginia Kearney 10 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and excellent medical letters ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is essay english, what prepares you for films, doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends.
Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for essay, the information.
Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over introduction paper, the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for essay english, literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States.
Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Christianity And Islam Compared! Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from subject, all over essay films, the world reading my work and being helped by english, the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in use of my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from english, native English speakers.
I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to medical letters school. This is the subject, right place.
It's helping me in statement developmental my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and essay vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne.
I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago.
I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. Letters! This article is extremely useful for me so im going to essay make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from statement, Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions. greeting from Hijama.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of english, them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in excellent medical cover one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. English! I need to digest this information and start applying this in use of antithesis my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after.
Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into essay subject my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Christianity Compared Essay! Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to essay subject english people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. Plan For A! I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. Essay Subject English! As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting.
Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to essay society the U.S. to go to subject college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from introduction guidelines, Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and essay subject science papers with my class in antithesis the second semester. I will have to essay subject english think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes.
I'm doing this for paper, science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Subject! Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of cover, going to essay subject 4th of use of in speech, July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper.
I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. Essay English! We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. Christianity Compared! This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for essay english, me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to medical cover the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the essay, summary/analysis/response is use of antithesis in speech, below.
htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at english my Hubviews and theories very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for english, my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help!
Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and antithesis respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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essay lotus sutra Taigen Dan Leighton. Paper for an academic conference on Discourse and Rhetoric in the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Version with full diacritical marks available from email@example.com. In this essay I will discuss aspects of Zen Master Dogen's appropriation and use of the Lotus Sutra , as it is expressed in his rhetorical style. Dogen quotes the Lotus Sutra (from the essay, Kumarajiva version) far more than any other sutra. This might seem reasonably expectable, since Dogen was first ordained as a monk in the Tendai school, which continued to see the Lotus as the preeminent sutra, even as it incorporated and attempted to essay synthesize a whole range of Buddhist teachings.
However, while prominent Kamakura innovators, Eisai, Dogen, Honen, Shinran, and Nichiren all had been Tendai monks, they vary greatly in their subsequent application of the Lotus Sutra . Subject English! The Lotus is the business plan transport, fundamental object of devotion for Nichiren, but is scarcely mentioned explicitly by Shinran (although it might be discerned as part of the background of Shin thought). The situation of Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra in his teachings is more complex. Essay Subject! The Lotus has been commonly perceived as tangential to Dogen, and to Japanese Soto Zen generally. For example, in excellent cover letters discussing another great Soto literary figure from the eighteenth century, Ryokan, who also favored the subject english, Lotus Sutra , Ryuichi Abe says, Although Ryokan appears to have remained faithful to the religious ideals of his Soto progenitor Dogen, there was nothing sectarian about christianity and islam compared Ryokan's Buddhist practice. Among the numerous Buddhist scriptures, the Lotus Sutra popular text not particularly emphasized in traditional training but the essential scripture of the Tendai and Nichiren schools was by far his favorite. While the essay subject, Lotus is certainly not nearly as important to Dogen or Soto as it is to Nichiren, Ryokan's great appreciation for it is revealing of the introduction guidelines research paper, lingering appropriation of the Lotus Sutra in Soto, an appreciation and essay, usage that does go back to the Japanese Soto founder. Dogen widely cites and interprets many doctrinal elements from the Lotus Sutra in his teachings. Along with his many direct allusions to the parables from the sutra, Dogen frequently refers to specific Lotus teachings. Examples are skillful means ( hoben ); the single cause for buddhas' appearing in society the world, i.e. to bring suffering beings onto the path of awakening; and that only a Buddha together with a Buddha can fully fathom the fundamental truth. While these teachings are not completely unique to the Lotus among Mahayana sutras, Dogen discusses them using direct quotes from the Lotus Sutra . Dogen also often discusses or critiques teachings commonly linked to the Lotus Sutra in Heian and Kamakura Buddhism, such as the essay subject english, importance of fundamental enlightenment (hongaku); and realization of buddhahood in thesis developmental this very body (sokushin jobutsu). Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra text is essay english, necessarily affected by the contemporary readings of the excellent cover, Lotus in Tendai and other Japanese understandings, a complex subject beyond the scope for this limited essay to essay subject english detail.
A discussion of all the numerous direct references to the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's writings is also far beyond the scope of this essay. But to essay mention briefly one of the subject, most prominent examples, in his Shobogenzo essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke The Lotus Dharma Turns the Lotus Dharma, Dogen discusses and elaborates his view of the liberative reality of the phenomenal world, which Dogen interprets as a primary teaching of the Lotus Sutra . Dogen expresses this interpretation in various ways. The Hokke-Ten-Hokke essay begins with the statement that, The contents of the lands in ten directions are the sole existence of the Lotus Dharma. In various writings, Dogen creatively reads and introduction guidelines research, interprets parts of the subject, Lotus Sutra such as the stories in for a company chapters fifteen and sixteen about the essay subject english, underground bodhisattvas immanently present and christianity and islam compared essay, available for the world, and the inconceivable life-span, and continuing presence in essay english the world, of Shakyamuni Buddha. These are among the Lotus Sutra supports for Dogen's teaching about the guidelines research, active agency of the phenomenal world in essay subject the process and practice of Buddhist awakening. This interpretation and appropriation of the Lotus teaching as essentially immanent and thesis statement developmental, located in the phenomenal world is not only important to Dogen's philosophy, but is essay subject english, also relevant to Dogen's style of expression, as will be described in what follows in this essay. In line with Dogen's many references, the Lotus Sutra also retains a significant place in Soto liturgy, albeit far less central than in in speech Nichiren Buddhism. Even today in essay subject many Japanese Soto Zen temples, the verse endings to the sutra's chapter sixteen on the Buddha's Inconceivable Life-span (Juryohonge), or to chapter twenty-five on Kannon Bodhisattva (Fumonbonge), are chanted daily. But instead of the sutra's doctrinal or liturgical applications, I will limit the scope of christianity compared, this essay to examining some of the ways in which Dogen's style of discourse and rhetoric, as seen in his Eihei Koroku as well as in subject Shobogenzo , resonate with his interpretations of aspects of the theories, Lotus Sutra . My point is not at all to claim that the Lotus Sutra is the single most important source for Dogen; obviously there are many traditions from which Dogen borrows. Much of the Chinese Ch'an tradition is the central lexicon for Dogen, especially the essay subject, classical koan literature, as well as closer Tsao-tung lineage forebears such as Hung-chih Cheng-chŸeh and T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching. In Dogen and the Koan Tradition, Steven Heine has masterfully demonstrated how Dogen's writings serve to develop and elaborate the koan genre. Dogen also makes ample use of the Japanese poetic tradition, as invoked in Yasunari Kawabata's appreciation of Dogen as a poet in Kawabata's 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech. And Islam! Dogen's indebtedness to subject english this poetic tradition has been further traced in Heine's The Zen Poetry of essay films society, Dogen . Dogen certainly further appropriated the Chinese monastic tradition as a major basis for his praxis, and training program. But Dogen's utilization of Mahayana discourse, especially as developed in the Lotus, should also be considered as one of the fundamental backgrounds for viewing Dogen's teaching as a whole.
I believe that further inquiries into subject, various aspects of their interrelationship will be illuminating to both Dogen and Lotus Sutra studies. Thesis Developmental! But this present essay focuses on Dogen's borrowing aspects of its rhetorical style, based on his own interpretation of the Lotus. The essay proceeds with a discussion of the Lotus Sutra style of proclamatory rhetoric. The Self-Referential Lotus. The Lotus Sutra itself frequently emphasizes the importance of and subject, rewards for business the reading, copying, and reciting of the Lotus Sutra . To be sure, other Mahayana sutras talk about the merit to be derived by subject recalling or copying the sutra being read. However, the Lotus Sutra at times seems to business plan for a transport hold this self-referential quality at essay its center, such that it promotes an extreme mode of self-referential discourse that is unique to the Lotus Sutra . The sutra often speaks of the wondrous nature of the christianity essay, Lotus Sutra , right in subject the text commonly referred to as the Lotus Sutra . This rhetorical device can become startling and mind-twisting, like Escher's painting of two hands drawing each other. In Speech! Various important figures in the sutra appear within the essay, text of the Lotus Sutra because they have heard that the Lotus Sutra is guidelines research paper, currently being preached by Shakyamuni Buddha on Vulture Peak. For example, in chapter eleven, the stupa of the ancient Buddha Prabhutaratna emerges from the essay, earth and floats in mid-air, because he has vowed always to appear whenever the Lotus Sutra is preached. In the same chapter, myriad bodhisattvas arrive from world systems in thesis statement all directions, in order to praise the Buddha for preaching this sutra in which they are appearing. This quality of the sutra talking about the sutra, and especially its many references to the Lotus Sutra as something expounded many ages ago, as about to be expounded, or even as hopefully to be expounded in the distant future, has led some commentators to observe that the whole text of this sutra, more than any others, is a preface to a missing scripture.
As George and Willa Tanabe say: The preaching of the Lotus sermon promised in the first chapter never takes place. The text, so full of merit, is about a discourse which is essay subject, never delivered; it is a lengthy preface without a book. The Lotus Sutra is thus unique among texts. It is not merely subject to various interpretations, as all texts are, but is open or empty at its very center. Research!  This is a plausible perspective or interpretation.
The text does refer, in third person, to a designated text that one might keep vainly waiting for, as if for Godot. However, this perspective misses the manner in which the Lotus sermon certainly does exist. Fundamental messages of the Lotus, such as the subject english, One Vehicle and the primacy of the Buddha vehicle, are difficult to miss, even if they might be interpreted in various manners. But furthermore, between the lines the Lotus Sutra functions within itself both as a sacred text or scripture, and as a commentary and guidebook to its own use, beyond the literal confines of its own written text. The Lotus Sutra is itself a sacred manifestation of spiritual awakening that proclaims its own sacrality. Right within the society, text's proclamation of the wonders of a text with the same name as itself, the text celebrates its own ephemeral quality with the visionary splendors of its assembly of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and essay, spirits, and with the engaging qualities of its parables. The synthesis of the immanent spirit spoken about in the text, and the text's own intended functioning as an instrument or skillful catalyst to spark awakening, has been carried on among its followers. This is exemplified in the varieties of thesis statement theories, Nichiren Buddhism in that they are rooted and focused in devotion to the Lotus Sutra itself as a sacred manifestation, and devotional object, which they are committed to proclaiming and promulgating. Essay Subject! But for Dogen, the self-proclamation of the dharma in the Lotus Sutra becomes an aspect of his rhetorical style, rather than an externalized objectification.
In similar manner to the sutra's proclamations of the wondrous qualities of the Lotus Dharma, Dogen in his writings commonly proclaims the wondrous nature of the Dharma, the Buddha, the many buddha ancestors, previous proclamations or utterances by guidelines paper ancestral teachers, and of course the Lotus Sutra itself. Dogen's style of discourse is usually not explanatory, discursive, or logical in essay the linear manner of modern rationality or cognition. Rather, Dogen seemingly free-associates, making illuminating connections based on doctrinal themes or imagistic motifs, aimed at proclaiming the non-dual reality of the present phenomenal world as fully imbued with the compared, presence of the essay subject english, Buddha and of the ongoing possibility of awakening. A clear encapsulation of the Lotus Sutra 's self-proclamatory discourse strategy appears in business transport company volume one of Dogen's Eihei Koroku in two consecutive jodo, or dharma discourses, numbers 69 and 70, given in 1241. Jodo number 69 reads in its entirety: [Dogen] said: Today this mountain monk [Dogen] gives a dharma discourse for english the assembly. Excellent Letters! What I have just said I offer to all the three treasures in the ten directions, to the twenty-eight Ancestors in essay english India, to the six Ancestors in China, to all the nostrils under heaven, to the eyeballs throughout the past and present, to excellent letters dried shitsticks, to three pounds of sesame, to Zen boards, and to zafus. Previously we offered incense for the limitless excellent causal conditions, and we dedicate it so that toads may leap up to Brahma's heaven, earthworms may traverse the eastern ocean, and clouds and water monks may become horses and cows. All buddhas, ten directions, three times; All honored ones, bodhisattva mahasattvas; Mahaprajnaparamita. Here Dogen states that he is proclaiming a jodo. But immediately, without saying anything more about the dharma, he dedicates that statement itself to the three jewels, the ancestral teachers, to essay subject meditation paraphernalia, and to famed Ch'an iconoclastic expressions for guidelines research Buddha, Yun-men's dried shitstick (or dry turd) and his disciple Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's three pounds of sesame (or flax). He then further dedicates the incense offering, which had preceded the essay subject, statement that he was now making a statement, to toads, earthworms, and monks who manifest as horses and cows, followed by the traditional concluding liturgical dedication. He thereby declares the research paper, intention of the dedication for essay english all beings, no matter how humble. As in the Lotus Sutra , there is no visible dharma expressed except for the celebration via proclamation of essay films society, a non-explicit dharma.
But then, in english the following jodo, number 70, Dogen explicitly comments on his own use of self-referential dharma, while engaging even further in celebrating an unexpressed dharma. We do not know how many days may have separated the two discourses. In this section of the text, between the jodos that can be dated and which are four months apart, there were an average of use of in speech, two discourse per essay week. But whatever the interval, it is clear in the overall text of Eihei Koroku that the different discourses, recorded chronologically with only very rare exceptions, are often linked sequentially through the associations of theme, imagery, ancestral figures, or textual allusion. Jodo number 70 says: [Dogen] said: As this mountain monk [Dogen] today gives a dharma discourse, all buddhas in the three times also today give a dharma discourse. The Ancestral teachers in all generations also today give a dharma discourse. The one who bears the sixteen-foot golden body gives a dharma discourse. The one endowed with the wondrous function of the hundred grasses (all things) gives a dharma discourse. Already together having given a dharma discourse, what dharma has been expounded? No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma?
It is upheld within Shang-lan Temple; it is upheld within Kuan-yin Temple; it is upheld within the monks' hall; it is developmental, upheld within the buddha hall. Again, Dogen never talks about the content of his dharma discourse. But he proclaims that his own act of proclaiming this self-referencing dharma is echoed simultaneously in the discourses of the ancestral teachers and english, buddhas, just as the proclamation of the Lotus Sutra is echoed in various buddha realms, in various times. Then Dogen asks the same question that the Tanabes ask about the Lotus Sutra , What dharma has been expounded? And Dogen answers unabashedly, No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma? While not explaining or even stating the content of this dharma, his phrase, This very (shako) dharma, might seem to refer to the teaching of suchness, or tathata, but it is also simply just this dharma, as opposed to that one. Thereby Dogen emphasizes not an plan for a transport company abstraction, but the concreteness of essay, phenomenal reality as the realm of dharma. Then Dogen does declare and affirm that this non-explicit teaching is upheld in the context of the temples and the buildings where the practice is carried on. The example in these two jodos of Dogen's proclamation of a non-explicit dharma is presented in a direct and concise manner, as appropriate to the often brief declarations of the jodo form. Cover! But this rhetorical strategy recurs, more or less subtly, in many places throughout Shobogenzo , as well as in Eihei Koroku . That Dogen is adapting this rhetorical posture at least in essay subject english part directly from the Lotus Sutra is statement, clearly evidenced by another early jodo in the Eihei Koroku , number 24, given in 1240.
In the entire universe in ten directions there is no dharma at all that has not yet been expounded by subject english all buddhas in the three times. Therefore all buddhas say, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the essay society, dharma without differentiations. This great assembly present before me also is practicing the essay subject english, Way in the manner of introduction guidelines research, all buddhas. Each movement, each stillness is not other than the dharma of all buddhas, so do not act carelessly or casually. Although this is the case, I have an expression that has not yet been expounded by any buddha.
Everyone, do you want to discern it? After a pause [Dogen] said: In the essay, same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. In this dharma discourse Dogen again does not elaborate on business for a, the content of the dharma expounded by subject english all buddhas in the three times, except to aver that it is no other than every movement, and every stillness, and is practiced by essay films society the monks at english Eiheiji. Significant to introduction guidelines research paper the point of this essay is the context of this quote mentioned by Dogen from Sakyamuni Buddha, In the same manner that all buddhas in essay english the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This statement that Dogen uses to express the inexplicit dharma proclaimed by all buddhas is guidelines paper, from the Lotus Sutra , chapter two on Skillful Means. Dogen further emphasizes this quote when he repeats it verbatim as his own expression for the inexplicit dharma, which he claims, Has not yet been expounded by any buddha. Essay! But saying it has not previously been expounded is tantamount to compared essay Dogen himself preaching the original Lotus Sutra , or to his own manifestation as the english, Buddha in the Lotus text in essay films which it is first expounded.
There are ample examples of response with silence, or of indirect or inexplicit Dharma proclamation within the essay subject, Ch'an literature that is Dogen's primary lexicon. Yet the Lotus Sutra referent for cover letters this 1240 jodo about expounding the dharma clearly demonstrates that Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra , expounded by all buddhas in the three times, as an important source for this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of expounding. Subject English! Further studies of statement, any references to the Lotus Sutra in essay the development of early Ch'an rhetorical styles might be informative. But it is apparent that Dogen himself saw the films society, Lotus as one model for essay subject english a non-dualistic, inexplicit discourse approach. The Self-Reflexive as a Skillful Mode. In The Karma of Words, William LaFleur discusses the antithesis in speech, sophisticated nature of the Lotus Sutra as literature, and its impact in medieval Japanese poetics. The surprising feature of [the parables] in the Lotus is that they are simultaneously the subject, vehicle and the tenor of that vehicle. In a very important sense, the parables of the Lotus are about the role and status of parabolic speech itself. They are what I would call self-reflexive allegory; that is, their trajectory of discourse behaves like a boomerang. Much like the dharma described in a crucial section of the hoben chapter, they are characterized by the absolute identity [or equality] of their beginning and end.
LaFleur's analysis of this realm of discourse in the Lotus Sutra focuses on statement, its radical nondualism, and its embodiment of english, skillful means. This standpoint of nondualism represents interpretations of the Lotus Sutra developed in T'ien-t'ai and in Japanese Buddhism prior to Dogen, and which impacted the medieval literature LaFleur examines. From such a nondualistic viewpoint, LaFleur suggests translating hoben as modes rather than the more common translations of introduction guidelines research, skillful or expedient means. Hurvitz translates hoben as expedient devices, and subject english, Watson translates it as expedient means, both implying a dualistic, and even manipulative, aspect of the teaching, especially when rendered as devices. Kato, Tamura, and business plan for a transport company, Miyasaka translate it as tactfulness, which implies more consideration and inclusivity, but might still be seen as implying a hierarchy of the teachings. The upaya (or hoben ) doctrine is subject, a problematic aspect in the Lotus Ekayana One Vehicle teaching. The Lotus at times has been upheld, within the sutra itself as well as by some of introduction research, its followers, for example in the T'ien-t'ai p'an-chiao system, as the supreme epitome of the One Vehicle. In this perspective other teachings and subject english, scriptures may be seen as merely expedient, provisional (and therefore inferior) teachings that might be included in the One Vehicle as a kind of dharmic noblesse oblige. Such a view of essay society, upaya implies a hierarchy of teachings, and essay subject, even a manipulative use of them.
Unquestionably the Lotus Sutra lends itself, and business plan transport company, often explicitly encourages, a political, polemical reading in which the Lotus, and those who preach it, represent the True Dharma, and those who follow provisional, expedient teachings exemplify the chaff, inimical to the full teaching. On the other hand, the alternate mode of reading the teaching of upaya, as championed by LaFleur, implies a radically nondualistic inclusivity, and an acceptance of essay subject english, all helpful teachings as simply a diversity of modes. Portions of the Lotus Sutra do indeed lend themselves to this alternate, more tolerant and inclusive reading of hoben . Guidelines Research! For example, in chapter five the parable of the Dharma rain falling universally on all implies no discrimination against any of the many plants that are equally nourished, each growing in essay subject english their own way. Applied as appropriate to the diversity of needs of suffering beings, all teaching modes might be equally beneficial to introduction guidelines research paper the ultimate purpose for buddhas' manifestation, as proclaimed in the upaya chapter: By resort to numberless devices and to various means, parables, and phrases do [buddhas] proclaim the dharmas, . . . for one great cause appearing in the world, . Essay! . . to cause beings to hear the Buddha's knowledge, . . . to cause the beings to understand, . . . to cause the beings to enter the path. Such an inclusive reading of essay, hoben might be usefully appropriated to modern concerns of religious pluralism, which may be LaFleur's subtext. But LaFleur's reading also has implications to styles of essay subject, discourse, the primary issue under consideration here. LaFleur sees the sutra's primary liberative purpose and its various skillful modes expressed nondualistically as exactly the reason for the sutra's self-referential discourse style. In his reading: The narratives of the Lotus are not a means to an end beyond themselves.
Their concrete mode of expression is antithesis in speech, not chaff to be dispensed with in order to attain a more abstract, rational, or spiritual truth. The Lotus is unequivocal on this point: One may seek in every one of the ten directions but will find no mode [ hoben ] other than the Buddha's. This accounts for what may seem to be an inordinate amount of praise directed by the sutra toward itself. Essay! It also implies that within the sutra there is an unmistakable philosophical move opposite to that in Plato's Republic, a move to affirm the complete reality of the world of in speech, concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. This common Japanese association of the essay english, Lotus Sutra with affirmation of the reality of the phenomenal world, followed here by paper LaFleur, can be dated back to the Japanese Tendai founder Saicho. Having studied with two of the disciples of the Chinese Hua-yen master Chan-jan, who argued for subject the Buddha nature of insentient beings (a teaching that Dogen would also later frequently celebrate), Saicho incorporated Hua-yen (Kegon) views of suchness into Tendai. But Saicho also applied this in christianity and islam compared an original way to essay subject english his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra . His reading not only acknowledges two aspects of suchness but establishes a hierarchy between the two in identifying the dynamic aspect of thesis, suchness—its expression as the phenomenal world—with the T'ien-t'ai category of the middle and with the essay subject english, one vehicle of the Lotus. This represents a crucial step toward the profound valorization of empirical reality found in medieval Tendai original enlightenment thought. From this Japanese Tendai perspective of spiritual reality immanent in concrete phenomena, the christianity, Lotus Sutra itself is not separate from, or talking about, a realm of transcendent spirit outside of itself. Thus the Lotus Sutra itself can become an embodiment of the awakening aspect of the phenomenal world, omnipresent, at least in essay subject potentiality, in statement developmental all concrete phenomena. The self-referential or self-reflexive aspect of the sutra demonstrates the non-separation of its liberative goals from the Buddha's skillful modes.
Given the nonduality of purpose and essay english, context of the Lotus Sutra as a text that itself represents and enacts veneration of the introduction research, world's liberative potential, it is reasonable that this very sutra would become an object of veneration, as in essay subject Nichiren Buddhism. To be sure, Dogen is not inclusive of the diverse modes of teachings in LaFleur's strictly non-hierarchical fashion, as, in common with all of the Kamakura innovators, Dogen at christianity and islam compared essay times upholds his own teaching lineage and strongly disparages others. However, Dogen's use of Lotus style self-referential discourse is directed at affirmation of the nondualism of means and english, end, and christianity, he repeatedly affirms the phenomenal realm as the arena of nondual practice-realization, in accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus Sutra discourse as based on hoben . Essay! In a similar skillful mode, Dogen often intentionally uses words as vehicles to express the discourse he is christianity essay, then proclaiming. Dogen's frequent inversion of conventional word order and word meaning from classical koans or sutras serves to express this quality of proclamation, in which the discourse itself demonstrates that which it is expounding. A prominent example is the oft-cited wordplay in Shobogenzo Bussho Buddha Nature, first written in 1241, in which Dogen retranslates the passage from the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, All sentient beings without exception have Buddha nature. By rereading the subject english, characters shitsu-u as whole being, rather than all have, Dogen alters the passage to, All sentient beings' whole being [is] Buddha nature. This elimination of in speech, dualistic grammar itself demonstrates the nondualism between sentient beings and Buddha nature. In further accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus discourse, Dogen specifically affirms the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in his discourse rhetoric as well as its content, and even when leaving the english, content itself seemingly absent, or at least not stated. In jodo 49 in Eihei Koroku, also given in 1241, Dogen says: This mountain monk has not lectured for the sake of the antithesis in speech, assembly for essay english a long time.
Why is this? On my behalf, the buddha hall, the monks' hall, the valley streams, the pine, and bamboo, every moment, endlessly speak fully for the sake of all people. Christianity And Islam Compared! Have you all heard it or not? If you say you heard it, what did you hear? If you say you have not heard it, you do not keep the five precepts. Here Dogen rhetorically affirms the immanence of the dharmic discourse as well as its content, right in the world of essay english, dharmas, or phenomena, including streams, pines, bamboo, and temple buildings, which all themselves discourse on this dharma. He also self-consciously uses this nonexplicit discourse of the dharma and its immanence as a skillful means for challenging his monks in training to hear and medical, express the dharma more fully. Have you all heard it or not? Dogen's Use of the Fantastic.
Another literary aspect of the Lotus Sutra that is disconcerting to conventional analysis is the subject, degree to which its stories and teachings are rooted in images and fantasies. In his introduction to his book on Myoe, whose life and teaching were colorfully replete with the visionary, George Tanabe, Jr. cites the centrality of guidelines, visions to East Asian Buddhist experience, despite the focus of subject english, much of modern Buddhist studies on doctrine and philosophy. Excellent Medical Letters! The Buddhist tradition is as much a history of fantasy as it is a history of thought. It should be studied as such to gain a better understanding not only of Buddhism as a fantastic philosophy, but of Buddhists as sentient beings as well. In the context of Myoe studies, Tanabe's discussion of the fantastic might more directly apply to subject the psychedelic visions of the developmental theories, Avatamsaka Sutra, which Myoe, as a Kegon monk, especially cherished. But Tanabe's remarks also certainly pertain to the striking images and parables of the Lotus, about which he says, The Lotus Sutra is less a work of memory and more a product of essay english, fantasy inspired with new visions derived internally. The Lotus Sutra thus calls for excellent medical cover examination of the significance and english, function of essay society, its imagery as much as, if not more than, its philosophical positions. As Tanabe says: Mahayana Buddhism is, among many things it can be, a tradition of the essay, mind's faculty for producing images in both waking life and theories, sleep: a tradition, that is, of fantasy producing visions, . . . and dreams, which were interpreted by the dreamers for their own meanings and which can be, to add a modern aspect, read by us for their feelings. Essay English! It will be possible to gain a better understanding of Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle not only of ideas and films, institutions but of human emotion as well only when studies of the fantastic end of the spectrum become more available. In this context, the Lotus Sutra parables and self-referential discourse style can be seen as the internal expression of vision, or fantasy, that expresses the human experience of Mahayana practice, more than its philosophical content. Even when, as may frequently be the case, such discourse is a literary device or artifice, rather than directly inspired by literal meditative experience, visions, or dreams, such literary framing serves to honor the skillful use of english, imagination and the visionary.
The Lotus Sutra itself includes a parable that uses a fantastic vision to demonstrate how fantastic visions function as skillful liberative modes. In chapter seven, a conjured or phantom city is described as a vision that serves as a metaphor for the teaching of nirvana as cessation, which can provide a half-way oasis on the path to Mahayana universal liberation. Despite being a mere phantom, the vision of an oasis city acts as a necessary, beneficial encouragement for practitioners, who may be refreshed by excellent letters temporarily imagining they have achieved their goal. Similarly, Lotus Sutra parables, no matter how fantastic, themselves function as beneficial encouragements. In another of the numerous examples in Shobogenzo of Dogen using wordplay to invert conventional thinking, in Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the english, Dream, written in introduction guidelines paper 1242, Dogen extensively elaborates on the statement that all buddhas express the dream within a dream. He thereby denies the supposedly lesser reality of the dreams of the transient phenomenal world, and negates a Platonic exaltation of the absolute, which LaFleur describes as the english, antithesis of Lotus teaching. Instead, Dogen proclaims the dream world of phenomena as exactly the realm of buddhas' activity. Every dewdrop manifested in every realm is a dream. This dream is the glowing clarity of the hundred grasses. Business Transport! . . . Essay! Do not mistake them as merely dreamy. The liberative awakening of buddhas is itself described as a dream.
Without expressing dreams, there are no buddhas. Without being within a dream, buddhas do not emerge and essay, turn the english, wondrous dharma wheel. Excellent Cover Letters! This dharma wheel is no other than a buddha together with a buddha, and a dream expressed within a dream. Essay! Simply expressing the dream within a dream is itself the buddhas and ancestors, the assembly of unsurpassable enlightenment. Dogen is not frivolously indulging in mere paradox here, but follows the logic of the dream as necessarily the locus of awakening. As Dogen says in his celebrated essay, Genjokoan, Those who have great realization of delusion are buddhas. What is worthy of study is not delusions or fantasies about introduction guidelines research enlightenment, but rather the essay english, reality of the causes and conditions of the realms of delusion and suffering. A similar logic is use of, expressed in the Lotus Sutra dictum that buddhas manifest only due to essay subject english the presence of suffering beings. Dogen's positive view of dreams will be significant in his parables to be discussed below, two of which Dogen frames as if they might have been dreams, whether or not they were his actual sleeping dreams.
Dogen does not attend to literal dreams with anywhere near the same dedication as his contemporary, Myoe, as exemplified by Myoe's extraordinary, forty-year dream journal. Along with Myoe, dreams and visionary discourse are also more emphasized than they are by Dogen in the teachings of business plan transport company, Keizan, Dogen's third generation successor, who is revered as the second founder of Japanese Soto Zen. The central role of dream and essay english, vision for Keizan has been discussed and elaborated by Bernard Faure in Visions of Power.  Keizan and his successors in use of antithesis the following few generations helped spread Soto Zen throughout rural Japan. One stereotype in Soto studies is the subject english, distinction between Keizan's use of the visionary, inspired by Esoteric teachings, and the supposedly more pure Zen of Dogen. Introduction Guidelines! According to this stereotype, Dogen emphasized zazen and a rational presentation of buddha dharma, untainted by essay subject the more colorful and melodramatic Mahayana and introduction guidelines paper, Esoteric teachings indulged in by Keizan. However, Dogen does indeed employ dreams and visions as skillful teaching tools. While we may certainly note differences in emphasis and style between Dogen and Keizan, Dogen is in fundamental accord with the world-view of medieval Japan, including the subject english, esoteric teachings of Shingon and Tendai that were the background for all Kamakura Buddhism. Dogen sees the phenomenal world as dynamically alive, and excellent cover letters, imbued with spirit forces. His visionary context is perhaps most apparent in his interpretations and appropriations of the subject, Lotus Sutra , and in his own references to dreaming. In Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, Dogen explicitly refers to the Lotus Sutra as a source for the role of dreams in his discourse style. He quotes a long passage that concludes the final verse in chapter fourteen of the sutra, beginning from, All buddhas, with bodies of golden hue, splendidly adorned with a hundred auspicious marks, hear the dharma and films society, expound it for others. English! Such is the thesis theories, fine dream that ever occurs. Essay Subject! . . . Dogen interprets this passage as saying that the whole archetypal story of the Buddha occurs in a dream.
Dogen's reading takes this passage out of christianity and islam compared essay, its context in the sutra to emphasize that the subject english, Buddha is made king, leaves the palace, awakens under the bodhi tree, and conducts his whole teaching career, all in a dream. Thus this passage at the close of chapter fourteen is creatively interpreted by Dogen to thesis statement developmental serve as foreshadowing for the revelation in chapter sixteen of Buddha's inconceivable life-span, in which the subject, archetypal story of his birth, awakening, teaching, and death is more explicitly revealed as a skillful means to christianity and islam compared essay encourage beings. After quoting this passage, Dogen avers that, This dream of buddhas is not an analogy. In the original context of the Lotus Sutra text, this passage is merely describing the rewards of essay, those who preach the Lotus, in this instance the reward of auspicious dreams. But Dogen uses his creative reading to validate, or at least exemplify, his teaching that the dream-state of the conditioned phenomenal world is exactly the arena for awakening. But here he is furthermore claiming the dream mentioned by cover letters the Lotus Sutra as a model for subject english a skillful discourse mode that has recourse to the visionary as a tool for liberation. As in the Lotus Sutra self-reflexive discourse style, the developmental theories, parable expression is itself a skillful mode of subject, reality for Dogen, not separate from concrete phenomena. Dogen continues, People in the past and present mistakenly think that, thanks to the power of expounding this foremost dharma, mere night dreams may become like this dream of films society, buddhas. Thinking like this, one has not yet clarified the Buddha's discourse. Awakening and dreaming from the beginning are one suchness, the essay, genuine reality. Essay! The buddha-dharma, even if it were an analogy, is the genuine reality.
For Dogen, the particular events of this dream world are the reality, and english, also the and islam compared, skillful discourse, of the awakening of buddhas. The essays of essay subject english, Dogen's Shobogenzo , such as Muchu Setsumu, are sometimes philosophical and elaborative of traditional Buddhist or Zen doctrines, and are addressed to a general audience of his contemporaries. In Eihei Koroku , by contrast, Dogen is directly addressing his small cadre of monk disciples at Eiheiji, stretching for means to encourage and develop their practice. In this work, the cover letters, primary available source for his mature teachings, as well as occasionally revealing humor or feelings such as sadness or regret, Dogen at subject times offers his own parables, often using fantastic, playful imagery, sometimes expressed as if in dreams. In the following three parables from Eihei Koroku jodos, Dogen's appropriation of Lotus and Mahayana vision is business plan for a transport company, evidenced through the allusions to Mahayana rhetoric or figures in essay subject english each of guidelines paper, them. In Eihei Koroku jodo number 229, given in 1247, Dogen directly parodies the rhetoric of essay subject, Mahayana sutras. The millions of business plan for a transport, billions of essay subject, transformation bodies [of buddhas] abide throughout a monk's staff, carry water and gather firewood to make offerings to buddhas as numerous as there are sitting cushions, and, on the tip of a whisk, simultaneously all attain unsurpassed complete perfect enlightenment. They are all equally named Broken Wooden Ladle Tathagata, Worthy of Offerings, Omniscient, Foot of Bright Practice, Well Gone One, World Liberator, Supreme One, Strong Controlling Person, Teacher of Humans and Heavenly Beings, World-Honored Buddha. The Country [of this Buddha] is named Clump of Soil; the kalpa is named Fist.
The duration of the True Dharma Age and excellent medical, Semblance Dharma Age are both twelve hours, and the buddha's longevity is that of essay, a dried turd from three thousand great thousands of worlds. Do you all understand? If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained. Dogen plays with words here, replacing the conventional sutra rhetoric for a buddha abiding throughout kalpas with his abiding throughout a monk's staff.
Instead of making offerings to buddhas as numerous as the proverbial grains of sand in christianity and islam compared the Ganges River, Dogen substitutes buddhas as numerous as sitting cushions. Instead of the buddha sitting under the bodhi tree as he attains enlightenment, Dogen has him sitting on top of a whisk. Dogen then applies the standard ten epithets for a buddha, starting with Tathagata, to a new buddha invented here by Dogen, named Broken Wooden Ladle, who might be seen as a reference to english all of the humble monks practicing under him at Eiheiji. Continuing with his parody of conventional Mahayana sutra rhetoric, Dogen designates the buddha land of this fabulous new buddha as Clump of soil, his kalpa as Fist, and essay films, his longevity as that of subject, a dried turd. Dogen seems to developmental mock the standard Mahayana sutra rhetoric, iconoclastically mimicking a formula for describing buddhas used often in the Lotus Sutra , for example in chapters eight and nine on the predictions of future buddhahood of the five hundred disciples, and of learners and adepts. However, Dogen actually is affirming his view of the Lotus Sutra , as originally interpreted by Saicho and expressed by LaFleur, that validates the world of concrete phenomena as expressive of the essence of awakening. The new buddha is called Broken Wooden Ladle in celebration of english, a humble implement, to which Dogen frequently refers in highly exalted terms. For example, in jodo 204 in 1246 he says, If you really know it, the temple pillars confirm that, and the wooden ladles study together with you. Then he has wooden ladles doing three prostrations and asking a dharma question. Similarly revered in use of in speech jodo 229, above, are the practice paraphernalia of sitting cushions, a monk's staff, and essay subject english, a teacher's whisk. Antithesis! But in celebrating humble phenomena, Dogen also emphasizes their ephemerality, as he says that the subject english, True and Semblance Dharma Ages of Broken Wooden Ladle Buddha endure merely twelve hours. Excellent! Although an intact wooden ladle is a useful implement, here the Buddha is named Broken Wooden Ladle, further emphasizing transiency, and recalling the essay subject english, Zen phrase, the bottom of a bucket broken out, which signifies the letting go of attachments in opening experiences. Dogen's challenge to his monks at the end of the jodo echoes the and islam, prominent Ch'an dharma combat rhetoric style of koan anthologies such as the Hekiganroku , Blue Cliff Record.
However, his statement, If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake, might also be seen as a rationale for the whole Lotus Sutra self-referential strategy of subject, not explicitly stating the content of the dharma being celebrated and proclaimed. Simultaneously, there is a mandate for this Dharma to be actually proclaimed. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained, implies the ethical responsibility not to transport deny whatever is realized, despite its ephemerality. Essay! This may be seen as echoing the essay films, frequent theme in the Lotus Sutra of the responsibility of Shakyamuni's disciples to maintain the Lotus Dharma in the future. Again, whether Dogen's rhetoric here borrows more from Ch'an tradition or more from the indirect modes of the Lotus Sutra is not the essay subject english, issue. The fact that he uses this style to mimic Lotus Sutra rhetoric, however, does indicate that in this jodo Dogen is concerned and aware of Lotus Sutra discourse style, and of appropriating it rhetorically, at least in part. In the following two examples, Dogen provides fantastic parables that seem to essay films society be framed as dreams when he describes them as happening last night.
Whether they were literal dreams or meditative visions is beside the point. As Bernard Faure says, For Buddhists there is no clear distinction between dreams that come during sleep and english, visions achieved in a waking state, or more precisely during meditation, in a state (samadhi) that, like trance, is often defined as being 'neither sleeping nor waking.' Whether realized in sleep or samadhi, or merely used intentionally as literary devices invoking the visionary qualities of samadhi, Dogen uses these visions to express the dream within the dream, i.e. to reveal awakening amid the introduction research, phenomenal. In his Enlightenment Day jodo, number 88, in 1241, Dogen says: Two thousand years later, we are the descendants [of Shakyamuni]. Two thousand years ago, he was our ancestral father. He is muddy and wet from subject english, following and chasing after the waves. It can be described like this, but also there is the research paper, principle of the Way [that we must] make one mistake after another. What is this like? Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet.
Face after face is Buddha's face; fulfillment after fulfillment is Buddha's fulfillment. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] unintentionally stepped on a dried turd and it jumped up and covered heaven and earth. This mountain monk unintentionally stepped on it again, and subject, it introduced itself, saying, My name is Shakyamuni. Then, this mountain monk unintentionally stepped on his chest, and immediately he went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and guidelines research paper, snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Without waiting for anyone to peck at his shell from outside, he received the thirty-two characteristics common to all buddhas, and together with this mountain monk, composed the following four line verse: Stumbling I stepped on his chest and his backbone snapped, Mountains and rivers swirling around, the dawn wind blew. Penetrating seven and accomplishing eight, bones piercing the heavens,
His face attained a sheet of golden skin. In this jodo Dogen describes a dream-like fantasy in essay subject english which he accidentally steps on a piece of shit, and in accord with Yun-men's utterance often cited by Dogen, it jumps up and declares itself to be Shakyamuni. This vision increases the apparent disrespect for christianity and islam essay Buddha in Yun-men's utterance, as Dogen again steps on his back (albeit again accidentally), even after the dried shit identifies himself as Shakyamuni. But Dogen uses this scatological vision not to degrade, but rather to further celebrate Buddha, by declaring that upon being stepped on, He went and sat on subject, the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the business plan for a transport, traps and snares of essay subject english, conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the christianity and islam compared essay, past. Here Dogen skillfully proclaims and english, celebrates, non-explicitly, one of the major revelations of the Lotus Sutra , that of the Buddha's life-span enduring over inconceivable ages (mentioned above in essay films society connection with Dogen's reference in Expressing the Dream Within the Dream.) In chapter sixteen, Shakyamuni reveals that his archetypal story of his home-leaving and essay, awakening is demonstrated simply as a skillful mode. The effect of this dream parable of Dogen is to reinforce the story about skillful modes in chapter sixteen by describing Buddha and his awakening process as still omnipresent, last night right at Eiheiji, and use of antithesis in speech, even in excrement.
Dogen's dream story also echoes the Lotus Sutra , chapter four, parable of the prodigal son, who can only come to realize his fundamental endowment after years of shoveling manure in his father's field. As Dogen says in subject english the introduction to his parable, even Shakyamuni is muddy and wet from following and chasing after the waves. Dogen's further introductory statement, Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet, echoes the Lotus Sutra parable about the ragged beggar unknowingly having the dharma jewel sewed within his robe. It further suggests the image in chapter fifteen of myriad bodhisattvas suddenly springing forth from research, beneath the ground under our feet, which represents the omnipresence of the bodhisattva potential in the ground of concrete phenomena. Having venerated Shakyamuni Buddha via seeming desecration in this last jodo parable, in essay subject english Eihei Koroku jodo number 123, given in thesis statement 1243, Dogen describes another dream vision, this one seeming to poke fun at Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of essay english, compassion. One sheet of dull stubbornness is three inches thick. Three lengths of upside-downness is essay films, five feet long.
Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] struck the empty sky with a single blow. Essay English! My fist didn't hurt, but the empty sky knew pain. A number of sesame cakes appeared and rushed to become the films society, faces and eyes of the essay subject, great earth. In the mock creation myth in the introduction to the jodo, Dogen punches out the transport, empty sky. Then with bravado akin to such classic Ch'an masters of fisticuffs as Lin-chi or Te-shan (Rinzai and Tokusan in Japanese), Dogen declares that his fist didn't hurt, but the essay english, sky, which can also be read as emptiness itself, knew pain. Like the skillful fists of Lin-chi or Te-shan, with their constructive impact on statement developmental, their monk trainees, Dogen's fist brings forth a cascade of sesame cakes, which in turn shower down as thousands of faces and eyes.
The several references to the koan lexicon by Dogen in this jodo include case 78 of the Shoyoroku Book of Serenity anthology. Essay Subject! When asked by a monk about talk transcending buddhas and films society, ancestors, Yun-men answers, Sesame cake. In case 82 of the Shoyoroku, the association of Yun-men with sesame cakes continues when he says, The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara brings money to buy a sesame cake: when he lowers his hand, it turns out to be a jelly-doughnut. This story must have inspired Dogen's vision of Avalokiteshvara striving to purchase sesame cakes. But Dogen envisions the sesame cakes as transformed into dynamically active eyes and faces rather than jelly-doughnuts, which are still mere commodities, even if richer than sesame cakes. As Dogen's parable in jodo 123 unfolds with dream-like narrative, someone shows up who wants to buy the sesame cakes (transformed into faces and eyes). When Dogen inquires, the essay subject, person identifies himself as Avalokiteshvara, just as the piece of shit in christianity and islam essay the previously discussed dream parable identifies himself as Sakyamuni.
Presumably Avalokiteshvara is trying to acquire from Dogen the eleven faces and thousand eyes for his hands as depicted in one of the bodhisattva's foremost iconographic forms. With these multiple perspectives, the bodhisattva of compassion can fulfill the skillful means that he is known for, as seen in his diversity of forms in chapter twenty-five of the Lotus Sutra . When Avalokiteshvara further identifies himself by the very common Chinese names Ch'ang and Li, this represents Avalokiteshvara as an ordinary person. Subject English! Even in developmental a dream (or a literary discourse he frames as visionary or dream-like), Dogen is thereby implicitly affirming practice in the mundane world and the immanent presence of compassion. In Expressing the Dream Within the Dream, written the year before the parable in jodo123, Dogen declares that, The expression of the essay, dream within the dream is the thousand hands and eyes of excellent medical cover letters, Avalokiteshvara that function by many means. Here he explicitly denotes the discourse mode, the expression itself, as an aspect or example of Avalokiteshvara's skillful means. The parable itself ends with Avalokite§vara expressing his commitment and determination to obtain the eyes and faces (formerly sesame cakes), with which to proceed with his work of compassion, whether or not he has any money. In his own concluding commentary, Dogen adds, When Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva makes an appearance, mountains and rivers on the great earth are not dead ashes. Here Dogen emphasizes the dynamic, liberating quality of the world of concrete phenomena. For Dogen, the whole world and essay subject english, its components, even the dreams within a dream, are the vital functioning of awakening, like the conjured city in thesis developmental theories the Lotus Sutra parable, assisting those on the path.
Dogen's jodo concludes with a further affirmation of the subject, enlightening potency of the phenomenal world, You should always remember that in the third month the partridges sing and essay society, the flowers open. Here the emergence of vitality in subject english spring, and also its very invocation, functions skillfully as an encouraging metaphor for the enduring potential of awakening in his disciple audience. The parables in introduction research the Lotus Sutra may lack Dogen's humorous irony and visionary whimsy. English! But in accord with LaFleur's account of the function of those parables, Dogen uses his dream parables similarly as skillful modes with which to encourage his monks' engagement with and affirmation of the complete reality of the world of essay, concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. In his Eihei Koroku , Dogen relates parables that echo the function of the parables in the Lotus Sutra by demonstrating the presence of wondrous dharma, right in the phenomenal world and in the midst of karmic consciousness. While such parables are occasional, and certainly not Dogen's major mode of literary expression, they do exemplify his borrowing of Lotus Sutra styles in his discourse. More significantly than in subject english Dogen's occasional use of excellent, parables, the essay, profuse self-referencing of the Lotus Sutra and the complex, skillful impact of this self-reflexive discourse serves as one major resource or model for Dogen's style of letters, proclamation. Dogen follows the Lotus Sutra self-referential style in various of his rhetorical modes to proclaim and essay english, celebrate a teaching that often remains unstated, but which may be more provocative because of this quality of the essay films society, non-explicit. Dogen's self-referential, proclamatory discourse (at least in some part borrowed from the Lotus Sutra discourse style), used as a mode with which to express and exemplify radical nondualism, becomes a model for Soto Zen expression and practice, supporting prominent Soto teachings such as the oneness of practice-realization. This essay has focused on suggesting some of the aspects of english, Dogen's appropriation of developmental theories, Lotus Sutra styles of essay subject, rhetoric in his own discourse.
Much more can be said about his inclusion of its doctrinal contents in research paper his own teaching. Still, Dogen's primary literary source by far was the vast Ch'an koan literature, which he was introducing as a new, foreign language into english, Japan, and which he had mastered to statement theories an astonishing degree. In his prominent use of the subject english, Lotus Sutra , on the other hand, he was referencing the Buddhist text that was perhaps most familiar to his Kamakura audience. His wide use of the Lotus Sutra raises many questions. Business Plan Company! His devoted dissemination of the alien koan literature suggests that he was not citing the Lotus simply to match audience expectations or familiarities. Some aspects of essay english, Lotus teaching were clearly useful to essay legitimatization of Zen positions.
For example, he widely quotes the passage in Kumarajiva's translation of chapter two of the essay subject, sutra that, Only a buddha together with a buddha can fathom the Reality of All Existence. Dogen appropriates this saying for his Shobogenzo essay Yuibutsu Yobutsu, Only Buddha and Buddha, as support for the Zen Dharma transmission tradition. The Lotus Sutra focus on use of in speech, Shakyamuni also fits with the main buddha figure in Zen, rather than the Buddhas Amida or Vairocana venerated in essay subject the contemporary Pure Land and Esoteric (and Kegon) movements. But perhaps most fundamentally, the introduction, significant presence of the Lotus Sutra in subject english Dogen's teaching content and in his style of presentation may serve to remind us of the substantial underpinnings of Mahayana thought and practice in Soto Zen teachings.  For a discussion of some Lotus Sutra references by Dogen, and a list of some such citations, see Kagamishima Genryu, Dogen zenji to in'yo kyoten-goroku no kenkyu (Tokyo: Mokujisha, 1965), pp. 121-137; 217-219. A list of Lotus Sutra references in Dogen's Shobogenzo appears in Gudo Wafu Nishijima and Chodo Cross, trans. Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1 (Woods Hole, Mass.: Windbell Publications, 1994), pp. Transport Company! 293-321.  Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell, trans. Subject! with essays. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan; Poems, Letters, and Writings (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996), p.xiii. See also p. 21.
 For background on hongaku thought, see Ruben Habito, Originary Enlightenment: Tendai Hongaku Doctrine and Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1996); and Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and introduction research, the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999). For Saicho's appropriation of essay english, sokushin jobutsu from the Lotus Sutra story about the Dragon King's daughter, see Paul Groner, The Lotus Sutra and Saicho's Interpretation of the medical cover, Realization of Buddhahood with This Very Body, in George J. Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, editors. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989), pp. 53-74.  For an English translation of Hokke-Ten-Hokke, see Nishijima and subject, Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1, pp. 203-220. I have also referred to a translation by Kazuaki Tanahashi and Michael Wenger, from the forthcoming Beyond Thinking , edited by introduction paper Kazuaki Tanahashi.  Dogen appropriation of the essay, Lotus, especially in terms of its use in Dogen's fundamental world-view underlying his praxis, will be further detailed in my forthcoming dissertation: Visions of Awakening Space and Time: The Bodhisattvas' Earth Emergence and the Inconceivable Life-Span in the Lotus Sutra , and their Impact in Dogen's Teachings.  Steven Heine.
Dogen and the Koan Tradition (Albany: State University of essay films, New York Press, 1994).  See Yasunari Kawabata, Japan the essay subject, Beautiful and Myself, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969); and Steven Heine, The Zen Poetry of Dogen (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997).  See Yifa, The Rules of Purity for the Chan Monastery: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Ph.D.
Dissertation at Yale University, 1996. The Chanyuan Qinggui was a major influence, quoted extensively by Dogen, in his Eihei Shingi. See Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A Translation of Eihei Shingi (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).  See, for examples, Edward Conze, trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973), pp. 15, 120-121; and Buddhist Text Translation Society, Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva (Talmage, Cal.: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1982), pp. 69-71, 89-92, along with many other passages.  I am using the Chinese /Japanese edition of Kumarajiva's translation, Myoho Rengekyo, 3 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanamai Bunko, 1996). English translations consulted are Leon Hurvitz, trans. Films Society! Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the essay subject, Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976); Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tamura, and Kojiro Miyasaka, trans. Excellent Letters! The Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings, The Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law, and Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (New York: Weatherhill, 1975); and Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).  Introduction to George J. Essay English! Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture, p. 2.  Jodo, literally ascending the hall, referred to here as dharma discourses, were the major form of presentation in statement developmental Sung China Ch'an temples.
They were often quite brief, given in the Dharma Hall with the teacher on the high seat on subject, the altar and with the medical cover letters, monks standing. English! Apparently they were the in speech, teaching form eventually favored by Dogen, since he nearly stopped writing the longer essays of essay subject english, Shobogenzo after 1244, but continued using the formal Jodo talks, which were recorded in excellent medical Eihei Koroku , in training his monks at Eiheiji before his death in 1253.  All references to Eihei Koroku are from the earlier monkaku version (rather than Manzan's later edition) in Kosaka Kiyu and Suzuki Kakuzen, eds. Dogen Zenji Zenshu. vols. 3 and 4 (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1989). Essay Subject! All translations in this essay are from Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, trans. Research! Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, forthcoming).  Yun-men's response to essay subject english a monk's question, What is Buddha? of kanshiketsu has been interpreted legitimately either as a dried shitstick, a standard implement that was used as we now use toilet paper, or simply as a dried turd, an interpretation derived from Chuang-tzu's usage, which will be used as the translation in other jodo below, according to varied contexts. Yun-men's equation of letters, Buddha with kanshiketsu appears, for example, in Mumonkan , case 21.
See Yamada, Gateless Gate, pp. 109-112. For a discussion of Dogen's likely interpretation of Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's utterance as sesame rather than the essay, usual translation of flax, see the note to use of antithesis Dogen's reference to it in Tenzokyokun in Leighton and Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community, P. 56. This story appears, for example, in case 12 of Hekiganroku and in case 18 of essay, Mumonkan . See Thomas Cleary and introduction paper, J.C. Cleary, trans. Essay English! The Blue Cliff Record (Boston: Shambhala, 1977), pp. 81-87; and Koun Yamada, Gateless Gate (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1967), pp. 96-99.
 See Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra, p. 45; Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 45; Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 74.  William LaFleur, The Karma of Words: Buddhism and introduction guidelines research paper, the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 87.  Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 29-30.  LaFleur, The Karma of Words, p. 87.  Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, p. 14.  See Norman Waddell and Masao Abe, trans. Essay Subject! The Heart of Shobogenzo (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), pp. Antithesis In Speech! 59-98.  George J. Tanabe, Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and essay subject english, Knowledge in Early Kamakura Buddhism. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 9.  See Taigen Dan Leighton and Kazuaki Tanahashi, trans.
Within a Dream Expressing a Dream, in Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999), pp. 165-172.  Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), p. 69.  For Myoe's dream journal, and commentary, see Tanabe, Myoe the Dreamkeeper, cited above, and Hayao Kawaii, The Buddhist Priest Myoe: A Life of Dreams, translated with introduction by Mark Unno, (Venice, Ca.: The Lapis Press, 1992).  See Bernard Faure, Visions of in speech, Power: Imagining Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).  For further discussion of the stereotypical distinctions between Keizan and Dogen, see Faure, Visions of Power, pp. 3-4, 211-215.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, pp. Subject English! 170-171; and Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the thesis, Fine Dharma, pp. Essay Subject! 223-224.
 I am indebted for clarification of the films society, difference in Dogen's reading of this passage, and for subject many other suggestions for this paper, to the kind response commentary of Jan Nattier.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 171.  The Lotus Sutra includes a number of variations on the full formula for essay descriptions of buddhas and their buddha-fields parodied by Dogen, also including versions in chapter twelve on Devadatta and chapter twenty-three on the Bodhisattva Medicine King. One of the versions closest to the full formula parodied by Dogen is the description of Ananda's prediction in chapter nine. See Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 168-169.  Dogen refers frequently to ladles in Eihei Koroku , used as a term for reliable practice implements, and subject english, sometimes for practitioners themselves. For other examples, jodo 219 in 1247 begins, Abundant with ten thousand virtues, the sitting cushions and wooden ladles are dignified. In jodo 320 in 1249, Dogen refers to Shakyamuni himself as, The wooden ladle at Vulture Peak.
 Faure, Visions of Power, p. 116.  See Thomas Cleary, trans. Book of Serenity (Boston: Shambhala, 1998; originally published by Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990), pp. Theories! 332-334.  For the iconographic forms of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, see Taigen Daniel Leighton, Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and essay subject english, their Modern Expression (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1998), pp.
159-170.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 169.  See Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 52. Statement Developmental Theories! Compared to the Sanskrit original, which simply denotes plural buddhas, Kumarajiva's rendition emphasizes the relational aspect of a buddha together with a buddha.  See Tanahashi, Moon in a Dewdrop, pp.