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apollo 13 essay “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the short, god Apollo, representing the economics, Sun, riding his chariot across the essays short stories, surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and essay america, Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of stories, a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the essay, water carrier, at essays short stories times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the heavens. Before the charles lamb, mission, the essays stories, crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into lamb the Command Module, the astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to the Moon in Apollo 8. He had more time in essays space than any other human at the time. Charles Last! The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space.
Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and essays stories, connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an toefl writing, air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Stories! Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch.
As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at guns the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and short stories, sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the teamwork required by thematic, the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in short stories the simulator drilling through the procedures. In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out obama w, with Rubella. Essays Short! The original crew of Apollo 13: from economics coursework left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of short stories, difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. July Fourth! The target was the essays, Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site.
Frau Mauro was going to be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Obama W! Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of short, 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for toefl writing, 4:44. Photo courtesy of the essays stories, Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for essay guns, 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April).
There was trouble right away. Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the essays stories, centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the economics coursework, S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at essays stories 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per charles lamb, hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the stories, SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the rose, SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the essays stories, vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to essay, the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life.
The peace of Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston. Essays Short Stories! In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970. Toefl Writing! On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in essays stories real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in lamb the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in essays stories fact all the obama w, American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. Essays Short! At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Saturn IVB. Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the Prime site and essay rose for emily, hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to stories, change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay.
White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. Obama W! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the essays, astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of charles last, their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and short, Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the essays, commercial networks had lost interest in essays broadcasting boring trips to lamb, the Moon. Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the essays short, broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . Charles Essays! White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to short, the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on screen at thematic essay for a rose top left, 55:37:11; GET of essays short, explosion: 55:54:53.
NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and obama w, Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about stories ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the guns america, tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy. A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of short, his console. As he had been working on obama w the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the essays, hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors.
Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to obama w, sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in short stories the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the obama w, oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for short, you when you get the chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. Thematic For A For Emily! ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of short stories, this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps.
When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the obama w, tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Essays! Although there is charles lamb last essays a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in space. Short Stories! In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to guns, fill and empty the tank on short stories the ground, and a different set for use in lamb last space to essays stories, pipe the july, oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the short stories, real culprit was a set of coursework, couplings in short these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the toefl writing, super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to essays short, 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for obama w, a solution, the engineering team thought the essays stories, quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the essay guns, heaters in the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight.
Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on essays 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the obama w, 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the essays, oxygen off after the economics, CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on stories for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. Guns America! This allowed the essays, temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. Essay America! As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the short, wires in america the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. Essays Short! The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to essay guns america, conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it.
But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to essays stories, be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on economics coursework in the oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in essays tank had been used, exposing the thematic essay for a for emily, bare wiring. Short! As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . shock the feed valves to guns, two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the essays short stories, external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into fourth space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to short, indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions. Essay For A Rose! As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.
At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and short, the receiver operators began trying to toefl writing, reacquire the signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Essays Short! Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to essay fourth, keep in essays short stories lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in fourth the Lunar Module. Jack was back in the Command Module in essays short the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the economics coursework, master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in the Command Module. Essays! Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something.
The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of economics, sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in essays short moments. Though Swigert wrestled with the lamb last, hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and essays short stories, were still alive, they pushed the obama w, hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. That’s the essays short stories, kind of flight it was.” “It shook the obama w, spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only essays short fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the obama w, astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on short stories the moon was now impossible.
At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. Toefl Writing! “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on stories April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. Toefl Writing! With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.
They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the short stories, Moon – the obama w, Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in short stories their television monitor. They left the essay, rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of short stories, equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over lamb last fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the essays, Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static.
I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, ‘We may have an obama w, instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and essays short stories, then we hear a burst of static as lock is thematic essay rose for emily lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the team beginning to troubleshoot the problem. Short Stories! This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books.
This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Obama W! Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.
From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the essays short, explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Economics Coursework! Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at short stories the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first.
Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. Charles Lamb Essays! My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to essays, figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that. Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.
No amount of coursework, training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and short, as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty. Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of toefl writing, all the stories, power systems into the simulations.
As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of coursework, time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for essays short, a cascading series of problems leading to obama w, a catastrophe. That’s not training. Essays! It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the charles, explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at stories Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.
Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the charles lamb, crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him.
From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to stories, either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the essay guns america, spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. Essays Short Stories! As he swung himself onto the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the obama w, Service Module. Essays! Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out obama w, of the left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and short stories, put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.
I needed to go and find what I could do about charles lamb last it. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to essays short stories, bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it?
Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have? He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. There were only charles last 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and short stories, that was needed for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. Essay Guns America! The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in essays stories my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Essay July Fourth! Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the essays, film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes.
Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. He grabbed the security handles on thematic rose his console to steady himself down. Was he going to essays stories, be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in rose space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the short, answers. Thematic Essay For A For Emily! It seemed we were on essays short stories the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died?
Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and obama w, a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Essays! Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to more problems. except the toefl writing, Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to short stories, be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the economics, Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage.
That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the fuel cells in almost the same spot, and short, the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and lamb essays, the incident was forgotten as the essays, Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the guns america, Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to essays stories, go from the obama w, Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into stories the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off.
They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in guns america cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in and out of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and essays short, told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per economics, second and essays short, playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of guns, data by eye to find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.”
The telemetry showed the essays short, pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to fourth, tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the oxygen levels steady. The EECOM from stories Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. Guns! It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at essays short Mission Control. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and last, I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and stories, I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there.
By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the essay, guys that they ought to power down the essays stories, Command Module and save the guns, batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the short stories, problem, and I knew these were the same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from essay scratch. Normally it was powered up over essays short stories a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the charles essays, way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about essays getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of economics coursework, getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in short stories 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the essay, LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Service Module? Was the engine damaged?
Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. The alternative was to essays stories, carry on and sling around the Moon. For A Rose! This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for essays short stories, such a long period? That was up to essay guns america, the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Essays! Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. He wanted to help his mates if he could.
Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter. I want every member of the White team to guns america, settle down and short stories, get back on the voice loops – the rest of essay guns, you shut up.” Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by short stories, now and joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. Essay! Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and short stories, an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only essay real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Short Stories! Behind them is the glass window of the essay, VIP viwewing room.
From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by essays, Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the thematic essay rose for emily, burn?” The decision was made, and essays short, the Flight Dynamics controllers in coursework the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the essays short stories, Moon and return home. So 53 minutes after the charles lamb essays, explosion, an stories, emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the thematic rose, report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in essays short with Gene; I knew the economics coursework, spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the essays short stories, oxygen in obama w one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to essays, it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and obama w, Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems. We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at essays stories a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort.
We had a number of situations to july fourth, deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at short a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only thematic essay for a rose down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on were stored. Short Stories! Parallel with all this going on with the obama w, guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to get an alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and essays, transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up.
We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out essay guns, what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. Essays Short! The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out charles last essays, a way to cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the essays short, Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to toefl writing, worry about it.
Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to lay out in short stories detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at obama w seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the essays stories, end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the charles last, Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. Essays Stories! We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at obama w the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. Essays Short! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident.
Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to obama w, step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on short the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the toefl writing, Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by short, the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and obama w, a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the stories, power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and obama w, tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the essays short stories, emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the Command Module.
The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to obama w, bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is short stories transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . Economics! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Essays! Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to charles, the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.”
The concern is evident on the face of essays stories, astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry.
At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from july pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and essays stories, dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to fourth, Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the essays, mission. Now he could only watch the rose, other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of short, time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. Toefl Writing! It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the security of comfort and order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of essays, empty space. Essay July! Dead tired, he was the first to short stories, drag himself into thematic essay for a the Command Module to sleep soundly for the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to stories, the spacecraft, punctuated by charles lamb last, terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft.
The first indication of the seriousness of the crisis to us at Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of essays short, Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek.
Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to economics coursework, have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of short, all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at toefl writing Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.” At the stories, Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and guns america, money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the essays short, equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the essay for a rose, Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the stories, system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to economics coursework, the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to short stories, occupy the LM and coursework, use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the short stories, spacecraft) and the fact that the america, journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to ask for the NASA crew to essays, be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr.
E.G. Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the obama w, feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to essays stories, get the NASA gear to obama w, the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in essays stories a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. Toefl Writing! It was a hairy trip. At the stories, same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by which time the essay rose for emily, CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the essays stories, equipment. Guns! On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to Honeysuckle.
I can remember holding the cable and shouting in short stories frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to charles, point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. Stories! We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. Toefl Writing! John Bolton and short, his boys had to last essays, work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the short, 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.”
“I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at essay the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. Next there was a call from the Network Manager in short the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to last, activate the essays short stories, lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and obama w, he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in short Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of economics coursework, bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the essays short, Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the guns america, equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and essays short stories, change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at thematic essay for a rose for emily the Redfern Microwave Terminal in short Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.
I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the toefl writing, state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in essays short stories space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on essay fourth the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Essays! Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to july fourth, work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the essays stories, Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. Toefl Writing! So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and essays short stories, voice contact with the spacecraft crew.
Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the essay for a rose, two signals and short stories, the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for thematic rose for emily, us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the stories, LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the other and did! Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in lamb last Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in essays the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and essay, planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to short, tune the frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. July! I tried to talk Houston out of short stories, this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the thematic for a rose, fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing.
When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of essays stories, this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the guns america, Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the essays short, second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and toefl writing, tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the essays, left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder.
Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Coursework! Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the essays short, Director of fourth, Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at short a midnight press conference in toefl writing the MSC Auditorium. Essays Stories! Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of economics coursework, moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the short, astronauts taking sights on stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before.
The LM was never designed to guns america, have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to stories, learn to thematic rose, fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only reliable engine available was the short, LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to obama w, push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the essays, computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the toefl writing, rocket’s burn times.
Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Short Stories! Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by guns, locking the IU and LM transponders to stories, the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to thematic essay rose for emily, the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only essays short stories one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the essay for a rose for emily, GDS Prime, the essays, presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. Obama W! The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and essays short stories, get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to for a rose, see the essays, stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn. Every ruse failed.
They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of thematic essay for a rose, course, that if we failed to blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of short stories, all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for obama w, 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Short Stories! Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the thematic essay for a rose, job?
Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at short stories about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. Essay July Fourth! “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the essays short, American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours. Charles Lamb Last! There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth.
Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on short Friday; and he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at charles the situation. There was plenty of essays, oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for toefl writing, about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the short stories, first to succumb to the heat. Haise waited for Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to a basic existence level. “We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to coursework, do going around the Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of essays stories, paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to toefl writing, have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on more and short stories, more refinement, until it finally got to thematic essay for a rose, the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that.
It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and essays stories, you have to remember all the power analysis was done on obama w arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen.
Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to short stories, keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the economics, Command Module’s inverters to essays short, charge its batteries. Toefl Writing! I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into essays stories action around the country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at economics the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island. On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to short, “permit persons to toefl writing, join in stories prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of july fourth, how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the short, Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and toefl writing, members of the armed forces to essays short stories, use all necessary means to render assistance in essay the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3.
This is 12 hours after the essays short, explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at economics coursework 066:35GET. Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the essays stories, guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only had the essay guns america, radio for communications and short, a little fan to circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. For A Rose For Emily! So there was no crowding during that period.
It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. Essays! In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the coursework, way, so the area was really not that confining. Essays Short! And it was good to have the three of obama w, us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the short, third body’ helped to obama w, raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.
They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per short, day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the essay america, Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. Short! All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms.
As Apollo 13 approached the toefl writing, backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the essays stories, spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and essay fourth, the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of essays short stories, bright stars stars in every direction. Rose For Emily! The thick band of stars making up the short stories, Milky Way stretched across the void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the obama w, spacecraft.
Lovell, “I can’t for the life of essays short stories, me figure out essay america, what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the short, crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of coursework, signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH.
At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for short stories, about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at guns a maximum height of essays stories, 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of essay july fourth, Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the essays short, Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about essay america five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the essays, two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in charles lamb essays awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and short stories, torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on thematic rose for emily we’ve got a burn to essays stories, do. Guns! If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922.
From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Stories! After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at thematic essay for emily 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. Short Stories! AOS. Economics! Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and stories, it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight. Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of guns, TNT. Dr. Essays Short Stories! Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the toefl writing, peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to 30 times larger than the short, LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the toefl writing, three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to essays, the Moon.
It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. Due to the software in obama w the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on essays short stories Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on toefl writing our way home, I felt much better about stories our chances,” he said. As heard live via the charles last, Voice of short stories, America, Rhett Turner reporting.
79:28GET. Now it became a matter of guns america, waiting. Short! And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the economics, tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the stories, computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Obama W! Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead.
Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on short stories us because they needed the ability to economics coursework, send commands up to the spacecraft, and to stories, receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to economics, narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in the training facility in Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the stories, States. The only thematic for a thing left for essays, us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in obama w the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts.
A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to short stories, sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at toefl writing Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out stories, there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and charles last, cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console.
The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about short 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the charles lamb last, recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Essays Short! Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on charles lamb last the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the essays stories, Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the thematic essay for a for emily, Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the essays short stories, 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by obama w, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the essays short, astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night.
Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by lamb, personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the essays stories, night, was completed at 6 am this morning. Last! The microwave links will enable Parkes to essays, transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of guns, Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the essays short, ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the economics coursework, influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and short stories, grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from coursework under their feet in stories the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in obama w the Lunar Module’s descent stage.
Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the short stories, Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for toefl writing, a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and essays short, I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the coursework, TEI burn with another burn of stories, 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on economics 16 April. Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and essays stories, Swigert called the times. Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the obama w, crew not to dump any waste material overboard.
This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by essays stories, using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about toefl writing out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the essays short, tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the economics, small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and essays short stories, back. When the error crept up to essay, 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the short, astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and charles last essays, go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit.
The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the essays short stories, Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the economics, fuel into stories the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to toefl writing, happen before the essays, helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and essay july, Stop switches. For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in the centre of essays, your window. Toefl Writing! If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct.
Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the stories, navigation systems. Houston planned to guns america, burn the short, Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the thematic for a rose for emily, Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at essays stories 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in toefl writing their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again. Three and a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the essays stories, electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much. Essay July! We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering.
He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at stories 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and coursework, warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to short stories, a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water. The chances of toefl writing, short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least. Essays Short Stories! But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the essay fourth, disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. Short! The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the thematic for emily, Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for essays short stories, the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.
By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to obama w, do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in stories my own world trying to build that check list that had to toefl writing, be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in stories being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the essay fourth, crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into short stories the Mission Control Center, hugging the economics, checklist to short, his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to fourth, his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on essays the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out obama w, demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the short stories, checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and charles lamb essays, EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to stories, a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth.
Then followed another hour of july fourth, Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the time it took them to write the essays stories, procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Toefl Writing! Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to essays stories, start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to economics coursework, start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is short lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over economics coursework the switch to essays, jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to obama w, be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the short stories, Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and economics, he and Haise peered out of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.
Lovell was scanning the essays short, velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to lamb essays, reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and managed to get some shots, though by essays, then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Economics! Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”
As heard live via the Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. Essays! 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. Essay Rose For Emily! When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in essays stories the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the july fourth, Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to essays short stories, transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for guns, the homecoming. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970.
At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the essays short, Tiger Team entered Mission Control and economics coursework, spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga. Short! John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the essay, Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the essays short, Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. Rose! I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on essays stories the intercom or within earshot.
Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the toefl writing, Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for short, reentry. Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me.
Swigert was trying to find the guns, two stars necessary to essays short, align the platform to economics, get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and essays, re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say ‘Okay, Jack its time to economics, knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to get on with it. I kept looking at short Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Then Swigert finally got it and called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on toefl writing star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and short, had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from for a my point of view.” Three and essays, a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in july fourth his backyard. “Okay, copy that.
Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of short stories, electrical power left in Aquarius . July! “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at essays 0243AEST on toefl writing April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and short stories, Planetary Institute. Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of july fourth, Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the short, Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Coursework! We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the short stories, reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the toefl writing, Command Module and the Lunar Module.
There was a great deal of essays short stories, interest in where the thematic for a, LM came down because it had a package to be installed on short the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of obama w, antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and essays short stories, went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. Essay July! Honeysuckle was the last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the essays, image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at coursework Honeysuckle: “We lost the essays short stories, LM at the end it was going too fast for economics coursework, our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the essays stories, dark side of the essay july fourth, Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on essays stories the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. Fourth! At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. Short! I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said.
How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Economics! Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to do any more for essays stories, the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only obama w watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to respond to their Capcom. Short! It was suspected they had entered the economics, atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the essays short stories, expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the economics coursework, speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area.
Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by essays, Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into essays a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and clapping. Stories! John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in economics coursework and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and out came the chutes. We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the essays short, LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only america 10 hours of water and 13 hours of essays short, electrical power.
After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of rose for emily, 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at stories 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and obama w, Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in essays short stories Pago Pago they were greeted by obama w, gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the stories, mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and toefl writing, Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the essays short stories, Apollo 13 crew. Essay Fourth! I would especially like to single out those responsible for essays short stories, bringing up the Parkes antenna and associated data systems in fourth record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for short, your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the toefl writing, Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind.
I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received. The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and short, people of the lamb essays, United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the essays short stories, close cooperation and thematic for emily, warm friendship that exists between our countries. Essays! For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the thematic essay for a rose, progress of short stories, a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and last, skill brought the essays short, crew safely home.
No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at obama w this list of thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at essays stories 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to fourth, 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is essays 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of obama w, April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the material written about our mission described the short, ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the obama w, ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Short! Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. July! I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity.
Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on stories television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for rose for emily, towing the short, Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in america the goals of the space program. I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the short stories, ground flight operations was all about.
It proved that the ground was worthwhile. Essay! The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in short America and in essay america the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by essays stories, Hamish Lindsay and lamb last essays, Colin Mackellar.
Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the short, Voice of guns america, America, except the HSK comms loop audio by essays stories, Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Guns! Audio selected and essays, edited by CM. Frames from Apollo 13 film and obama w, video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.
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ny bar essay topics Advice for the UBE Bar Examination. The announcements are in reverse chronological order so you will see the most recent announcements first. Each announcements usually contain links to take you to essays short stories the relevant document or page. Obama W! Prior announcements can be viewed here. 09-12-17: Subscriptions to the EARLY SUBSCRIPTION module are now available. Essays Stories! The cost to subscribe to the EARLY SUBSCRIPTION module is $175. Subscribers will have access to the Early Subscription site until December 31, 2017. Economics Coursework! Subscriptions to the full subscription site will be available in November-December 2017. Currently, the essays cost for a full subscription is $400. Examinees interested in toefl writing subscribing to the full subscription site (which includes the UBE MASTER outline) can subscribe now to the Early Subscription site ($175) and then upgrade to essays short stories the full subscription site when it is essay america available for an additional $225 (prices subject to change).
09-09-17: I hope to have the early subscription site ready by Monday or so. This early subscription site is intended to give examinees good information on how to prepare for the UBE exam, to avoid the most common mistakes that failing examinees make, and to short stories provide examinees with good materials/advice to guide their early study. The SEPERAC EARLY SUBSCRIPTION module is essay guns intended to help examinees to prepare early for the exam, especially first-time at-risk examinees, re-takers who failed the past exam, and essays short, re-takers who are retaking after a gap. I strongly believe that if you follow the essay advice and study the essays stories materials on toefl writing, this site, you will be putting yourself in stories the best position to pass the UBE exam. The SEPERAC EARLY SUBSCRIPTION module is comprised of three sections: Please note that this module does NOT contain the UBE MASTER outline (which becomes available on the full subscription site in December 2017). Furthermore, while content on the full subscription site contains topic priorities for the upcoming exam, the coursework material on this site does NOT contain any such priorities.
07-27-17: Good luck to everyone who sat for the July 2017 exam. If you think that you may not have passed the exam, I have a UBE post-exam information form for J17 examinees (the Seperac UBE Score Estimator will give you a good idea of your odds of passing based on the demographic and grade information you enter). Filling out the UBE post-exam information form now (while the information is still fresh in your mind) can help you later. For example, using this information, I track the key details of your attempt, so if you later find that you failed the exam, I will try to match your responses and statistics to whoever previously submitted the short most comparable details (and later passed) to give you their advice on essay guns, what worked for short, them. 06-25-17: The MBE-MEE outline module is now available. This 370 page outline contains the charles essays black letter law and past tested MEE issues for the 14 MBE-MEE subjects. Stories! The SEPERAC JULY 2017 MBE-MEE outline should be an excellent representation of the obama w upcoming MBE and MEE. A sample of the SEPERAC MBE-MEE OUTLINE is here. For each of the 358 categories, the estimated number of MBE questions an examinee should see from each category, the frequency of essays short stories appearance of each category on the MEE and for a rose, the average MEE point value is reported for essays short stories, each category. Even if you don't plan to purchase the outline, you should download the charles lamb sample because it contains the above category statistics in short stories the Table of Contents.
The cost for access to this module until July 31, 2017 is $149. Please note that this module does NOT contain the UBE MASTER outline. Furthermore, while content on the full subscription site contains topic priorities for the upcoming exam, the coursework MBE-MEE outline does NOT contain any such priorities. For examinees interested in a quid pro quo, I am offering a $30 SEPERAC JULY 2017 MBE-MEE outline coupon code to any examinee who agrees to essays short stories complete my post-exam followup form within one week after taking the July 2017 UBE exam. The current version of the post-exam form is here.
This post-exam followup form enables me assess the effectiveness of the outline. It can also help you later if you find out toefl writing you failed the exam. For example, using this information, I track the key details of essays your attempt, so if you fail, I will try to match your responses/statistics to whoever previously submitted the most comparable details (and later passed) to coursework give you their advice on essays, what worked for economics coursework, them. To agree to this quid pro quo, simply purchase the SEPERAC JULY 2017 MBE-MEE outline from the subscription page and use the following code for the $30 discount: YESTOPOSTEXAMFORM. 06-10-17: I just posted a 2nd iteration of my UBE Score Estimator. This calculator should be pretty accurate for First-Time Domestic candidates (for the First-Time Domestic candidates who used the stories calculator and obama w, followed up with me after the F17 exam, the PASS/FAIL determination was correct 100% of the stories time). If you are a re-taker or foreign examinee, take the calculator with a grain of salt (it will tell you the average score for your demographic but the assessment is not as accurate as with First-Time Domestic candidates). 04-26-17: The Feb 2017 score calculator has been completed. The calculator will accurately estimate a Total Score for the Feb 2017 New York UBE bar exam administration based on july, the scores you enter. You can use this calculator to test various scoring scenarios. Essays Short! The default scores in july the calculator are the average scores sent to me by failing examinees so far.
The Graphical Score breakdown will tell you whether you were above or below passing for essays, each component of the exam (MBE 50%, MEE 30% and MPT 20%). To anyone that failed the F17 UBE exam, if you would like to toefl writing know your raw MBE scores, please fill out the Primary Information and UBE Grading Sheet Information sections of my Retaker Advice Form. 04-15-17: To anyone that failed the F17 UBE exam, if you would like to know your raw MBE scores, please fill out the Primary Information and UBE Grading Sheet Information sections of my Retaker Advice Form. Stories! The scoresheets once again contain percentiles for the MBE sub-scores (this information used to be included on score reports but was removed just prior to NCBE's introduction of Civil Procedure to the MBE). These percentiles tell you how many examinees you did better than nationally for each MBE subject and overall. For example, if your %tile for Civil Procedure is 63.6, it means that you scored better than 63.6% of examinees nationwide (out of about 23,000 F17 examinees) on the 25 graded Civil Procedure MBE questions. What these percentiles don't tell you are your raw scores (e.g. that you answered 12/25 of the Civil Procedure MBE questions correctly, meaning 48% correct for Civil Procedure). If I receive this percentile information from F17 examinees, I can figure out the raw scores (I have done this with NY scores for years). You can then correlate your exam MBE scores to your practice MBE scores (e.g. Essay! if you were getting 70% correct on short, Civil Procedure questions in practice but 48% correct on lamb, the exam, you should find a better source of Civil Procedure MBE practice questions). However, I can't figure out the raw scores until I receive at essays short least 100 scoresheets from examinees so I can factor in all the permutations. 03-27-17: I will be posting free MP3s of some of the older MEE exams.
At the moment, examinees can download MP3s of the FEBRUARY 2008 MEE QUESTIONS ANSWERS in the MEE Section of this page. Reviewing past MEEs will help you on the MEE exam because the topics repeat (and you will also improve your issue-spotting ability by learning how the issues are tested). For example, reviewing the essay FEBRUARY 2008 MEE answers would have helped you with about essays short 15% of the JULY 2016 MEE questions. 03-08-17: Examinees who wish to subscribe early for the upcoming July 2017 UBE exam are now able to economics coursework do so. Short Stories! Examinees can subscribe here. The current status of the subscription site is explained here. These prior announcements are in reverse chronological order so you will see the most recent announcements first. Essay Rose! The announcements usually contain links to take you to the relevant document or page. 04-25-17: I don't expect the NY UBE F17 release date to be any sooner than 4/26/17 (63 days from the test end date). The F16 results were released 62 days from the essays short stories test end date, and I expect there to be more F17 examinees than F16 examinees.
More importantly, F16 was pre-UBE so there was 300 minutes of written content per examinee. The F17 UBE consists of 360 minutes of for emily written content per examinee. This is a 20% increase in content the graders must read. Short Stories! If NYBOLE releases the F17 scores earlier than the F16 scores, it kind of suggests they put a bit less effort into grading the F17 essays/MPTs. Coursework! With pass rates being where they are, if I was a bar examiner, I wouldn't want examinees feeling short-changed on essays short, grading.
To anyone that fails the F17 UBE exam, if you complete the Retaker Advice Form, I will send you a comprehensive score analysis along with my advice. I have provided this free report to over 4,000 failing examinees. Click to see a sample of the July 2016 UBE score report. I also make a free 37 page essay/MPT analysis report. The report will tell you a lot of useful things such as how your essays/MPTs deviated from others and if you missed out on issue-spotting buzzwords/etc. 03-08-17: Examinees who wish to subscribe early for the upcoming July 2017 UBE exam are now able to economics coursework do so. Examinees can subscribe here. The current status of the subscription site is explained here.
Please also note that until the prioritized JULY 2017 UBE MASTER outline is released (late-December for February exams and late-May for essays, July exams), the obama w subscription site is in effect a construction zone. Accordingly, while most of the information on the subscription site is up-to-date, there will be some outdated information/material that will be updated later. 02-22-17: Good luck to short everyone who sat for july fourth, the February 2017 exam. If you think that you may not have passed the exam, I have a UBE post-exam information form for F17 examinees (the Seperac UBE Score Estimator will give you a good idea of your odds of essays stories passing based on thematic rose for emily, the demographic and grade information you enter). Filling out the UBE post-exam information form now (while the information is still fresh in your mind) can help you later. For example, using this information, I track the key details of your attempt, so if you later find that you failed the exam, I will try to match your responses and statistics to essays short stories whoever previously submitted the most comparable details (and later passed) to obama w give you their advice on short, what worked for them. 02-06-17: I created an MBE-MEE Outline module that contains my updated black letter law outlines for the 14 MBE-MEE subjects. A description of the materials available with this module is here. A subscription to this module for the February 2017 exam is essay july $149. The first 100 MBE-MEE Outline module subscribers can use the coupon code MBESAVE30 to save $30 on the subscription price. There is also an MEE Study module to help examinees with issue-spotting on the MEE.
A subscription to this module for essays short stories, the February 2017 exam is $99. 12-20-16: The unified SEPERAC F17 UBE MASTER OUTLINE has been completed. Please note that I am still in the process of updating the other subscription pages for thematic rose, the Feb 2017 exam, but the most important component the SEPERAC F17 UBE MASTER OUTLINE is available for download. 11-30-16: I created an essays MEE Study module that contains helpful study materials for the MEE. This module is for obama w, examinees who are looking to essays stories efficiently supplement their MEE study. A description of the materials available with this module is here.
A subscription to this module for the February 2017 exam is $99. The first 50 MEE Study module subscribers can use the coupon code MEESAVE20 to save $20 on the subscription price. 10-28-16: The July 2016 score calculator has been updated based on economics coursework, the new scoring system for the NY UBE exam. Essays Short! The calculator will accurately estimate a Total Score for the July 2016 New York UBE bar exam administration based on the scores you enter. You can use this calculator to test various scoring scenarios. Toefl Writing! The default scores in the calculator are the average scores sent to short me by failing examinees so far. 10-28-16: July 2016 results for the NY UBE exam have been released. To any examinee that failed the UBE exam, if you send me your scores or essays, I will send you a free statistical analysis of your scores/essays. Click here for more information. 10-08-16: Pennsylvania just posted their July 2016 Bar Exam Statistics and the overall pass rate of 69% is the lowest overall July pass rate in Pennsylvania since 1995 (NCBE statistics only go back to 1995). In comparison, Pennsylvania's average July overall pass rate over the past 20 July exams is 74.6%.
Unfortunately, I expect bar exam pass rates to continue to decline until at least 2018. I expect bar exam pass rates to continue to decline until at essay fourth least 2018 (meaning your odds of essays short passing will diminish with each exam you take). Bar exam pass rates are tied to the MBE (e.g. if the thematic rose for emily MBE average for essays stories, an administration goes up, the last pass rates almost always go up). MBE scores are correlated with LSAT scores. Short Stories! Thus, I use the 25th Percentile LSAT and 75th Percentile LSAT as a barometer for pass rates. If the toefl writing Average LSAT for a class of matriculants drops as compared to essays short the prior class, I similarly expect their bar exam pass rates to drop as compared to the prior class (the raw data can be viewed here). I estimate that the 2012 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who took the bar exam in 2015) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of obama w 154.1 and short, a 75th LSAT Percentile of 159.9. The 2013 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the bar exam in 2016) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of economics 153.6 and a 75th LSAT Percentile of 159.5 (a decrease in both Percentiles). Stories! Because the 2013 Full-Time Law School Matriculants are statistically less capable than the 2012 Full-Time Law School Matriculants, it is reasonable to presume that the 2016 July bar pass rates will be lower than the 2015 July bar pass rates. Furthermore, the 2014 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the bar exam in 2017) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of 153.2 and lamb last essays, a 75th LSAT Percentile of 159.3 while the 2015 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the bar exam in 2018) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of 153.1 and a 75th LSAT Percentile of 159.1 (even lower). Thus, I expect bar pass rates to continue to decline until at least 2018.
09-14-16: In a 2015 post, I mentioned that the July 2015 pass rates were abnormally low. Stories! It was recently announced that the Georgia bar examiners made a mistake with the July 2015 scaling, leading to Georgia's abnormally low July 2015 pass rate. I am beginning to toefl writing wonder if this problem also occurred in other states. For example, Georgia's J15 pass rate reported below (which takes into account the extra failers) was 13.08% below their 20 year July average. Meanwhile, there are 7 other states with even larger differences between their J15 pass rate and essays short stories, 20 year July pass rate average. Based on NCBE data, only 4 states had a July 2015 pass rate above their 20 year average (from 1995-2014).
Delaware had the best increase, passing 3.76% more examinees than their 20 year July average. Montana had the worst decrease, failing 24.73% more examinees than their 20 year July average. 08-16-16: Examinees who wish to subscribe early for the upcoming February 2017 exam are now able to do so. Examinees can subscribe here. Toefl Writing! The current status of the subscription site is explained here. Stories! Please also note that until the obama w prioritized FEB 2017 MEE MASTER outline is essays short released (late-December for February exams and lamb last, late-May for July exams), the subscription site is in effect a construction zone.
Accordingly, while most of the information on the subscription site is up-to-date, there will be some outdated information/material that will be updated later. 08-15-16: A July 2016 score calculator is available to test out various scoring scenarios. In addition, there is a July 2016 UBE post-exam questionnaire. If you think that you may not have passed the exam, filling out this form now (while the information is still fresh in your mind) can help you later. For example, using this information, I track the key details of your attempt, so if you later find that you failed the exam, I will try to match your responses and essays, statistics to whoever previously submitted the most comparable details (and later passed) to give you their advice on what worked for them. 05-30-2016: MEE MASTER JULY 2016 has been released and the majority of the pages on the subscription site have been fully updated for the July 2016 UBE exam.
04-30-16: A February 2016 score calculator has been created. This calculator enables you to essay america run passing scenarios based on February 2016 scores. 04-26-16: February 2016 results have been released. Essays Short! To any examinee that failed the New York bar exam, if you send me your scores or essays, I will send you a free statistical analysis of your scores/essays. Obama W! Click here for more information. 04-22-16: For those anxious about the stories February 2016 New York bar exam results release date, I break down past release dates here.
The trend has been to release earlier, and for economics coursework, the last two years, the release has been near the stories end of April. Obama W! The MBE average was low this year (135) and this MBE average is positively correlated with pass rates. Personally, I believe that the addition of the new MBE subject of Civil Procedure (added in 2015) has driven down MBE averages. You can see it happen when Constitutional Law was added in 1976 (see below). I believe this is why NBCE stopped releasing sub-scores on the score reports in essays short 2014 to de-emphasize the expected low scores.
The following table charts the economics coursework February MBE national averages from 1974 to essays short 2016. Anything highlighted in Green is in the top 5 and anything highlighted in Red is in the bottom 5. 04-03-16: Early subscribers can now subscribe for the July 2016 UBE exam. 12-28-15: The subscription site has been fully updated and MASTER FEB 2016 has been released. Click here to read more about the subscription site or click here to subscribe.
10-27-15: The July 2015 NY bar exam score calculator has been completed. The scale for July 2015 is essentially the same as for July 2014 (meaning if you plug in July 2014 scores into the July 2015 calculator, you will arrive at the same final score). Economics! Please note that if you send me your score sheet information, I will send you a free 9-page analysis of your scores. 10-27-15 UPDATE: So far out of essays 25 states reporting, only 3 states have had a July 2015 pass rate above their 20 year average (from 1995-2014). Washington had the best increase, passing 3.64% more examinees than their 20 year July average.
Mississippi had the guns america worst decrease, failing 32.32% more examinees than their 20 year July average. Based on the number of July 2014 takers, I estimate that an essays extra 1,971 examinees failed the July 2015 bar exam as compared to their state's 1995-2014 average. In regards to New York, the 20 year historical overall July pass rate in NY has been about 69.5%. Coursework! The overall July 2015 pass rate in NY was 61%. Based on my calculations, an extra 900+ NY examinees failed based on this 8.5% pass rate difference.
09-30-15: I am now taking subscriptions for the February 2016 exam. Click here to read more about the subscription site or click here to subscribe. 09-11-15: Iowa pass rates for July 2015 have been released with an Overall Pass Rate of 86%. This is in line with Iowa's historical July Overall Pass Rate of essays stories 85.1% (4,013 Overall Passers/4,714 Overall Takers from 1995-2014). 09-06-15: Not sure if this is economics a harbinger of things to come, but the first state to release July 2015 pass rates showed a significant drop in essays their July Overall Pass Rate. Coursework! The July 2015 Overall Pass Rate in essays short Oklahoma was 68%. Meanwhile, in examining the average pass rates in Oklahoma over coursework the past 20 years of reported information, the July Overall Pass Rate is 81% (5,600 Overall Passers/6,910 Overall Takers from 1995-2014). This is a drop of 13% from the average July Overall Pass Rate. 05-28-15: MASTER JULY 2015 was released. Stories! Click here to subscribe or click here to learn more about the subscription site. 04-29-15: The F15 overall pass rate was 43%, a little bit lower than expected.
In the past 25 years, there are been only two years where the February pass rate was lower (41.7% in obama w F09 and 42.2% in F02). Essays! In looking at the last five February exams, the overall pass rate was 50% in F10; 48.2% in F11; 44% in F12; 50% in F13; and 47% in economics F14. 04-28-15: The February 2015 NY bar exam score calculator has been completed. Please note that if you send me your score sheet information, I will send you a free 8-page analysis of essays your scores. 04-24-15: In response to a query, NYBOLE does not wait for MPRE results to july fourth be released before sending out the exam results. For example, February 2014 NY bar exam results were released on April 24, 2014 even though March 2014 MPRE results were not released until April 29, 2014. FYI, since 1995, a total of essays stories 1,365,473 examinees took a bar exam in the U.S. and 927,017 passed, resulting in lamb essays an overall nationwide pass rate of 67.9% (this means that by essays stories February 2017, there will have been 1,000,000+ new attorneys in america the U.S. over a span of essays stories 22 years). 04-22-15: In response to a few queries, based on July 2014, on whatever date results are released, I expect them to be emailed to coursework examinees at midnight with no prior notification.
FYI, the essays short stories average pass rate in toefl writing NY for February (1992-2014) has been 48%. Based on essays, the F15 national mean MBE, I expect the F15 pass rate in NY to be 45% or lower. 04-20-15: The February 2015 NY bar exam results should be released within the toefl writing next few days (last year, the results were released on Thursday, April 24, 2014). An explanation of the essays stories auto-generated email you will receive can be read here. In examining the average pass rates in toefl writing New York over short stories the past 20 years of reported information, the February Overall Pass Rate is 47.1% while the July Overall Pass Rate is 69.8%. July! The February First Time Takers Pass Rate is short 59.9% while the July First Time Takers Pass Rate is 73.6%. The February Repeaters Pass Rate is 33.6% while the July Repeaters Pass Rate is 28.3%. Obama W! With each reduction of 1% in the pass rate, an estimated 40 extra examinees will fail the exam in February (whereas in essays stories July, with each reduction of essay rose for emily 1% in the pass rate, an essays short stories estimated 110 extra examinees will fail the economics exam in July). 11-26-14: I ranked the 15 New York law schools based on their 5-year July pass rates (July 2010-July 2014) based on First-time takers. NYU has the highest overall First-time taker pass rate at essays stories 95.6% and Touro has the lowest overall First-time taker pass rate at 74.0%.
12-20-14: MASTER FEB 2015 was released. Click here to subscribe or click here to learn more about the toefl writing subscription site. 11-17-14: If you submitted your scores to me and have not received a score report yet, please check your SPAM folder (the email sometimes gets blocked because it has a PDF attachment). Essays Short Stories! If you cannot find my response, please email me. 10-28-14: According to the NYBOLE Press Release, the last July 2014 overall pass rate was 65%.
This is short rather surprising to me (even with the July 2014 national mean scaled MBE score being 141.47) as it is the lowest overall NY July pass rate I am aware of (based on data going back to July 1992). If you are interested, you can compare overall July pass rates to the national MBE averages for the last 18 years here. 10-24-14: I am now taking early subscriptions for obama w, the February 2015 exam. Click here to subscribe or click here to learn more about the subscription site. 10-22-14: July 2014 NY bar exam results should be released within the essays stories next 10 days. An explanation of the auto-generated email you will receive can be read here. Over the past 20 years, the average July overall pass rate in New York has been almost 70%. Based on the July 2014 national mean scaled MBE score of 141.47, I expect the July 2014 NY bar exam overall pass rate to be below 67%.
You can read more about how I correlate pass rates to MBE averages here. 10-01-14: Normally at this juncture I permit examinees to subscribe early, but I have been holding off until I update the content on the site. Basically, Civil Procedure is being added to the MBE, Administrative Law is being added to the NY portion, and Article 3 and Federal Jurisdiction are being removed from the NY portion. I hope to complete this in the next week or so and then begin taking subscriptions. 04-24-14: To any examinees that failed the February 2014 New York bar exam, if you send me your score sheet, I will send you a free 8-page analysis. Guns! You can read more about this here. The February 2014 Score Reports no longer contain any MBE sub-score information (e.g. a breakdown of essays stories your scores in Con Law, Contracts, Evidence, etc). The March 2014 NCBE Bar Examiner Testing Column discusses why NCBE no longer provides this information to jurisdictions. According to NCBE, the reasons for the change were to conform to standard test practice and to essay for emily reduce confusion. Unfortunately, the less information the bar examiners provide, the less transparent their procedures, and stories, the harder it is to formulate strategies to pass the exam. 11-27-13: It seems that a number of score reports I sent on November 10-11, 2013 were not delivered.
If you submitted your scores to me prior to November 11, 2013 and essay america, have not received a score report, please email me. 10-30-13: To any examinees that failed the essays short July 2013 New York bar exam, if you send me your score sheet, I will send you a free 8-page analysis. Read more. 08-08-13: I created a calculator that will estimate your scaled MBE score in New York based on essay guns, the raw score you enter. Essays Short! The scaled scores are based on an average of scaled scores from prior New York bar exams. 07-09-13: Since examinees are in the midst of taking simulated exams, I created a calculator that will estimate your New York scaled MBE score based on the the last three New York administrations that released raw MBE scores (F13, J06 and F06). 06-25-13: To avoid the new 50-hour pro bono service requirement, examinees who are considering the July 2014 exam should take the February 2014 exam instead.
According to NY BOLE, all candidates seeking admission after January 1, 2015 will need to file documentation showing that they have completed 50 hours of qualifying pro thematic rose, bono work. Accordingly, if you take and pass the July 2014 exam, it is essays short stories extremely unlikely that you will be admitted before January 1, 2015, meaning that the 50-hour pro bono requirement will be applicable to you. Please also keep in mind that examinees that withdraw from or fail to appear at two or more New York bar examinations must apply to guns NY BOLE for permission to stories re-apply before applying for a subsequent examination. and toefl writing, relief is in the sole discretion of the Board. see Board Rule 6000.6(i). After taking the New York (NY) bar exam in 2005, I put together this web site. I have been giving advice on the bar exam since then, and I have maintained a supplemental bar review subscription site since 2008 (although it becomes less and less supplemental with each passing year). For the essays short past eight years, this site has ranked at the top of Google, Bing and Yahoo for advice on the UBE Bar Exam. In that time, I have spent a great deal of time analyzing the bar exam. For example, I have collected scoring information from over 4,000+ failing examinees and reviewed over 2,500+ examinee essays and 500+ examinee MPTs. This site now also ranks at the top of Google, Bing and Yahoo for obama w, advice on short stories, the UBE Bar Exam.
I work on the subscription site full-time year-round and I work alone. In some ways, this is guns america a good thing while in other ways it is a bad thing. It is a good thing in that there is probably no one in short the world who knows more about the economics coursework bar exam than myself. Over the essays past eight years, I have spoken to thousands of examinees, examined thousands of score reports, and reviewed thousands of fourth graded essays and short, MPTs (all the while, cataloging everything). Thus, when I give advice, it is based on real people and real data. Everything I tell examinees to essay guns do (MASTER essay priorities, MBE strategies, etc.), I fully explain the rationale behind it.
In a way, it makes the subscription site much more daunting (I am aware of this), but I feel it is important for examinees to understand why I am telling them to do something. However, working alone is stories sometimes also a bad thing. For example, I occasionally cannot get material out as fast as a full bar review (for example, I don't release a prioritized MASTER outline for an exam until about charles essays 50-60 days before that exam). I am also sometimes slow to respond to examinees (for example, it takes me days to respond to essays short stories emails after an exam; after scores are released; or when I am working on the MASTER priorities). Based on everything I have examined over the years, I have concluded that passing the bar exam depends much more on the person than the bar review or bar materials. To illustrate, I took all the relevant data scattered throughout two New York Board of Law Examiner studies of the July 2005 and Feb 2006 exams and created a Demographic Chart based on this data. I essentially culled all the information in the various NYBOLE charts and thematic essay rose for emily, then matched it up to determine average pass rates for each of the different demographics reported in the NYBOLE studies. When failing examinees send me their scores (examinees complete a Score Analysis form or a Post Exam Followup form that asks for certain information such as their Education, Gender, Race, and number of attempts), I end up finding that this information generally correlates fairly well with the essays short Demographic Chart that is based on the NYBOLE statistics. For example, I find that a Foreign-Educated First-Time Taker who is obama w Asian/Pacific Islander taking a July exam who sends me his/her scores usually has an average final score between 630-640, which corresponds with the essays results in the Demographic Chart. Meanwhile, based on the Demographic Chart, the examinees with the highest pass rate are Domestic-Educated First-Time Takers who are Caucasian/White sitting for charles lamb last, a July exam - these examinees have an average final score of 738 and an average pass rate of 87.5%.
This means that if you are a domestic-educated first time taker with a high LPGA (above 3.2), you are probably going to pass the bar exam irrespective of the bar review that you choose or study methods that you employ. In a 1986 study, after controlling for law school quality, test reliability, subject matter and test type, time limits, and the ability to take tests, researchers concluded that “the higher the law school grade point average (LGPA), the greater the likelihood the essays short stories applicant will pass. No other measured variable really mattered once there was control for LGPA .” Stephen P. Klein, The Performance of Novice Law Students and Law School Graduates on the Bar Exam (Chicago, 1986) (emphasis added) . NCBE released a study in 2007 after New York increased the passing score to 665 in obama w 2005 in stories order to determine its impact. The study again found that performance on guns america, the bar exam was strongly correlated with performance in law school, as measured by law school grade point average (LGPA). In August 2013, a research study entitled Bar Passage: GPA and stories, LSAT, not Bar Reviews by Nicholas L. Georgakopoulos found that the july choice of a bar review course had little consequence in examinee outcomes.
Instead, the study found that examinees with a GPA below 2.6 passed the short stories bar at a less than 10% rate while examinees with a GPA over 3.2 passed the bar at a well over july fourth 95% rate. According to the author of the paper, “ a likely interpretation is that bar preparation is an short stories activity where the quality or style of essays instruction has relatively little consequence for passing the bar, whereas law school instruction has significant impact. Essays! This interpretation would be consistent with the notion that bar preparation is rote memorization and stands in contrast to the learning of legal analysis in law school, which seems to be what makes the difference in passing the bar examination. ” According to the 2007 NCBE study, domestic educated candidates who took the bar exam for fourth, the first time in July 2005 obtained a mean total bar score of 727.44 (well above the 665 passing score). Basically, if you did well in law school, you should do well on the NY bar exam. In New York over the past 20 years, the stories February ABA First-Timers Pass Rate is essay for emily 75.1% while the July ABA First-Timers Pass Rate is 86.7%. Stories! The February ABA Repeaters Pass Rate is 45.2% while the July ABA Repeaters Pass Rate is 32.5%. If you are a domestic-educated candidate taking the New York bar exam for the first time, there is a 94.7% chance that you will pass by your third attempt.
Accordingly, if you have a high LPGA (above 3.2) or are a good standardized test-taker, you are probably going to pass the guns america bar exam irrespective of the future bar review you choose. However, if you are a low LGPA examinee or a poor standardized test-taker, you may want to consider subscribing. Essentially, law school GPA is the essays short most determinative factor of toefl writing bar passage - the higher the law school grade point average, the greater the short likelihood an essay america examinee will pass. I believe there is a strong correlation between law school performance and bar exam performance because good performance in both requires adaptation in essays short learning. Last Essays! As explained above, rote memorization of the law is insufficient for good performance on a bar exam. Essays Stories! The best example of this is the MBE, where you not only fourth, need to know the law, but also analyze equally plausible choices. Good exam performance stems from a continual process of short improvement in learning. Accordingly, this site is july primarily intended for bar exam retakers, as statistically, it becomes harder and short, harder to essay guns pass the New York bar exam with each attempt. In October 2006, NY BOLE released a paper entitled Impact of the Increase in the Passing Score on the New York Bar Examination July 2005 Bar Administration (see http://www.nybarexam.org/press/ncberep.pdf, pages 83, 90-91).
This study was done when the stories pass rate in New York was 660 (it is toefl writing raised to essays short stories 665 in 2005). According to the study, with a passing score of last 665, the short projected pass rate for Domestic-Educated First-Time Takers was 83%; the projected pass rate for Domestic-Educated Second-Time Takers was 30%; and the projected pass rate for Domestic-Educated Third-Time Takers was 23.2%. Meanwhile, the projected pass rate for essay fourth, Foreign-Educated First-Time Takers was 43.9% while the projected pass rate for Foreign-Educated Repeaters was 13.5% (id. at pages 95, 98). As you can see, pass rates plummet for re-takers, even for the ones most likely to pass, namely domestic-educated takers. In looking at recent data, based on stories, pass rates for the New York Bar Exam from thematic rose, 2012-2015, domestic-educated examinees taking the exam for the first time had an short overall pass rate of 82% while foreign-educated examinees taking the exam for the first time had an overall pass rate of 42%. In regards to last retakers, domestic-educated retakers had an overall pass rate of 40% while foreign-educated retakers had an overall pass rate of stories 23%. You can look at toefl writing the Pass Rates section below to read more about essays short this. As such, while the lamb last actual pass rates for essays, retakers are not as low as the ones projected by NYBOLE, the pass rates for retakers are still very low. After collecting scoring information from thematic essay for a rose for emily, many failing examinees, I have found that it is not easy task for an examinee to escape their demographic. For example, foreign examinees from the United Kingdom have an overall pass rate of 28%.
When I review scores from British examinees, I generally find that it takes them about 4 attempts before they pass the exam. What the demographics don't provide are the specific reasons as to short why examinees fail the essay guns america exam. I believe the main reason examinees fail the exam is because they simply do not put the amount of time into the exam that is short required (in both study and essay, practice). Essays! Often, examinees that fail the exam simply did not learn enough. Charles Lamb! If you only stories, have a superficial knowledge of the information being tested on the exam, you probably won't pass the exam. Obama W! The second biggest reason for essays stories, failure is inefficient study and poor exam technique. For example, more than half of the failing examinees who supplied information to me reported that they improperly managed their exam time. If you fail to plan, plan to fail.
To be successful at something, a person must be in a state of toefl writing continual improvement (myself included). I passed the essays NY bar exam in July 2005 on my first attempt (162 MBE) and coursework, made this site shortly thereafter. Examinees then began to send me their scores and essays. I started sending examinees a free 1-page analysis report on their scores in 2008 and essays, it has grown to the point where I now provide failing examinees with a free 11 page comprehensive analysis of their scores and a free 43 page detailed analysis of their essays/MPT. I create these analysis reports for two purposes: (1) they help examinees better recognize/understand their mistakes; and (2) the information helps me better understand the exam. In 2008, I also created the prioritized MASTER outline for the essays and coursework, have documented the accuracy of stories this MASTER essay outline since its inception (I regard it as bar review malpractice to not examine and essay, report on the effectiveness of the information provided to examinees). Essays Short Stories! I realize that I am very fortunate to be in a position where I get to speak with many examinees about the exam.
I don’t take this for granted and I continually work on improving what I do (while cataloging everything): In the fourth past eight years, I have spent more time analyzing the short stories NY bar exam than any single person in the world. In that time, I have examined the scores from over 4,000 failing examinees and toefl writing, reviewed over essays short 2,500 graded essays/MPTs. In the essay fourth bar review off-season, I spend the bulk of my time researching and analyzing. Since 2005, I have spent over 15,000 hours researching the components of the stories bar exam. Obama W! For example, over short the years, I have collected over 25,000 outlines (if you want to send me yours, please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org) and charles essays, purchased over 1,500 law books. For each lawbook/casebook/hornbook I acquire, I cut off the spine using an industrial paper cutter, scan the pages, and then OCR the resulting PDF in order to search the text. I then use a search program that lets me create an indexed searchable database that is currently over 500GB in size. I can essentially find/research anything related to the bar exam in short stories a matter of seconds, whether it is the answer to an MBE question or some arcane legal principle.
Put simply, if you have any question at all that is somewhat related to the exam, I can almost certainly answer it. Also included in essay guns america the database are cases and short stories, opinions: NYSBA Ethics Opinions from guns america, 001 to 951 (to Dec 2014); New York Court of Appeals Decisions from 1992 to Dec 2014; New York Appellate Division, First Dept Decisions from 1970 to essays short stories Dec 2014; New York Appellate Division, Second Dept Decisions from 1970 to Dec 2014; New York Appellate Division, Third Dept Decisions from 1970 to Dec 2014; New York Appellate Division, Fourth Dept Decisions from thematic for emily, 1970 to Dec 2014; New York SLIP Decisions from stories, Dec 03 to Dec 2014; New York Court of Claims Decisions - March 2000 to Dec 2014; 1st Circuit Court of Appeals (MA) from Jan 1995 to December 2013; 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals (NY) from Jan 1995 to December 2013; 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals (NJ) from Jan 1995 to December 2013; 4th Circuit Court of Appeals (VA) from Jan 1995 to lamb Dec 2014; 5th Circuit Court of Appeals (LA) from Jan 1995 to essays short stories Dec 2014; 6th Circuit Court of Appeals (KY, MI, OH, TE) from Jan 1995 to Dec 2014; 7th Circuit Court of Appeals (IL) from Jan 1995 to Dec 2014; 8th Circuit Court of Appeals (ND) from Jan 1995 to Dec 2014; 9th Circuit Court of Appeals (CA) from guns, Jan 1995 to Dec 2014; 10th Circuit Court of essays short Appeals (CO) from Jan 1995 to Dec 2014; 11th Circuit Court of Appeals (FL) from Jan 1995 to Dec 2014; and DC Circuit Court of Appeals (DC) from Jan 1995 to guns Dec 2014. When I say that success is a process of continual improvement, this is not just a platitude. I myself constantly improve on what I do - I read anything I can find on bar examinations, I talk to anyone I can talk to about the exam, and essays short, I collect as much information and data on the exam as I possibly can. Everything I do is geared towards improving outcomes by reducing mistakes. Likewise, failing examinees must learn from their mistakes or they are bound to make the same mistakes again. Failing examinees cannot simply repeat what they did in the past - such examinees are ignoring the coursework new lessons created by their old mistakes. You cannot make excuses or justify your mistakes - you must recognize your mistakes as problems and essays short, directly address those problems. I don't believe that intelligence is innate - I believe intelligence is developed by thematic questioning things and learning from the essays short stories results. Charles Last! Accordingly, if your desire to improve is essays unrelenting, you will succeed, regardless of your demographic. I regard this page as the free site.
Basically, any relevant material from when I studied for the exam in charles last essays 2005 is available for free on this page. Stories! Conversely, anything new I have done since 2005 is on the subscription site. The subscription site is explained in detail (along with how to subscribe) on obama w, this page here. The subscription site is essentially a comprehensive outline of my methodology on how to prepare for and take the UBE bar exam. The main purpose of the subscription site is to make your studying more efficient so that you can devote more study time to the MBE. The subscription site contains advice, analysis and short, tools to prioritize your studying to enable you to study more efficiently. The subscription site can be regarded as a lengthy organized tutoring session with a substantial amount of useful exam materials. If you are a domestic educated candidate taking the exam for the first time and studying full time using a bar review, you generally don't need supplemental bar materials/advice. However, you may want to consider subscribing if you are: (1) a foreign examinee (first-time or repeater); (2) domestic repeater who scored below 640 (or below 258 on the UBE) on charles lamb essays, your past attempt; (3) a first time domestic candidate studying full-time with a LGPA below 3.0; (4) a domestic candidate (first-time or repeater) who is studying part-time; or (5) a poor standardized test-taker.
To determine whether you are in an at-risk category, I created the Seperac UBE Score Estimator which will estimate your UBE bar exam score based on the demographic and grade information you enter. The subscription site centers around a simple premise examinees that do well on the MBE generally pass. Essays Short! I like to think of the subscription site as a gap-filler. For example, while every bar review gives you a lot of books filled with law, I try to distill that information into what is the most useful and prioritize it. Lamb Last! Basically, if I see a need for something that isn't addressed by the other bar reviews, I try to essays stories address it (e.g. the prioritized UBE MASTER outline of the black letter law most likely to be tested on the exam with past MBE and MEE issues built into it, MP3s of MEEs and MBE rules, MEE and toefl writing, MPT Essay Comparisons). I regard my materials as extremely responsive to stories the exam. For example, for the upcoming exam, my goal is to have 25 pages of black letter law per MBE subject in my UBE MASTER outline since each MBE subject consists of 25 graded questions. For each page of black letter law, my goal is to have it represent one expected question on the MBE.
Thus, by reading these 175 pages of economics coursework black letter law, you should be very prepared for the law that will be tested on the upcoming MBE. I used these outlines to pass the exam in 2005 with an MBE score of 162. Since then, I have been continually improving them as I learn more and essays stories, more about the guns america wide range of short stories nuances that are tested on charles essays, the MBE/MEE. For example, a subscriber who scored a 174 on the MBE in essays short stories NY and then a 177 on the MBE in NJ told me: “ as far as the MBE is concerned, your outlines have been most useful since you emphasize the fine distinctions. Fourth! ” I go through a lot of effort to prioritize the categories in the outline so that this large amount of material can be studied efficiently. I have been assigning priorities and essays short, analyzing their accuracy for the past 16 exams. You can read more about the prioritizations here. Basically, I calculate how much each category is supposed to contribute in points to the MBE (which results in the MBE priority of HIGH, MED or LOW) and guns, then I use different criteria to short determine the MEE priority (it is based on a number of economics coursework factors to statistically determine if a topic is less likely to appear). The purpose of the priorities is to enable examinees to study efficiently. For example, if a subscriber finds that he or she is having difficulty retaining the wide range of information in the outline, the examinee should focus on essays stories, the HIGH priority categories (in BLUE) so they can at economics least be competent on what will probably represent about 50-70% of their total MBE/MEE score.
This is something part-time examinees should also consider if they find there is simply too much for short, them to study/learn. For example, the LOW priority categories (in ORANGE) should represent about 10% of toefl writing your total MBE/MEE score (and if you follow the study guidelines in essays the UBE MASTER OUTLINE, it would represent about 10% of your total study). Examinees who are limited in time or memory sometimes opt to give the LOW priority topics just a cursory overview and the MEDIUM priority topics (expected to economics coursework be about 25% of your total MBE/MEE score) a basic review so that they can focus on the HIGH priority topics (which will make up a majority of the MBE/MEE). Subscribers to my site focus heavily on the MBE and take calculated risks with their MEE/MPT study based on the advice/materials on the subscription site. One reason why I believe NCBE regards the MBE as the most important part of the bar exam is because you really need to understand 400-500 legal principles to do well on it since each question requires you to know multiple legal principles. For example, a single intentional torts question may require you to know about short stories assault, battery, false imprisonment and IIED. Thus, examinees with limited legal knowledge will not do as well on the MBE as compared to examinees with more extensive legal knowledge.
Meanwhile, the charles lamb MEE only consists of 20 legal principles (give or take a few). While a deeper understanding of the essays short law is needed, it is MUCH easier for someone to get “lucky” on the MEE than the MBE. Essay Guns America! Let’s assume that like the MBE, you need 65% correct on the MEE to pass this means you need to short correctly identify/analyze about 13/20 of the MEE issues. If you get lucky on just a few of them (i.e. what you studied the night before luckily appears or the UBE MASTER priorities helped you), this can account for 10-15% of your total MEE score. Last! For the MBE, you really can’t get lucky on it. Essays Short Stories! Even if some of the concepts you studied just before the exam appeared, that will only help you with maybe 2-4 questions. That’s just 2% of your MBE score.
That said, I regard the materials on the subscription site as the best representation of what you can expect to see on the upcoming UBE exam. You must keep in mind that due to how I organize and prioritize this information, you will be taking calculated risks in your studying, but I regard them as risks as worth taking (as do others). If you have taken the exam before and felt blind-sided by the MBE, MEE or MPT, you will feel much more capable on future exams through the materials and information on the subscription site. One caveat while other bar reviews have fully prepared materials that are complete and toefl writing, ready to be used when you sign up, I do not. For example, the prioritized UBE MASTER OUTLINE is not available until about essays short two months before the exam (in the meantime, examinees can review the prior UBE MASTER OUTLINE ignoring the priorities).
Likewise, the MPT, MEE, and lamb, MBE Strategy Pages are not posted until about essays a month before the essays exam because if my assessment of the exam changes, so does my advice. Short! If you need to purchase a subscription (or re-subscribe), click here. To any examinee that failed the UBE bar exam, if you send me your scores or essays, I will send you a free statistical analysis/report. I see first-hand the difficulties that retakers face. Accordingly, whenever a failing examinee asks me for advice, I give it. I have received 20,000+ emails from examinees over the past 10 years and I have answered every single email (I strongly believe in the maxim that when one teaches, two learn). However, depending on how busy I am, I may not respond for essay fourth, a few weeks.
If you would like my advice, please fill out the short stories Retaker Bar Exam Advice Form. The form is an efficient way for me to obama w determine as much of your situation as possible to formulate an appropriate response. The form contains a set of questions that I generally ask people who email me for advice. As with anything, the more data I have, the more effective my analysis. Once I review your information, I will give you my honest opinion about essays short stories what I think you should do for your next attempt.
For example, a failing J16 examinee who passed in F17 told me: Your analysis and advice was instrumental for my retake in February 2017 and I found out toefl writing I passed last week by 7 points after failing by 11 pts in July 2016! All in short all, an 18 point swing while working full time and studying part time! The pass rate in charles lamb my state was 40%. Essays! Thanks for all your help and analysis! While the score reports are fairly self explanatory, I will also give you my analysis of your scores. Anyone who submits scores will have complete anonymity - I only essay july fourth, disclose the essays stories data itself. The data also enables me to update the Bar Exam Calculators that I routinely improve upon. You will find the free score report very helpful in pinpointing your problem areas. As one examinee put it: “I have never had such a comprehensive analysis of lamb my results. Even when I took the first bar review course and paid for a one on one tutor, everything pales compared to you.” As such, if you are interested in receiving this free analysis, please complete the following Score Analysis form (or just email me the past grading sheets).
If you ordered your essay/MPT answers, I can provide you with a free 43-page Essay/MPT Analysis. For more information on the free score analysis report or essay analysis report is short below. The more information you give me, the better advice I can give you about thematic essay what to do on your next attempt. I have looked at many failing examinee scores and tracked their outcomes so I can probably give you some useful advice. All information submitted is treated confidentially. If you email me your score report(s), I will email you a free comprehensive 9-12 page analysis of essays short stories your score and my advice. Please fill out the online submission form or email me a copy of your score report to email@example.com. Click here to view a sample score analysis.* If you submit your scores or essays to me, any identifying information will be redacted and coursework, your identity will always be strictly confidential. In the past seven years, I have sent free score reports to essays stories over 4,400 examinees encompassing the July 2008 - Feb 2017 exams.
The analysis is extremely useful in pinpointing your problem areas and assessing your future exam performance. The score reports will also estimate your raw scores on all the components of the exam. I continually improve this report with the data I collect - it started as a 1-page report and has grown by about 1 page per year as I obtain/collect more useful data to report. Thematic Essay For A For Emily! Please note that it may take a week or more to receive an analysis if your score report is sent to me immediately after scores are released. I examine NY bar exam essays/MPTs using the same methodology as the score analysis. I strongly urge all failing examinees to order their essays from NY BOLE immediately after scores are released in order to review your essay and MPT answers. Stories! You disadvantage yourself if you do not order and review your essays because you will not know what mistakes to correct (e.g. Essay Fourth! did you miss obvious issues, was your writing style poor or careless, how did your answers compare to the released above average answers). In the past six years, I have sent free essay/MPT analysis reports to over 600+ examinees encompassing over 3,000 Essays/600 MPTs from the Feb 2010 - Feb 2017 exams. This 43 page analysis reports statistics such as words, characters, paragraphs, sentences, sentences per paragraph, words per sentence, characters per word, Flesch reading ease, and Flesch-Kincaid grade level. The analysis illustrates how your answers statistically differ from the released above average answers and other examinee essays.
The essays/MPTs are examined against the released above average essays/MPTs and the essays/MPTs of other failing examinees and exemplar essays/MPTs. I also analyze word frequencies and report any useful data. For example, for each essay/MPT, the analysis will report the top 20 words that the above average answers used that you did not or the top 15 words in the question that both above average answers used that you did not. Examinee essays are also compared to the highest scoring essay I received. For example, one comparison reports the top 10 words the essays short best answer used that the examinee did not. If you have your handwritten or typed essays/MPT in PDF format and would like to receive an analysis, please email them to guns america firstname.lastname@example.org along with your score report. If you submit your essays for this analysis, while the essays are used for comparison purposes, any identifying information will be redacted and the identity of the essay writer will be confidential. Please note that it may take two weeks or more to short receive an analysis if your essays are sent to me immediately after the exam results are released. A detailed explanation of the analysis is essay guns america below.
The information in the analysis will help you improve your overall written score. The analysis illustrates how your answers statistically differ from the short released above average answers and obama w, other examinee essays, including the essays short highest scoring examinee essay I receive. For example, one portion of the obama w analysis reports the top 10 words this best answer used that you did not. For MPTs, one portion of the analysis reports the Top 20 words in essays short the MPT Drafter's Point Sheet that you did not use or the Top 15 words in the Question (File and Library) that both released answers used but you did not. I significantly revised the MEE/MPT Analysis to charles lamb essays compare examinee essays to short stories the NBCE answers. The Issue-Spotting Analysis section shows the words/phrases in the NCBE Answer Analysis that the graders were likely looking for.
To make this analysis, I examine the NCBE Answer Analysis for each question (the same one that is in the MEE Essay Compilation) and then I extract the economics coursework top 50 words/phrases that I expect the graders to stories look for in the examinee answers. Toefl Writing! I then report the top 25 (the ones that lead to essays stories the best examinee scores). The 'With Word' column reports how many examinees used that word along with the average points these examinees received (green is above passing while red is below passing). For example, for Essay #1 of the obama w Feb 2017 MEE, about 21% of examinees used the essays short stories word/phrase 'terminate' and received an average of 24.8 points for their essays (whereas a passing MEE essay received 13.3 points). The W/O Word column shows the average essay points for the examinees who did not use that particular word or phrase. Often, the average score for such examinees is below passing, demonstrating the importance of coursework issue spotting and keywords in achieving a passing MEE score. Essays! In the charles last prior example, for the 79% of examinees who did not use the word/phrase 'terminate' in their answers, these examinees averaged 13.7 points on short, the essay. The You column reports which of the words/phrases you used in your answer (highlighted in Yellow). From examining this Issue-Spotting Analysis, you will see that issue spotting and using the correct terminology (i.e. buzzwords) is important on the MEE. Essay For A For Emily! For example, below is part of my analysis of essays stories Essay #3 (Family Law) on the F17 MEE. Often, when examinees use the essay july fourth same terminology that is contained in essays stories the NCBE Answer Analysis, the average score is above passing (of course this also likely means the examinees correctly analyzed and concluded).
For example, for Essay #3 of the Feb 2017 MEE, about 17% of examinees used the word/phrase 'equitable distribution' and received an average of 18.9 points for their essays (whereas a passing MEE essay received 13.3 points). The W/O Word column shows the average essay points for the examinees who did not use that particular word or phrase. Often, the average score for last essays, such examinees is below passing, demonstrating the importance of issue spotting and keywords in essays short stories achieving a passing MEE score. Thematic For Emily! In the prior example, for essays short, the 83% of examinees who did not use the word/phrase 'equitable distribution' in toefl writing their answers, these examinees averaged 12.4 points on the essay (below passing). I see this occur with every MEE answer. To me, this is short stories concrete evidence that the obama w graders rely on the NCBE Answer Analysis for their grading and specifically look for the keywords. Thus, reviewing the essays short released NCBE MEE answers can likely help your overall MEE score. The MEE Analysis page examines how well an MEE score corresponds with confirmable external sources such as the above average answers, point sheet, best examinee answer, and essay fourth, the question itself. Essays Short! For example, if an examinee's MEE is highly correlated with these external sources, does the examinee receive a high grade?
Conversely, if an charles last examinee's MEE is not highly correlated with these external sources, does the examinee receive a low grade? If another jurisdiction uses the same MEE for their exam and essays short stories, releases above average exemplars, I also include these MEEs in the analysis (e.g. Essay America! Arkansas is AR, Minnesota is MN). Examinees who participate in the MEE/MPT Comparison (more on this below) should review cases where there is low correlation but a high score (for some insight on stories, what to do) or a high correlation but a low score (for some insight on what not to do). For example, if an exemplar has a low Essay to Point Sheet Comparison, what else did the grader find in essay july that essay to warrant a high score? Since the graders are probably constant with each exam, examinees can use this information to fashion a response similar to the responses that graders have graded favorably in the past. Essays Short! On each table, your MEE results are highlighted in yellow. The main purpose of the for a analysis is to enable examinees to essays short stories illustrate differences between their essays and better scoring essays/MPTs to obama w make any necessary adjustments. One portion of the essay analysis reports the short top words the above average answers used that you did not use.
This can give insight into whether you missed fundamental topics or lacked a vocabulary of obama w important words related to short stories the analysis of the essay. Thematic Essay For A Rose! For example, I find that some examinees fail to use the word because in their answers. In an IRAC analysis, “because” is the essays short single most important word to essay guns america use when analyzing the facts in the question. The failure to use words such as because, since and as will negatively affect your analysis and can only hurt your score (please note that the IRAC Analysis is generally more relevant to the MEE essays than the short MPT). Another portion of the analysis reports the toefl writing top 20 words you used that the stories released above average answers did not use. This can give insight into toefl writing, whether you misunderstand a topic or have an inappropriate vocabulary for essays stories, that topic, especially if you received a low score on the essay. The statistics can provide a wide range of insight - are your sentences per paragraph consistent with the released above average answers or is the thematic for a Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level too high or too low as compared to the released above average answers. For example, if you received a low score and your Essay to Question % was low, you should re-answer the essays stories question in practice to see why you did not fit more facts from the economics coursework question into your analysis. For style, examinees should modify their writing style to mimic the short average style of examinees.
For example, if the average examinee writes four sentences per paragraph, but you write six, you should focus on writing fewer sentences per paragraph. Examinees should mimic the average style of bar examinees to minimize any disruptions to the essay grader's reading or grading process. With each administration, I also create an MEE/MPT comparison to help examinees better understand the bar exam essays/MPT. I only make this Comparison once because it is difficult to make due to its many dependencies. This Comparison examines a collection of MEEs/MPTs from an exam and toefl writing, looks through them for essays short stories, matching words in phrases (minimum of 2 words). The reports contain the charles lamb document text with the matching phrases underlined. The reports also show PDFs of the two essays you selected side-by-side. Put simply, examinees learn by example - reviewing a collection of graded essays helps you better understand the MEE essays/MPTs. I believe this MEE/MPT comparison is incredibly useful to examinees.
For example: - You can compare any essay to short any of the other examinee essays or the above average answers. - You will see exactly what NYBOLE considers to be a passing essay/MPT (for example, above a 50.95 scaled score on the Feb 2017 exam). - You can compare an thematic essay for a rose essay to the best essay, the worst essay, or essays with scores with similar scores (and sometimes exactly the same score). - You can learn how much (or how little) is written for high scoring essays. - In the Text comparison, you can see exactly what words an essay used that the comparison essay also used. - In the PDF comparison, you can compare the stories style, layout, penmanship, neatness of essays. - In the PDF comparison, you can study the toefl writing headings and short stories, format of high scoring MPTs. - You can compare handwritten essays to typed essays. - You can compare your MPT to the best MPTs from other states. The Feb 2017 Comparison includes graded essays that range from 32 to 82. Thus, you will not only toefl writing, be able to see what very low scoring essays are comprised of, but also what very high scoring essays are comprised of.
I feel this Comparison is invaluable for examinees to discover what works versus what doesn't work. Stories! In reviewing higher-graded answers, examinees can see all of the substantive ways in which their answers were lacking. For example, how many sentences do the higher-graded answers write to develop and essay, analyze the essays short black letter law for each issue. How does it compare to your essay? Reviewing essays that are just passing will give examinees insight into the content a passing essay consists of. Obama W! For example, can an essay that only issue spots the stories issues receive a passing score.
For the MPTs, you can see how passing examinees organize and write their answers. If your prior essay/MPT scores were low, you may find a style or format in these passing essays that you can incorporate into future essays . For example, an examinee that passed after using the MEE/MPT comparison told me: I think this helped me immensely, because although I had not practiced writing any essays, I still really got a feel for the tone, length, content and structure of passing answers which created a 'voice' in my head when writing essays. To cite another example, an examinee that failed told me: I did much better on my essays this time due in large part to your comparison tool. Toefl Writing! I found that to be extremely helpful . For the exam, this examinee's essay average was ranked 9/196 (this means the examinee had a 5-Essay average better than 95.4% of the examinees that sent me their score information). Essays Stories! For the prior exam (before utilizing the Comparison), the examinee’s essay average was ranked 131/315 (which was better than 58.4% of the examinees that sent me their scores). Following are small samples of the rose for emily February and July 2010 comparisons:
For example, in short the above July 2010 sample, there are just 10 comparisons based on toefl writing, 3 examinee essays and the two released above average answers. Meanwhile, in the full July 2010 essay comparison, for each essay/MPT, there are 1,596 comparisons based on essays short, 55 examinee essays and the two released above average answers. Essay Guns America! As you may have noticed in the sample, all identifying information is redacted and each examinee is assigned a random 3-digit ID in order to maintain complete anonymity. The reason essays are released is enable examinees to identify deficiencies in their essays. Essays! In a 1995 bill to essay bill to amend the Judiciary Law, the bill stated that it is in essays stories New York State's best interest to insure that all bar applicants are given an equal opportunity to pass the NYS Bar Examination. Essay America! Disclosure of stories past testing materials and obama w, applicant examinations allow prospective attorneys to become aware of essays testing subject matter and methodology so that otherwise qualified attorneys are not defeated in their attempts to toefl writing pass the bar examination. A copy of the bill is here: In a March 2014 article entitled It Should Be About Feedback and short, Revision by J. Elizabeth Clark, an English professor at LaGuardia Community College who wrote that [h]igh-stakes essay writing is about learning to game the thematic for a for emily system. Good test takers are just that: Students who learned the stories rules of the game, often through expensive test-prep courses that disadvantage poor and at-risk students.
Those with greater access to coaches and materials and practice do better on the exam, but that does not mean they are better writers. This MEE/MPT comparison is an for a excellent way for essays short, examinees to learn the rules of the game . Put simply, there is no other resource available that enables bar examinees to compare and contrast a wide range of graded MEEs/MPTs. Please use it to july your advantage, especially if you do not have the time to practice many essays. The MEE/MPT comparison will contain an enhancement where your MPTs will also be compared to the exemplar MPTs of other jurisdictions. For example, your MPT may be compared to the best MPTs from other states such as Arkansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Ohio, and Texas.
Put simply, comparing your MPT side-by-side to stories a large number of high scoring MPTS is the best way to quickly and efficiently identify the deficiencies in your MPT on your own. Multiple Re-Taker Score Analysis Report. If you have taken the exam two times or more, I can also provide you with a free comprehensive six-page Multiple Re-Taker Score Analysis Report. The re-taker analysis report will show your overall averages per exam component, variance in scores, changes in guns raw scores between exams, and other useful comparisons, including February versus July comparisons. If you judge your performance from exam to exam based solely on your scaled scores, you are making a mistake. The analysis is useful in pinpointing your worst subjects and assessing your future exam performance based on your prior scores. Short! Click here to see a sample report.* In the two years, I have sent free Re-Taker Score Analysis Reports to hundreds of examinees. If you are interested in receiving this additional free analysis, please complete the toefl writing below form with the information from your most recent exam and then fill out the Grading Sheet Information section of the Retaker Bar Exam Advice Form for each of the essays prior exams. Alternatively, you can email your score sheets to email@example.com while filling out the coursework Additional Information and Other Information on the Retaker Bar Exam Advice Form.
* Please note that I continually improve these analysis reports, so the sample versions may not reflect the stories current version of the reports. NOTE: If you took the exam in a state (e.g. Obama W! California) that only provides your total score and MBE subscores (meaning no detailed essay/MPT scores), I can provide you with a breakdoen of these percentiles if you complete my MBE Subscore form. Starting in 2017, the scoresheets once again contain percentiles for the MBE sub-scores (this information used to be included on score reports but was removed just prior to NCBE's introduction of essays Civil Procedure to essay july the MBE). Short Stories! These percentiles tell you how many examinees you did better than nationally for essay america, each MBE subject and short stories, overall. For example, for the Feb 2017 exam, if your %tile for Civil Procedure is toefl writing 19.7, it means that you scored better than only 19.7% of stories examinees nationwide on the 25 graded Civil Procedure MBE questions (out of about 23,000 February 2017 examinees).
What these percentiles don't tell you are your raw scores (e.g. Obama W! that you answered 13/25 of the Civil Procedure MBE questions correctly, meaning 52% correct for Civil Procedure). With this information, you can correlate your exam MBE scores to your practice MBE scores (e.g. if you were getting 70% correct on Civil Procedure questions in practice but 52% correct on the exam, you should find a better source of Civil Procedure MBE practice questions). All information submitted is always treated confidentially. For the essays short pre-UBE New York bar exam (pass rate of coursework 665), I have seen examinees pass on their next attempt after failing with scores as low as 530. I have also seen examinees fail the exam with scores as high as 664 who never subsequently pass the exam. As such, it is never possible to essays short definitively conclude what a repeater's outcome will be. However, based on lamb last, NYBOLE statistics, the likelihood of essays stories passing generally decreases with each attempt. For example, I took all the information in NYBOLE released studies from charles last essays, 2005-2007 discussed above and matched it up to determine MBE scores and short stories, final scores based on number of attempts (data not included was not available in the NYBOLE reports):
As you can see, according to NYBOLE's statistics, an examinee’s final score generally decreases with each attempt. However, I find that examinees who can improve on the MBE are more likely to for a for emily avoid this expected outcome. If you are taking the upcoming exam. With New York switching to the UBE exam, this site has been modified accordingly. Short Stories! The site announcements appear on the left pane of this page. The announcements are in obama w reverse chronological order (so you will see the most recent announcements first). Any information pertaining to the pre-UBE essays (such as my 2005 MASTER outline) has been removed since the MEE has replaced this portion of the exam. The MBE, MEE and essays, MPT advice on this page is basic, but still useful. I created the Seperac UBE Score Estimator which will estimate your UBE bar exam score based on the demographic and economics, grade information you enter.
With each exam, I see a lot of essays short examinees unnecessarily panic as the exam nears. To give examinees a good understanding of their odds of passing the UBE exam, I took every available statistic from a credible source (e.g. NCBE and NYBOLE) and created a calculator based on toefl writing, that data. While there will always be outliers, the estimations should accurately reflect the majority of examinees sitting for the exam. These statistics will either make you feel more confident or remind you that more work needs to be put into the exam. However, even if you are in short stories an at-risk category, your MBE practice scores (assuming the MBE practice questions are of rose for emily sufficient difficulty and representative of the topics tested) will give you the essays stories most insight as to whether or not you will pass the UBE. If you find this calculator helpful, please enter your email address and then press the Submit button to send me your information. Since this is the first iteration of the toefl writing calculator, I won’t know how accurate it is short until I compile results from examinees. Toefl Writing! Thus, by submitting your information, your input will help improve the accuracy of the calculator for future examinees. Thanks in advance and good luck on the exam.
I expect bar exam pass rates to short stories continue to decline until at least 2019 (meaning your odds of passing will diminish with each exam you take). In looking at guns the pass rate data from 1996-2015 (2016 data will not be released until 2017), the 2015 overall national pass rate was 59%, the essays stories lowest it has ever been based on this 20 year period. I expect this trend to coursework continue until at least 2019 because the corresponding LSAT Percentiles have also dropped (these Percentiles serve as a good predictor of future bar exam performance). I expect bar exam pass rates to continue to decline until at essays short least 2019 (meaning your odds of toefl writing passing will diminish with each exam you take). Bar exam pass rates are tied to the MBE (e.g. if the MBE average for an administration goes up, the pass rates almost always go up). MBE scores are correlated with LSAT scores. Thus, I use the stories 25th Percentile LSAT and guns, 75th Percentile LSAT as a barometer for pass rates. If the essays stories Average LSAT for a class of matriculants drops as compared to the prior class, I similarly expect their bar exam pass rates to drop as compared to the prior class (the raw data can be viewed here).
The 2013 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the july bar exam in 2016) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of 152.8 and a 75th LSAT Percentile of 158.9. The 2014 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the bar exam in 2017) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of 152.5 and a 75th LSAT Percentile of 158.7. Thus, because the short stories 2014 Full-Time Law School Matriculants appear to be less knowledgeable than the 2013 Full-Time Law School Matriculants, it is reasonable to toefl writing presume that the 2017 bar pass rates will be lower than the 2016 bar pass rates. The 2015 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the bar exam in 2018) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of 152.4 and short stories, a 75th LSAT Percentile of 158.4 (even lower). The 2016 Full-Time Law School Matriculants (who take the july bar exam in 2019) had a 25th LSAT Percentile of stories 151.2 and toefl writing, a 75th LSAT Percentile of stories 157.2 (even lower still). Economics! Thus, I expect bar pass rates to continue to essays short decline until at least 2019.
Following are the guns america national bar exam pass rates since 1996 (compiled from released NCBE data): Likewise, I expect the pass rates for essays short, lower-ability examinees (such as foreign examinees) to decrease with the UBE exam. While it appears the UBE exam will be easier to study for due to fewer subjects, I believe the UBE exam will be more difficult for lower-ability examinees to lamb essays pass. The NY UBE exam will consist of essays short stories six 30-minute essays based on essay guns, the MBE subjects plus Business Relationships, Family Law, Trusts and Estates and short stories, UCC Article 9 (30% of score), two 90-minute MPTs (20% of thematic essay for a rose score), and short, 200 1.8 minute MBE Questions (50% of score). Guns America! Accordingly, examinees would be tested for 6 hours per day for two days. Examinees would then have to separately take a 50 question New York multiple choice exam that will be offered 4 times a year. Essays Short Stories! I expect the july fourth NY pass rates to stay roughly the short same because the cut score is staying the same (266). However, the UBE exam is expected to lamb last be more reliable than the NY bar exam, primarily due to essays short stories the MBE being 50% of the total score rather than the essay current 40%. This means that examinees who generally demonstrate lower-ability on the MBE will find it harder to pass the UBE. Therefore, while the UBE exam appears to be easier to study for due to fewer subjects, I believe the UBE exam will be harder to pass for examinees who generally demonstrate lower-ability on essays short stories, the MBE (particularly foreign examinees).
For example, I received scores from 300+ failing J15 examinees who had an average MBE score of 122 (versus the mean July scaled MBE of about 142). Their average final score was 614.6. Thematic Rose For Emily! If I convert their scores to the UBE by making their 5-essays worth 30% (instead of short stories 40%), their MPT score worth 20% (instead of 10%) and their MBE score worth 50% (instead of 40%), then these 300+ examinees would have had an average final score of 610.6 on the UBE. July Fourth! This is essays a loss of 4 points by changing to the UBE format of scoring. Please keep in essay july mind that this is not a perfect assessment, since MPT scores will be slightly more reliable through the answering of 2 MPTs (instead of short stories basing the score on 1 MPT and doubling it). To cite another example, in charles looking at 2005-2006 NYBOLE data (this is the last time NYBOLE released comprehensive statistics on pass rates), in essays stories July 2005, Female Domestic-Educated Repeaters averaged 123.1 on the MBE while Female Foreign-Educated Repeaters averaged 118.9 on essay, the MBE. In Feb 2006, Female Domestic-Educated Repeaters averaged 128.9 on the MBE while Female Foreign-Educated Repeaters averaged 123.2 on the MBE. Typically, the higher the MBE mean, the higher the pass rate.
With the MBE carrying more weight on the UBE, the short MBE’s negative effect on Foreign-Educated pass rates will be amplified. More so, the MPT will now be 20% of the score rather than 10%. The MPT is essentially a reading comprehension test where the examinees who can read and toefl writing, write fastest do the best. With the MPT carrying more weight on the UBE, the stories MPT’s negative effect on Foreign-Educated pass rates will likewise be amplified. To look at obama w it another way, I received detailed score information from 99 examinees who sat for the Feb 2015 New York bar exam regarding their status as domestic or foreign educated. Of these 99 examinees, 39 examinees were domestic educated examinees (39.39% of the 99 examinees). These domestic educated examinees averaged 48.57 on the Essays, 49.54 on the MPT, 127.6 on the MBE, and stories, 617.6 on essay guns america, the NYMC. They had an average final score of 634.2. Of these 99 examinees, 60 examinees were foreign educated examinees (60.61% of the 99 examinees). These foreign educated examinees averaged 45.95 on the Essays, 43.49 on short, the MPT, 119.6 on the MBE, and 629.8 on the NYMC.
They had an average final score of 601.4. In looking at toefl writing just the Essays (40%), MPT (10%) and MBE (40%), the domestic educated examinees scored 36.6 points more than the foreign educated examinees. The domestic educated examinees scored 11.8 points better on the Essays, 6.8 points better on the MPT and stories, 16 points better on toefl writing, the MBE. This small sample supports the premise that domestic educated examinees do much better than foreign educated examinees on the MBE and MPT as opposed to the essays. In regards to stories the MPT, even though it is 10% of the grade, there is a 6.8 point difference. Coursework! If I adjust these percentages to reflect the UBE percentages, then for the Essays (30%), MPT (20%) and MBE (50%), the domestic educated examinees will score 42.5 points more than the foreign educated examinees. This is a UBE exam bonus of 5.9 points in favor of essays domestic educated examinees. If you are from obama w, a New York law school, I ranked the 15 New York law schools based on their 5-year July pass rates (July 2012-July 2016) based on First-time takers (taken from the New York Law Journal). Essays Short Stories! This will give you a good idea of whether you are an at-risk candidate.
For example, NYU has the guns highest overall First-time taker pass rate at 96% and Touro has the lowest overall First-time taker pass rate at 66.0%. Alternatively, If you recently took the exam or are a repeat-taker, please read the essays short following: If you recently took the UBE bar exam and are unsure as to whether you passed, I have a post-exam questionnaire that you can fill out. If you think there is a reasonable probability that you may not have passed the exam, filling out this form now (while the thematic for a rose information is still fresh in your mind) can help you later. For example, using this information, I track the key details of your attempt, so if you later find that you failed the short exam, I will try to match your responses/statistics to whoever previously submitted the most comparable details (and later passed) to give you their advice on essay july, what worked for essays short stories, them. This input from examinees also gives me a better understanding of the effectiveness of my advice along with information on the exam itself. If you start to fill it out and decide it is too daunting, simply send me what you complete I prefer partial information to no information. If you were not a subscriber, simply skip the portions that pertain to materials from the charles lamb last essays subscription site. I created the Seperac UBE Score Estimator which will estimate your UBE bar exam score based on the demographic and grade information you enter.
Also, you can use the Bar Exam Calculators I developed to test various scoring scenarios. As you wait on your results, I chronicle the release dates in the Exam Results Release Dates section below. To enable examinees to better understand how to pass the New York bar exam, I have developed a number of calculators related to essays the bar exam: The Seperac UBE Score Estimator which will estimate your UBE bar exam score based on the demographic and grade information you enter. The July 2016 New York UBE Bar Exam Score Calculator will estimate your total score for economics coursework, the July 2016 New York UBE bar exam administration based on the scores you enter. You can use this calculator to essays estimate your July 2016 UBE exam performance. The Feb 2016 New York Bar Exam Score Calculator will calculate the total score for the Feb 2016 New York bar exam administration based on the scale scores you enter. If you send me your scores, I will send you a free 9-page score report that includes estimates for essay guns america, the raw subscores for the MBE and essays short stories, NYMC.
To receive a free analysis, please email me a copy of your score report to firstname.lastname@example.org or fill out the essay fourth online submission form. The Raw-Scaled Conversion calculator will estimate your raw essay score based on your scaled essay score and vice versa. This is only relevant to the February 2016 exam. The MBE Raw-Scaled calculator will estimate your scaled MBE score in New York based on essays short, the raw score you enter. The scaled scores are based on an average of scaled scores from prior New York bar exams. The July MBE and Feb MBE calculators will estimate the percentage and number of applicants nationwide who scored better than you or worse than you on the MBE based on your MBE scale score. The Mean MBE vs Pass Rate calculator allows you to compare overall July/Feb pass rates to the national MBE averages for the last 18 years.
The National Pass Rates calculator will report the pass rates in U.S. states and territories based on essay guns america, the 2009 Bar Admission Statistics published by the National Conference of Bar Examiners. Stories! The data can be sorted based on the overall 2009 Pass Rate (July and February combined) or separately by exam. Once UBE score sheets are released, I plan to develop matrix calculators to create full matrix scoring scenarios. In your study plans, make the MBE your primary focus. I discuss this in guns america more depth on the subscription site, but because the essays stories MBE is more reliable than the essays, you want to be better at the MBE than the essays. Charles Essays! If someone with a high MBE score fails the short stories NY bar exam, I can almost assure them that they will eventually pass I can’t say the toefl writing same to someone with high essay scores. This opinion is essays short shared by NCBE, who recently stated that MBE scores are highly related to total bar exam scores. Coursework! see The Bar Examiner, December 2011. First and foremost, there is no better way of knowing the exam than the exam itself. According to NCBE, those who plan to retake the examination as repeaters will gain, on average, about 8 points on the subsequent MBE attempt, but some gain more points and some actually score lower than before; and NCBE recommends that those who are planning to retake the examination purchase the MBE OPE exams and take them repeatedly up until the exam date to essays obtain the rationales for why the toefl writing options they select are either correct or incorrect. According to short NCBE, “ [t]ests are a powerful motivator, and testing time is not a waste of instructional time if the charles essays tests are focused on important concepts.
Likewise, studying for essays short stories, a test is a good use of learning time if the tests are testing important concepts. Testing early and often is important to provide guidance to students about whether they are on track or whether they need to economics coursework study more in essays order to essay july succeed in essays short stories the course. “ I believe that doing MBE practice questions is the obama w most effective way to learn the MBE material. The NCBE released MBE resources are as follows (in order of importance from least important to most important): This exam consists of 40 Contracts and Torts questions and 30 Constitutional Law, Criminal Law and short, Procedure, Evidence, and Real Property questions. This exam can be downloaded for free here: http://www.ncbex.org/exams/mbe/preparing/ Please keep in mind that that these questions are written in the old MBE question format.
Please read this to see illustrations of the differences. Please also note that answer explanations are not available for these questions unless you purchase a book or program that licenses these questions and thematic essay for a for emily, prepares their own answer explanations (e.g. Strategies and Tactics books, Adaptibar, Bestmultis). NCBE's disclaimer regarding these questions: The purpose of this publication is to familiarize you with the format and nature of MBE questions.
The questions in this publication should not be used for substantive preparation for the MBE. Because of changes in the law since the time the examination was administered, the questions and their keys may no longer be current. The editorial style of questions may have changed over time as well. This exam consists of 40 Contracts and Torts questions and 30 Constitutional Law, Criminal Law and Procedure, Evidence, and Real Property questions. This exam can be downloaded for essays, free here: http://www.ncbex.org/exams/mbe/preparing/ Please keep in mind that that these questions are written in the old MBE question format. Economics Coursework! Please read this to see illustrations of the short differences.
Please also note that answer explanations are not available for these questions unless you purchase a book or program that licenses these questions and prepares their own answer explanations (e.g. Strategies and Tactics books, Adaptibar, Bestmultis). NCBE's disclaimer regarding these questions: The purpose of this publication is to economics familiarize you with the format and nature of essays stories MBE questions. The questions in this publication should not be used for substantive preparation for the MBE. Because of charles essays changes in the law since the time the examination was administered, the stories questions and their keys may no longer be current. The editorial style of questions may have changed over time as well. This exam consists of 531 previously published questions from the MBE and last essays, 50 questions from the Feb 1991 MBE (questions 532-581). This exam can be downloaded for free here: http://www.ncbex.org/exams/mbe/preparing/ Please keep in short mind that that these questions are written in the old MBE question format. Please read this to toefl writing see illustrations of the differences.
Please also note that while there is an answer key at the end of the book, answer explanations are not available for these questions unless you purchase a book or program that licenses these questions and prepares their own answer explanations (e.g. Short Stories! Strategies and Tactics books, Adaptibar, Bestmultis). Alternatively, I have written MBE rules for lamb last essays, these 531 questions which are available on the Subscription Site. NCBE's disclaimer regarding these questions: The 581 questions contained in this document appeared on MBEs administered between 1972 and 1991. Essays Stories! Because of their dated nature, many of the questions may test principles that have been altered by changes in the law and thus are no longer suitable topics to toefl writing be tested. Short! As a result, some of the answers shown in the answer key may be incorrect under currently accepted principles of economics coursework law. Further, many of these questions do not reflect the current style of MBE questions, and a number of the short stories questions appear in formats that are no longer used on the MBE.
DO NOT USE THESE QUESTIONS TO STUDY CONTENT FOR THE MULTISTATE BAR EXAMINATION!! This exam consists of 34 Contracts and Torts questions and 33 Constitutional Law, Criminal Law and Procedure, Evidence, and Real Property questions. This exam can be downloaded for free here: http://www.ncbex.org/exams/mbe/preparing/ Please keep in economics coursework mind that that these questions are written in the old MBE question format. Stories! Please read this to essay july see illustrations of the differences.
Please also note that answer explanations are not available for these questions unless you purchase a book or program that licenses these questions and prepares their own answer explanations (e.g. Strategies and short, Tactics books, Adaptibar, Bestmultis). In addition, I have written MBE rules for these 200 questions which are available on the Subscription Site. NCBE's disclaimer regarding these questions: The purpose of this publication is to familiarize you with the thematic essay rose format and essays short, nature of MBE questions. The questions in toefl writing this publication should not be used for substantive preparation for the MBE. Because of changes in the law since the time the examination was administered, the questions and their keys may no longer be current. Essays! The editorial style of questions may have changed over guns america time as well. This exam consists of 17 Constitutional Law questions, 18 Contracts questions, 16 Criminal Law questions, 16 Evidence questions, 16 Real Property questions, and 17 Torts questions (Civil Procedure questions are NOT included). These questions reflect the new MBE format.
Answer explanations are provided by stories NCBE. Charles Lamb Last! In addition, I have written MBE rules for these 100 questions which are available on the Subscription Site. If these questions are not included in your bar review course or supplemental bar review, the essays stories questions can be purchased here: http://www.ncbex.org/study-aids/ According to NCBE: The National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) offers four 100-question annotated online practice exams using questions drawn from recent MBEs. Charles Essays! Following is an excerpt from the November 2007 issue of The Bar Examiner (the Bar Examiner is published four times per year by NCBE): In December 2006, we offered a new product that we believe is very useful to those who are preparing to take the MBE. The MBE-AP (“Annotated Preview”) provides 100 MBE questions along with annotations regarding why the correct answer is correct and why each distractor is incorrect. . Subscriptions offer unlimited electronic access to the MBE-[OPE] from the date of subscription to the date of the next MBE administration.
Examinees can take the 100-item MBE online and receive feedback on correct and incorrect answers. Essays Short! Examinees also receive estimates of their actual MBE performance based on their MBE-AP performance. The questions that appear on the MBE-[OPE] provide the most accurate representation of a half-length MBE, in terms of both content and format, available today from any source. Last! In addition, the annotations were all written by members of the short MBE drafting committees, thus providing an accurate representation of the coursework drafting “thought process.” (Emphasis added) For those who are planning to retake the examination, recommend that they purchase the essays short stories MBE-[OPE] and take it repeatedly up until the exam date to obtain the rationales for toefl writing, why the options they select are either correct or incorrect.
You can take the exams in either timed or untimed sittings, and short, you will receive feedback on your answers, including annotations and a customized score report. You can also purchase the MBE tests from the NCBEX Online Store. Personally, If I were taking the bar exam again, I would purchase the MBE OPE 1-4 exams. For what you pay for a bar review course, you should spend the extra money to look at the actual MBE exams if they are not included in the course or supplemental material you are using. This exam consists of 17 Constitutional Law questions, 18 Contracts questions, 16 Criminal Law questions, 16 Evidence questions, 16 Real Property questions, and economics coursework, 17 Torts questions (Civil Procedure questions are NOT included). These questions reflect the new MBE format. Answer explanations are provided by NCBE.
In addition, I have written MBE rules for these 100 questions which are available on the Subscription Site. If these questions are not included in your bar review course or supplemental bar review, the questions can be purchased here: http://www.ncbex.org/study-aids/ Note: Between 2006 to 2010, the cost of each NCBE MBE online practice exam was $26. I noticed in essays January 2011 that cost of each practice exam was $50. However, there is coursework no better way of knowing the essays short exam than the exam itself. Therefore, despite this price increase, I still strongly urge all examinees to purchase and take the coursework NCBE MBE OPE-1 (2006), OPE-2 (2008), OPE-3 (2011) and OPE-4 (2013) exams if they are not included in your bar review course or made available through your school. This exam consists of 16 Constitutional Law questions, 18 Contracts questions, 16 Criminal Law questions, 16 Evidence questions, 16 Real Property questions, and 18 Torts questions (Civil Procedure questions are NOT included). These questions reflect the new MBE format. Answer explanations are provided by NCBE. In addition, I have written MBE rules for short, these 100 questions which are available on thematic for a rose for emily, the Subscription Site. If these questions are not included in your bar review course or supplemental bar review, the questions can be purchased here: http://www.ncbex.org/study-aids/
16 Constitutional Law questions, 17 Contracts questions, 17 Criminal Law questions, 16 Evidence questions, 17 Real Property questions, and 17 Torts questions. Essays! These questions reflect the new MBE format. Essay Fourth! These are the most recently released NCBE questions with answer explanations. Answer explanations are provided by NCBE. Short! In addition, I have written MBE rules for these 100 questions which are available on the Subscription Site. If these questions are not included in essay july your bar review course or supplemental bar review, the questions can be purchased here: http://www.ncbex.org/study-aids/ This exam consists of 21 sample test MBE questions (Civil Procedure questions are included). These questions reflect the new MBE format. There are no answer explanations for these questions - only an short stories answer key. These questions can be downloaded for free here: http://www.ncbex.org/study-aids/ This exam consists of 10 Civil Procedure questions.
These questions reflect the new MBE format. Answer explanations are provided by NCBE. In addition, I have written MBE rules for these 10 questions which are available on the subscription site. These questions can be downloaded for free here: http://www.ncbex.org/study-aids/ Please note that a law professor has concluded that one of the obama w ten answers is likely wrong. Short! This wrong answer highlights a problem with the MBE it is a test written by academics that sometimes does not reflect the actual practice of law. As stated in toefl writing the explanation as to why Question #9 of the sample Civil Procedure MBE questions is short stories wrong: “ A court would go [with] Answer 2. But I think an july academic could construct an argument for essays short stories, Answer 1. ”
The most important questions to know for the MBE are the essay fourth released NCBE questions which are written in the current MBE format. These comprise 400 questions contained in the NCBE OPE 1-4 exams plus the 10 MBE Civil Procedure Sample Test Questions, and the 21 MBE Sample Test Questions. According to a recent short article entitled Pedagogical Advice On Studying For The MBE by stories Susan M. Case, Ph.D. of NCBE, learning the material presented in fourth the four OPEs should put you in a very good position to do well on essays stories, the MBE. According to the article, NCBE recommends the following approach to economics coursework those who are preparing to take the MBE: Accordingly, you must know these OPE exams very well. Put simply, there is no better way of understanding the exam than by looking at essays stories released questions by charles last essays the exam maker.
The NCBE online practice exams will also familiarize you with the NCBE changes. As you answer MBE practice questions, track your MBE progress in a spreadsheet (scores and times) to evaluate your week-to-week progress. You want to be getting around 63-70% right on stories, unfamiliar questions around 7-10 days before the fourth exam to essays short hopefully score in lamb last essays the 140s+ (scaled) on the MBE. As the article states, examinees should study the questions and the explanations for why each correct answer is correct and why the incorrect answers are incorrect and study the material thoroughly until you believe you would get 100% correct if you took this test under exam conditions. If you don't re-test yourself once you have learned the stories right answer (and reminded yourself through making a rule/flashcard and studying it), you will often repeat your mistakes. For example, in a 1998 study, NCBE found that examinees generally do not learn from their MBE mistakes - repeat examinees generally did not improve on questions they previously answered on an earlier MBE exam. To counter this problem, examinees can improve their understanding of unfamiliar law by making rules (which requires you to think about the law), studying the rules, adding to thematic essay for a for emily them after additional MBE practice, organizing them, and essays, then studying them again.
This means that you should not mark up your MBE books, but write your answers on blank scoresheets or in a spreadsheet (such as the MBE Study Spreadsheet on essay guns, the Subscription Site). Then, every so often, answer a sample of 10 previously answered questions. How you do when re-answering these questions will give you a good bit of essays short stories insight as to whether you have learned the law for these questions. If you tracked your old answer choice, you can also see if you are choosing the same incorrect answer or a different answer. If you cannot answer 8/10 correctly, you need to spend more time making/studying your rules because there is a failing somewhere. Put simply, if you can't get at least 80% correct on familiar questions you answered and reviewed a few weeks earlier, it will be even harder for you testing on the unfamiliar questions you will encounter on the MBE. Personally, I did about charles last essays 50 MBE practice questions per day and essays, I always timed myself. I would set the timer for an 18 minute countdown and then do 10 MBE questions in a particular category (i.e.
Torts). After I did 10 questions, I checked the answers, kept track of lamb last how many I missed and updated my rule outline with any rules from essays stories, questions I got wrong (or in toefl writing a few cases, got right for the wrong reason). I kept track of this and how much time I had left after each series of 10 questions in an Excel Spreadsheet. In the spreadsheet, I calculated the amount of time I used per question. If you develop an essays average time, you can multiply this by obama w 33 to figure out how long this will take you to do a category. For me, Property questions took the longest (average of 1.4 minutes per question), then Contracts, then Torts, Criminal Law, Constitutional Law, and Evidence. Essays Short! Here is the spreadsheet I created and used: Bar Study Sheet.xls (A PDF of my study sheet is here)
You can look at the Bar Study Sheet to fourth see exactly what I did each day. In my opinion, doing the essays short stories topics in blocks gives you a more realistic estimate of how you are doing on that topic. In the first month of obama w studying, if you are doing 10 questions from each topic a day, how do you really know if you are doing well in a specific topic? You can also gauge your progress by comparing your scores to mine at essays stories the same juncture. For example, take the 1998 July MBE 22 days before the exam like I did. Essay America! Then compare your score and time to mine to roughly approximate how you may do on the MBE portion of the bar exam. Following are my MBE outlines from July 2005 that are based on the BARBRI review course. Please remember that these outlines have not been updated since 2005 so you must update them. As you do MBE questions, remember to essays short keep track of your percentages and to skim your MBE subject matter outlines (or mine if you update them). The Bar Study Spreadsheet contains worksheet pages (50 50, 200, or 100 100) that you can print out as answer sheets for the Kaplan/PMBR/MBE questions and exams that you do.
Here are PDF versions of the blank answer sheets along with a PDF of my marked up score sheet for the July 1998 MBE to illustrate how I marked it up: On the score sheet, I also made a note of how many questions I got wrong because I misread the question (I put an MR next to the right answer). This was simply a way for me to see if I was reading the questions too fast. Occasionally, I also incorporated a tip from BARBRI where you put a plus sign next to any answer that you are sure is correct. Essay Guns! That way if you later find you are wrong on that answer, you need to really study that area to figure out short stories why you were wrong. For the MBE, the average passing raw score in NY is 120/190 (63% correct).
The average scaled MBE score is approximately 142 on July exams (133/190 raw=70% correct) and 136.5 (133/190 raw=70% correct) on February exams (122/190 raw=64% correct). July! In practice, you want to be at 60% correct about one month before the exam, and at 65%-70% correct by short stories exam day. To achieve this goal, examinees studying full-time should answer 30-50 MBE practice questions every day. Examinees should read every answer to each question (regardless whether you answered the question correctly or incorrectly) AND TAKE NOTES OF ANYTHING YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND. Personally, I created a separate MBE outline of july fourth MBE rules and essays short, organized this by topic (i.e. Essay July! Con Law, Contracts, etc.). This flashcard document should contain 1-2 sentence rules of essays short stories law for fourth, all the essays short multiple choice questions that you answered wrong and for any question that you answered correctly but for charles last essays, the wrong reasons. These are your weaknesses on short stories, the MBE. Read this outline every day before you do your daily MBE questions. My MBE Rules Outline flashcard document ended up containing over 800 1-sentence rules of law.
Here is my flashcard document (please also keep in essay guns mind that these rules have not been reviewed or updated since 2005): While there are undoubtedly many reasons why re-takers do worse on the exam, I believe the main reason is stories because failing examinees are unable to do well on the MBE. I find that an guns america examinee generally fails the exam (and becomes a re-taker) because they do poorly on the MBE. Many re-takers are later unable to stories devote as much time or energy to the exam as their first attempt and their MBE score languishes. Even when re-takers focus on the MBE, if they don’t learn from their MBE mistakes, they will have a hard time improving enough on the MBE to pass. The most important thing you can do for the MBE is to make some type of a “Rules outline” for each practice MBE question you get wrong (or right for the wrong reasons).
If you don’t keep track of the law that you learn during the MBE question process, you will forget a good bit of it, and it will also be harder to for emily identify where you are having problems. If you do a good rules outline that is organized and prioritized and you study it often, everything will come together in the end - you will have a concise catalog of all your MBE mistakes so that you can study them to essays stories avoid repeating them. For example, a subscriber that recently passed with an MBE score of guns america 158.5 said that what helped him most for the MBE was “ MAKING A RULE OUTLINE. That is the best way to learn the short stories material. But not only making the outline, reviewing it every so often. Obama W! I used this before the exam, on the day of the exam, and at lunch. Could not do anything more beneficial to learn the MBE. ” The MBE Subject Matter Outline can be downloaded here. Essays Stories! If you are making an toefl writing MBE rules outline, you should categorize the rules based on the topics in stories the MBE outlines in order to prioritize the rules. For example, according to obama w the MBE Subject Matter Outlines for Constitutional Law, approximately half of the Constitutional Law questions for each MBE will be based on category IV (Individual rights), and approximately half will be based on the remaining categories, I, II, and III (the nature of judicial review; separation of powers; and the relations of short nation and states in a federal system).
If you categorize your rules outline for each MBE topic, you can focus on higher priority rules (i.e. Con Law Category IV) when you are studying or if you are running short on time. Categorizing your rules ends up being a useful exercise in learning the interplay between legal topics. Although some people say you should do questions from each subject at essay least once a week (i.e. Constitutional Law questions on Monday, Criminal Law questions on short stories, Tuesday, Contracts on charles, Wednesday, etc.), I did my MBE Q's in blocks until about one month before the exam. Short Stories! For example, after Constitutional Law finished in BARBRI, I did Constitutional Law multiple choice questions from BarBri and Kaplan/PMBR.
Then I did the same with the next topic. Once all six topics were finished in BARBRI, I then started doing exams to test on obama w, all the subjects. I ended up answering over 4,000 multiple choice questions (please note that over essays stories 1,000 of these questions did not have answer explanations, so very little time was spent reviewing these answers). For the July 2005 MBE, I finished the AM session 45 minutes early and july fourth, the PM session 35 minutes early. Quite honestly, if you do a lot of MBE questions, they start to look familiar after a while.
However, do not use me as a gauge - most examinees finish the MBE with only a few minutes to spare. Out of curiosity, I checked the answer keys of each released MBE and tallied the correct answers for each exam. I found that the answers for the three released MBE exams (Feb 1991, July 1991, and essays stories, July 1998) are evenly distributed. Toefl Writing! Each MBE exam had 50 choice (A) right answers, 50 choice (B) right answers, 50 choice (C) right answers, and 50 choice (D) right answers. Essays Stories! This is more of an interesting observation rather than a tip or advice. Assuming that the guns MBE still continues this pattern, you may be able to essays short stories increase your odds by doing the following (called the Underdog Strategy): b. Count the frequency of each position among your (hopefully correct) answers. c. Select the position with the lowest frequency (the underdog position). If two or more positions are tied for underdogs, select any one of them.
d. Give the underdog position(s) as the answer to essay all as yet unanswered questions. Much like the recently released MBE questions (OPE 1-4) reflect the current MBE, the recently released MEE questions reflect the current MEE. Older MEE questions (with answers) from 2007-2011 (9 exams) can be downloaded from essays, NCBE here. More recent MEE questions can be purchased from NCBE here. I created an MEE Study module for examinees who are looking to efficiently supplement their MEE study. This MEE Study Module is worth getting if: (1) you don’t have access to the released MEE questions/answers and plan to thematic rose for emily buy them; or (2) you are an auditory learner; or (3) you need to short improve your MEE issue spotting.
If you plan to charles lamb essays buy the released MEE questions, it is more cost-effective (and extremely more efficient) to obtain these questions/answers/synopses through this MEE Study module since you will save $50 ($99 for essays, the MEE Study Module versus $150 to purchase the 2012-2016 MEEs from NCBE) and you will also have access to a significant amount of america extra MEE related content: Based on the past tested MEE topics, I create a UBE MASTER outline for each exam. Essays Short! It contains on every topic and issue tested on the MEE since 1995 (44 exams comprising 300+ essay questions and 1,200+ issues). This outline is prioritized utilizing the guns america same methodology I used for the pre-UBE essays. Short! This outline has the toefl writing added advantage of prioritizing utilizing the grading weights for essays, each topic contained in obama w the MEE answer analysis.
Samples of the UBE MASTER OUTLINE, the MEE MASTER TOPIC SUMMARIES OUTLINE , and the MEE MASTER-RELEASED ANSWER COMPILATION can be viewed by clicking on the links. In addition, there is other MEE information on the subscription site, including 30 hours of MEE Questions and Answers in MP3 format covering the past 18 MEE exams. For example, following is a free sample set of MP3s from the February 2008 MEE: Reviewing past MEEs will help you on the MEE exam because the topics repeat (and you will also improve your issue-spotting ability by learning how the issues are tested). For example, the FEBRUARY 2008 MEE answers alone would have helped you with about 15% of the JULY 2016 MEE questions, particularly with the topics of CrimLaw: Cat V: Const Protections of Ds (B. Essays Short Stories! Confessions/Self-incrimination privilege), Torts: Cat II: Negligence (D.
Problems relating to causation)_2_Harms_traceable_to_multiple_causes, Torts: Cat III: Strict/Prod Liability (C. Claims against essay july manufacturers) and essays, SecTrans: Cat III: Validity of Sec Agmts (B. Enforceability). Older MPT questions (with point sheets) from 2006-2010 (8 exams) can be downloaded from NCBE here. MPT scores are not very reliable. Personally, I have received scores from numerous failing examinees who scored a high MPT score on one exam and then a low MPT score on a subsequent exam. Essay Guns! The biggest problem with the MPT is its all or nothing nature - some examinees understand and do well on certain MPT questions/topics/tasks while other examinees find the same MPT questions/topics/tasks daunting. Essays Short Stories! That is why NCBE said that there needs to obama w be 22 different MPT questions (meaning a 33 hour MPT test) for the MPT to be as reliable as the MBE. see The Bar Examiner: Volume 77, Number 3, August 2008 . Examinees who fail the exam should order their essays/MPT and participate in the Essay/MPT comparison to essays short better understand what the graders regard as a high scoring essay/MPT.
Writing a good MPT answer requires a different skill set than essay writing. According to NCBE, when the local essays scores are compared to the other components of the exam (without adjusting for reliability), the lowest correlation is economics coursework between the essays and the MPT (.43 for Essays vs. MPT; 44 for Essays vs. Essays Short Stories! MEE; and essay guns america, .55 for Essays vs. MBE). See The Bar Examiner: Volume 77, Number 3, August 2008 . Essays Stories! Personally, I did not do any practice MPTs. I spent a cumulative total of about six hours preparing for thematic for emily, the MPT by essays doing the following: • I looked at one answer (a memorandum) and worked in reverse to see where the answer portions came from (i.e. Were statutes primarily cited; were they cited first and then case law; what parts of the cases did the exam taker incorporate into his answer; how much case analysis did the exam taker incorporate into his answer; how much relevance did the exam taker assign to obama w the other information in the library). Short Stories! This was the most useful thing I did. This will give you a good idea of what parts of the cases and statutes you should strip out and put into your answer when you do the MPT yourself. Lamb Last! Once you know what a good answer consists of, you are better prepared to write a good answer yourself.
• If you are not a fast reader/thinker/writer, you should do practice MPTs to see if you have time/writing problems. From July 2001 to present, NYBOLE has released has two sample MPT answers written by actual test-takers that were regarded as representative of better than average submissions. All these exams are contained in the following Exams Zip file (The MPT answers are after the essays stories Essay answers). if you wish to thematic essay for a rose download MPT answers from a specific exam, you can choose the short file from the below table: Individual Past NY Exam Essay Questions with Sample Candidate Answers. The biggest mistake you can make on the MPT is to not follow instructions. For example, on the July 2011 exam, I found that a number of examinees received very low scores for failing to follow the directive of the memorandum, failing to write persuasively when required, or failing to understand of the structure of the MPT judicial system.
I believe that Diane Bosse, the essay america chair of the New York State Board of Law Examiners, wrote the December 2011 article entitled The MPT: Assessment Opportunities beyond the Traditional Essay partly in response to the glaring mistakes made by examinees on the July 2011 MPT. Accordingly, examinees must be cognizant of this advice when taking the short stories MPT. In addition, there is a lot of helpful advice and material for thematic essay for a, the MPT on short, the Subscription Site. NY Bar Exam Pass Rates. Pass rates have been dropping significantly over the past two years. For example, the overall Feb 2016 pass rate in New York was 41%. In contrast, the lamb essays 20 year historical overall February pass rate in NY has been about 47.1%. Based on my calculations, an extra 250+ examinees failed (out of 4,193 taking) as a result of this 6.1% pass rate difference. Likewise, the essays short stories July 2015 pass rate in New York was abnormally low. The 20 year historical overall July pass rate in NY has been about 69.5%.
The overall July 2015 pass rate in NY was 61%. Based on my calculations, an extra 900+ examinees failed (out of 10,671 taking) as a result of coursework this 8.5% pass rate difference. Based on my current analysis, only stories, 3 states had a July 2015 pass rate above their 20 year average (from 1995-2014). Washington had the best increase, passing 3.64% more examinees than their 20 year July average. Mississippi had the worst decrease, failing 32.32% more examinees than their 20 year July average. Based on the number of July 2014 takers, I estimate that an extra 1,971 examinees failed the July 2015 bar exam as compared to their state's 1995-2014 average.
In regards to thematic essay New York, the 20 year historical overall July pass rate in NY has been about 69.5%. The overall July 2015 pass rate in NY was 61%. Stories! Based on my calculations, an extra 900+ NY examinees failed based on this 8.5% pass rate difference. Statistically, it becomes harder and for a for emily, harder to pass the NY bar exam with each attempt. In October 2006, NY BOLE released a paper entitled Impact of the Increase in the Passing Score on the New York Bar Examination July 2005 Bar Administration (see http://www.nybarexam.org/press/ncberep.pdf, pages 83, 90-91).
This study was done when the pass rate in NY was 660 (it is raised to 665 in 2005). According to the study, with a passing score of 665, the projected pass rate for short stories, Domestic-Educated First-Time Takers was 83%; the projected pass rate for toefl writing, Domestic-Educated Second-Time Takers was 30%; and the projected pass rate for essays short stories, Domestic-Educated Third-Time Takers was 23.2%. Meanwhile, the projected pass rate for Foreign-Educated First-Time Takers was 43.9% while the projected pass rate for obama w, Foreign-Educated Repeaters was 13.5% (id. at pages 95, 98). Short Stories! As you can see, pass rates plummet for re-takers, even for the ones most likely to pass, namely Domestic-Educated takers. Following are pass rates for the New York Bar Exam from 2012-2015. Please note these statistics are averages based on percentages reported by NY BOLE. Thematic For Emily! The overall pass rate between 1992-2012 is 64.8%.
Since 1992, the average annual increase in candidates has been approximately 2.5% and the average annual increase in passing candidates has been approximately 2%. A sortable chart that reports the pass rates in U.S. states and territories based on the 2009 Bar Admission Statistics published by the National Conference of essays Bar Examiners can be found here. Based on pass rates for the New York Bar Exam from charles lamb last, 2012-2015, domestic-educated examinees taking the exam for essays short stories, the first time had an overall pass rate of 82%. Toefl Writing! In contrast, foreign-educated examinees taking the exam for the first time had an essays short stories overall pass rate of essay 42%. In regards to retakers, domestic-educated retakers had an overall pass rate of short 40% while foreign-educated retakers had an overall pass rate of 23%. In examining the average pass rates in New York over the past 20 years of reported information, the February Overall Pass Rate is 47.1% while the July Overall Pass Rate is toefl writing 69.8%. The February First Time Takers Pass Rate is essays short 59.9% while the July First Time Takers Pass Rate is 73.6%. The February Repeaters Pass Rate is 33.6% while the July Repeaters Pass Rate is guns america 28.3%.
With each reduction of 1% in short stories the pass rate, an essay july fourth estimated 40 extra examinees will fail the exam in February (whereas in July, with each reduction of 1% in the pass rate, an short stories estimated 110 extra examinees will fail the exam in July). If you are a local domestic candidate, I ranked the essay 15 New York law schools based on their 5-year July pass rates (July 2010-July 2014) based on First-time takers. NYU has the highest overall First-time taker pass rate at 95.6% and short, Touro has the lowest overall First-time taker pass rate at 74.0%. Basically, domestic white males under the age of 27 are the ones who score the best on the exam. The further away you are from america, this demographic, the worse you tend to do on the exam. Interestingly, women to do somewhat better than men on the essay component (about 2 points on the MBE scale) and for men to short do somewhat better than women on the MBE (about 5 points on july, the MBE scale) - this was observed consistently across racial/ethnic groups, and for first-time takers and essays stories, repeat takers. To counter this, NCBE has added more women question writers for the MBE. I estimate that Feb 2017 results will be released on Wednesday 4/26/17 (NYBOLE has averaged 60 days for the past few February pre-UBE exams and then NYBOLE was 3 days later than average with the J16 UBE exam, so I am predicting 63 days from the F17 exam date) Official New York bar exam results are posted on NYBOLE's website here. My chronicle of exam results release dates is below.
FYI, since 1995, a total of essay july fourth 1,365,473 examinees took a bar exam in the U.S. and 927,017 passed, resulting in essays short an overall nationwide pass rate of 67.9% (this means that by obama w February 2017, there will have been 1,000,000+ new attorneys in the U.S. over essays short stories a span of 22 years). From 2005 to present, the lamb last average number of essays short days before the exam results release is thematic essay for emily 66 days for a February exam and essays short, 100 days for a July exam. Obama W! In the past, a notification of the Release Date was generally posted one day before the Exam Results Release Date, but since 2014, there has been no pre-notification. Following is essays short a table of release dates for the NY bar exam from toefl writing, 2005 to essays short present: NYBOLE does not wait for MPRE results to be released before sending out the toefl writing exam results.
For example, February 2014 NY bar exam results were released on April 24, 2014 even though March 2014 MPRE results were not released until April 29, 2014. With every administration, a few examinees awaiting results ask me whether email notices regarding admission may be a clue as to whether they passed or failed the essays short stories exam. For example, I was told that the Third Department sent out last essays their Admission to short the New York State Bar on behalf of the Third Department to obama w only a small number of examinees on September 9, 2014 and stories, then a second email was sent to all Third Department examinees on guns, September 16, 2014. In another example, in the Second Department, examinees awaiting results receive an essays stories email entitled Notice To Second Department Applicants Anticipating Admission To The New York State Bar. While the email subject seems to suggest the thematic for a for emily examinee has passed, I am aware of examinees who received this email and subsequently found out stories they had failed. These emails are sent by obama w the Committees on essays short stories, Character and Fitness to anyone who recently sat for economics coursework, the New York State Bar Examination and do not have any bearing on whether an examinee passed or failed. Essays Stories! I believe that the essay america Committees on Character and short stories, Fitness for each Judicial Department do not become aware of who passed or failed the exam until the examinees do - when NYBOLE releases the results.
When results are released, all examinees receive the email with the results contained in an attached PDF file that will report whether the examinee passed or failed the exam. For example, for the July 2016 exam, all examinees received an email with the subject: July 2016 Bar Exam Results . The body of the toefl writing email contained generic output that reported the examinee's BOLE ID and stated: Please read the stories attached notification from the New York State Board of july Law Examiners concerning your July 2016 bar examination results. DO NOT RESPOND TO THIS EMAIL AS IT IS AUTOGENERATED. The name of the PDF attachment is the examinee's BOLE ID (e.g. B10000000.pdf).
The only way an examinee can tell if they passed or failed without reading the PDF is from the size of the PDF - the passing PDF is short about 24kb in size because it consists of 1 page while the essay guns failing PDF is about 62kb in size because it consists of 3 pages. Release notification information for each administration from 2008 to present is short stories below (in reverse chronological order): The following was posted on NYBOLE's website at 12:00AM on Wednesday 4/26/17: The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website between 12:00PM midnight Monday, April 25, 2016 and 12:05AM Tuesday, April 26, 2016 and examinees began receiving emails from toefl writing, NYBOLE shortly thereafter. As with July 2014-July 2015 exams, NYBOLE did not give a notice before the essays stories release of results on their website. * BAR EXAM RESULTS * The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website between 12:00PM midnight Monday, October 26, 2015 and july fourth, 12:05AM Tuesday, October 27, 2015 and examinees began receiving emails from NYBOLE shortly thereafter. Short! As with July 2014 and Feb 2015, NYBOLE did not give a notice before the release of results on their website, but www.newyorklawjournal.com posted an article at obama w 10:00PM Monday, October 26, 2015 (two hours before results were released) about the results being released on Tuesday, October 27, 2015.
*BAR EXAM RESULTS* The results of the July 2015 New York State bar examination have been released to candidates who sat for the examination. The results were emailed to candidates at the email address on file with the Board. Please be advised that there may be some delays in receiving the email depending on volume and security issues with individual email providers. Candidates who were successful on the bar examination must file the essays stories Application for Admission to the Bar with the appropriate department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division within three years of the October 27, 2015 notification of passing. A copy of the Notice of rose for emily Certification that is attached to the email must be filed with the essays stories Supreme Court, Appellate Division as part of the application for admission. The application for admission may be accessed by clicking on Admission Information in the table of contents on this website. The results are also available to candidates by using the private lookup link below. The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website around 5:00PM on Monday, April 27, 2015 and examinees began receiving emails from toefl writing, NYBOLE shortly thereafter. As with July 2014, NYBOLE did not give a notice before the release of results. * BAR EXAM RESULTS * The results of the February 2015 New York State bar examination have been released to candidates who sat for the examination.
The results were emailed to stories candidates at the email address on toefl writing, file with the Board. Please be advised that there may be some delays in stories receiving the email depending on volume and security issues with individual email providers. The results are also available to toefl writing candidates by using the private lookup link below. If you were successful on the bar examination you must file your Application for Admission to the Bar with the appropriate department of the short Supreme Court, Appellate Division within three years of the April 27, 2015 letter notifying you that you passed the bar examination. A copy of the Notice of thematic essay for a rose for emily Certification that is attached to stories the email must be filed with the Supreme Court, Appellate Division as part of your application for admission. America! The application for admission may be accessed by clicking on essays stories, Admission Information in essay july the table of contents on this website. The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website around 12:00AM on Tuesday, October 28, 2014. Essays Stories! This is the first time NYBOLE did not give a notice before the release of results and thematic essay for a for emily, only posted the essays stories following message:
The results for candidates who sat for the July 2014 New York State bar examination have been sent to the last email address on economics coursework, file with the Board. There may be some delays in receiving the email depending on volume and short stories, security issues with individual email providers. Toefl Writing! The results are also available by using the private lookup link below. Candidates will be prompted to insert their unique BOLE ID and essays short stories, their Date of Birth to access their results online. Please note that, if you were successful on the bar examination, you must file your Application for Admission to the Bar with the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court within three years of the date of the letter notifying you that you passed the bar examination. Toefl Writing! A copy of the Notice of Certification that is attached to the email must be filed with the essays Appellate Division as part of july fourth your application for admission. The following message was posted on essays, the NY BOLE website around 4:00PM on Wednesday, April 23, 2014: The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website around 4:00PM on Tuesday, October 29, 2013: The following message was posted on essay, the NY BOLE website around 3:30PM on Wednesday, May 1, 2013: IMPORTANT NOTICE FOR FEBRUARY 2013 TEST TAKERS.
The results for the February 2013 New York State bar examination will be released on May 2, 2013. Essays! The results will be sent to the candidates by email to the address on file with the Board. Obama W! Please note that there may be some delays in receiving the email depending on volume and essays, security issues with individual email providers. The results will also be available to july the candidates by using the private lookup link that will be available on this site on May 2. The public list of the short names of the passing candidates will be available on this site on May 3, 2013. NO FURTHER INFORMATION REGARDING THE TIME OF RELEASE IS AVAILABLE. DO NOT CALL THE BOARD OFFICE.
The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website around 9:00AM on toefl writing, Thursday November 1, 2012: --POSTED NOVEMBER 1, 2012. The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website around 1:00PM on Tuesday May 1, 2012: FEBRUARY 2012 BAR EXAM RESULTS WILL BE RELEASED ON WEDNESDAY, MAY 2, 2012. Candidates will be notified by email, and a private lookup will also be available on this homepage. Due to volume . not recieve the email by 5PM EST on May 2, 2012, you may fax a request for a duplicate notice to be sent. Please include your BOLE ID and a valid email address. The following message was posted on the NY BOLE website around 10:00PM on essays short stories, Tuesday November 1, 2011: In April 2011, the essay july NY BOLE website stated that the results for essays short, the February 2011 bar exam would be available mid-May 2011. On 4/25/11, the NY Law Journal website posted that February 2011 scores were being released on essay july fourth, 4/26/11.
On 4/26/11, the following was posted on the NY BOLE website in the morning (examinees began to receive scores via email around 9:00AM): Important Notice(s) for February Bar Exam Applicants: The results from the essays February 2011 bar exam were released electronically to essay the candidates on Tuesday, April 26, 2011. Short Stories! Candidates should check the account of the toefl writing email address supplied to the Board in essays stories their application to sit for the bar exam. Candidates that do not have access to their email may privately access their status at the link located below. Economics Coursework! Candidates will need to enter their BOLE ID Number and short, their date of birth to access their pass/fail status using the charles lamb last following link.
Posted by NY BOLE on 11/5/10 in stories the afternoon. Essay Guns! Examinees began to short stories receive scores around 4:00PM: Notice to July 2010 Bar Examination Candidates. Results of the July 2010 bar examination are being emailed to thematic for a rose candidates beginning on November 5, 2010. Short Stories! It could take up to thematic essay for a rose for emily 24 hours for your results to be received and delivered by your email system. Essays Short! If you have not received your results by 9:00AM on Monday, November 8, you may fax a request to the Board for economics coursework, a duplicate letter. Stories! Please include a current, working email address. You may also access your results by clicking here. You will need your BOLE ID. If you were successful on the bar exam and certified for admission to the bar, the attachment in the email notice of economics coursework your results (“Notice of essays Certification”) must be sent to the Appellate Division as part of your application for admission.
* The July 2010 results appeared unofficially on Above the toefl writing Law on essays short stories, November 5, 2010. According to obama w a Wall Street Jornal article dated November 8, 2010, the results of July's bar exam in New York were released early after someone culled part of the unreleased pass list from the NY BOLE website and posted the essays stories names online. John McAlary, executive director of the essay july fourth state Board of essays short stories Law Examiners, said the board was preparing the names for release on Tuesday, November 9, 2010 and Wednesday November 10, 2010 when they learned that someone had leaked the names. NY BOLE decided it was fair to immediately send out the full results by e-mail. Whether you passed or failed, the email from NY BOLE contained the same subject line:
Subject: NYS Bar Examination July 2010 Results. The contents of the pass email: The New York State Board of Law Examiners congratulates you on passing the New York State bar examination held on July 27-28, 2010. An official Notice of charles last Certification is attached, which you will be required to send to the Appellate Division as part of your Admission Application. The attached notice will also contain your Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) scaled score. Please note that a score will not be reported on the attached notice if you transferred an MBE score to New York from another jurisdiction.
DO NOT RESPOND TO THIS EMAIL AS IT IS AUTOGENERATED. The contents of the fail email: The New York State Board of essays Law Examiners hereby notifies you that you did not pass the coursework New York State bar examination held on July 27-28, 2010. An official notice is attached and will include a breakdown of your scores. Applications for the February 2011 examination must be RECEIVED at the Board office by no later than November 30, for candidates who failed the July 2010 examination. Essays Short! There is no provision for late filing. You may apply online using the On-Line Application. The link to the Online Application is located on the Board?s homepage at www.nybarexam.org. If you choose to re-apply online, payment must be made by Visa or MasterCard credit cards only; debit cards are not accepted. The application fee for for a rose for emily, U.S. educated JD graduates is $250 ($750 for foreign educated candidates under Section 520.6 of the Rules of the Court of Appeals). DO NOT RESPOND TO THIS EMAIL AS IT IS AUTOGENERATED.
Despite snow, the bar exam was not postponed on Day 2. Here is a synopsis of the stories February 2010 weather situation. The following was posted on the NY BOLE web site on April 26, 2010: The February 2010 NYS Bar Exam results will be issued on Tuesday, April 27, 2010. An email will be sent to all candidates who have taken the February 2010 NYS Bar Examination with an toefl writing attachment containing your examination results. A private lookup will be provided on this site to view your results in conjunction with the email containing your results. Essays Short! DO NOT CALL THE BOARD OFFICES ABOUT THE TIME THEY WILL BE RELEASED. Posted by NY BOLE on 11/4/09 at toefl writing around 3:00PM: Important Notice for JULY 2009 BAR Exam Takers: The results from the July 2009 bar examination will be made available to candidates, by e-mail, on short stories, November 5, 2009. You must ensure that you can accept emails from email@example.com.
There will also be a link on this web site. to privately view your individual result by mid-day. A list of the candidates who passed the examination will be made available to the general public on Friday, November 6, 2009. JULY 2009 BAR EXAM STATISTICS. From NY BOLE: Results from the February 2009 bar examination will be EMAILED to all candidates on Tuesday, May 5, 2009 to the email address currently on file with the Board. The email will include an toefl writing attachment with your official results, which will be in Adobe PDF. Please note that exam results will be sent by email only; copies will NOT be sent by U.S. mail. A link will also be available on essays short, this site on May 5 where you may view your individual results.
Please do not call the Board office to obtain your exam results. Charles! You must wait until you receive the email or the link becomes available for exam results. Essays Short Stories! A list of all passing candidates will be made available to the general public on this site on obama w, Wednesday, May 6, 2009. From NY BOLE: The July 2008 Exam private results lookup will be available online Friday November 14 2008 at 9:00 AM. Essays Short! The general public lookup will be available Monday, November 17, 2008.
From NY BOLE: The February 2008 bar exam results secure on-line candidate lookup was on Wednesday - May 7th at 9:00 AM EDT. For my exam, on Monday Nov 14, 2005, this was posted on nybarexam.org: July 2005 examination results will be available for candidate lookup on this site Thursday, November 17th at 9:00 AM EST. The scores were mailed Nov 16, 2005 and arrived the 18th. Since 2005, there have been a number of changes to the exam that have impacted UBE examinees in New York: • In 2005, the passing score was increased from 660 to 665. • In 2007, NYBOLE stopped releasing raw MBE scores to failing examinees (knowing these scores could give some examinees a more effective study strategy) • In 2010, NYBOLE stopped accepting the transfer of MBE scores earned from a prior administration of the MBE in another jurisdiction.
This was done despite NCBE's position that [s]ince the MBE scaled score is a standard score, it can be transferred to another jurisdiction for use in a later examination. • In 2011, NYBOLE raised the examination/credential review fee for foreign attorneys from $400 to $750. • In 2011, NYBOLE implemented a new policy where any applicant who has withdrawn from or failed to appear for any two examinations must apply to charles last essays the Board for essays, permission to toefl writing re-apply before applying for a subsequent examination. • In 2012, NYBOLE announced a new 50 hour pro short, bono service requirement for passing examinees effective in 2015. • In February 2014, NCBE and NYBOLE stopped releasing MBE subscores on the Score Sheets. This means examinees no longer know how they did on MBE Constitutional Law, Contracts, Criminal Law/Procedure etc. Thematic For A Rose! NCBE’s March 2014 NCBE Bar Examiner Testing Column discusses why NCBE no longer provides this information to jurisdictions. Essays Short! According to NCBE, the reasons for economics coursework, the change were to conform to standard test practice and to reduce confusion. On the contrary, the sub-score information was incredibly useful in assessing an examinee’s weaknesses.
Put simply, the stories more information an examinee has about charles last his performance, the more effectively he can analyze it. • In 2015, the subject of Civil Procedure was added to the MBE. The subjects of UCC Article 3 Negotiable Instruments and Federal Jurisdiction were removed from the essays stories essays/NYMC and charles last essays, the subject of Administrative Law was added. • In 2016, NYBOLE switched to the UBE exam. • In 2016, with little notice, NCBE increased the number of experimental MBE questions from 10 to stories 25, meaning only 175 MBE questions are scored. Most of these changes appear to have reduced the number of examinees sitting for july fourth, the exam along with the percentage of examinees passing the exam. Many examinees have found my methods and materials effective. For example, following are unsolicited comments and testimonials from hundreds of examinees in regards to the site. Most examinees subscribe because they were referred to short stories this site by another subscriber - I regard these as the best testimonials. Thematic Rose! However, if you are unable to base your decision on the testimonial of a person you actually know and short, trust, you may find some insight from the charles lamb last comments of other examinees here. This web site, forum, and downloads from this site are merely opinion, advice or suggestions.
By no means should you rely solely on essays short, these assertions or advice. In other words, use your judgment and common sense. This information is economics coursework intended to supplement your studying. The information contained on essays short, this site is by thematic essay no means a replacement for common sense, studying and hard work. No representation is made that any answer is correct or identifies or correctly responds to all of the issues raised by short the corresponding question. Economics Coursework! The analysis is deemed accurate and reliable, but no warranties are being made. In addition, keep in mind that past performance is not indicative of future results. This information on essays, this site is for guns america, your personal and educational use.
Because this site is intended for stories, personal and educational use, do not disseminate, transmit, or duplicate any of the information contained on this site. Keep in mind that studying for a bar exam is a marathon, not a sprint. Accordingly, maintaining your stamina and motivation is very important. As you study, don't neglect your state of mind. Breaks are very important (about 10 minutes every hour) - put the time in but do not burn yourself out. I have seen examinees with scores as low as 530 pass on their next attempt, so nothing is impossible. If you find any problems with the site, please email me at america firstname.lastname@example.org. Essays Short Stories! My backup email is email@example.com. If you found this site helpful, return the favor and donate blood.
Go to The New York Blood Center or the Red Cross to find out how and obama w, where. Please also consider becoming a bone marrow donor. “There are no secrets to essays short stories success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, and learning from failure.” Colin Powell. While this should go without saying, please respect my work and use it ONLY for guns america, your own personal use.
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Ook al heb je de beste opleidingen en werkervaring, je zal nog steeds gemotiveerd moeten zijn. Obama W? Schrijf op wat je motivatie is om met dit bedrijf van start te gaan en welke doelstellingen je jezelf hebt gesteld. Probeer voor jezelf na te gaan waarom dit bedrijf starten zo interessant voor je is. Stories? Wat zijn jouw sterke en zwakke punten? Probeer hier vooral eerlijk in essay guns, te zijn. Dit is met name voor jezelf van belang. Short? Als je weet wat je zwakke punten zijn, kun je daar rekening mee houden. Charles Lamb Last Essays? Op welke gebieden heb je coaching en begeleiding nodig?
Om (meer) inzicht te krijgen in je sterke en zwakke punten kun je een ondernemerstest invullen. De uitkomst van de ondernemerstest laat zien hoe je scoort op je ondernemerscompetenties. Voor elke product of stories dienst is er een markt. Obama W? Althans, heb je dat onderzocht? Welk product of dienst ga je tegen welke prijs en op welke locatie aan wie verkopen? Hoe kun je het beste je product of dienst op de markt zetten, wie zijn jouw klanten en hoe ga ik eraan verdienen? Als je dit lastig vindt kan onze e-learning verkoopplan schrijven je daarbij helpen. Hier zet je alle algemene gegevens van de onderneming op een rijtje.
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Hoe heeft de markt zich in short stories, het algemeen ontwikkeld en wat is thematic for emily, de toekomstverwachting? Geldt de uitkomst hiervan ook voor dat deel van de markt waar je je op wil richten? Je markt bestaat uit de verzameling van gegevens over essays bestaande afnemers, potentiële afnemers en alle aanbieders van het product of obama w dienst of stories vervangende product of diensten. Zijn er weinig aanbieders en geen vervangende product of economics coursework diensten, dan zit je natuurlijk goed. Zijn er veel aanbieders en zijn er ook nog eens allerlei vervangende producten of diensten, dan heb je het als starter beslist moeilijk. Essays Stories? Voor een starter is het van belang dat je jouw markt kent.
Hier geef je aan hoe de markt zich ontwikkelt, zowel op landelijk niveau als op lokaal niveau. Verschuift de behoefte van de potentiële afnemers of economics coursework juist niet? Wat gebeurt er met het aantal concurrenten en hoe ontwikkelt de prijs van het product of stories dienst zich? Het is last essays, belangrijk om uw doelgroep zo nauwkeurig mogelijk te omschrijven. Essays Stories? Wie zijn je (potentiële) klanten? Wat zijn belangrijke kenmerken van deze klanten? Naarmate je jouw klanten beter kent, ben je ook beter in essays, staat ze te bereiken en te bedienen. Je moet weten of short stories er meer aanbieders zijn van jouw product of obama w dienst. Denk daarbij ook aan concurrentie die een alternatief aanbieden. Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van de concurrentie?
Weet welke prijs ze vragen en welke kwaliteit ze bieden. Essays Stories? Richten ze zich op dezelfde klantengroep? Hoe zorg je ervoor om hiertussen op te vallen? Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van je eigen onderneming en wat zijn de kansen en bedreigingen die zich in toefl writing, de markt voordoen of gaan voordoen? Met de marketingmix geef je je bedrijf een duidelijk eigen gezicht. Essays? De marketingmix maakt je bedrijf herkenbaar voor de buitenwereld. Lamb Last Essays? De marketingmix bestaat uit de vijf P’s:
Product of dienst staat voor meer dan alleen een product of stories dienst. Economics Coursework? Wat is short stories, de toegevoegde waarde voor de klant? Welk probleem lost het op? Denk ook aan verpakking, garantievoorwaarden, uitstraling en merk. Fourth? Wat zijn de belangrijkste kenmerken van je product of essays short dienst? De prijs zegt iets over obama w het product of essays short dienst dat je levert, maar ook over fourth het deel van de markt waar je je op richt. Essays Stories? Met een hoge prijs trek je een andere doelgroep dan met een stuntprijs. Fourth? Welke prijsstrategie ga je hanteren? Leg je de nadruk op service of short ben je een prijsvechter?
Hoe liggen de prijzen bij concurrenten? Hier maakt je duidelijk waar je je bedrijf vestigt. Ga je huren of essay for a kopen? Start je vanuit huis of stories kies je voor een bedrijfspand? Beschrijf ook hoe je bedrijfskolom eruit ziet. Toefl Writing? Hoe verloopt de distributie van leverancier tot klant?
Waar ga je de producten of diensten verkopen? Wie zijn de leveranciers? Zijn er samenwerkingsverbanden? Promotie maken kan op allerlei manieren en via verschillende kanalen. Short? Beurzen, nieuwsbrieven of economics internet zijn mogelijke promotiekanalen. Essays Short? Wanneer ga je wat precies doen? Promotie hoeft zeker niet duur te zijn.
Er zijn vele mogelijkheden: advertentie plaatsen, billboards, promotiefoldertjes, mondelinge promotie bij feestjes en verenigingen, mond tot mond reclame, gerichte promotiefolder, telefonisch contact, winkelinrichting, kortingsbonnen, persbericht, eigen website, webadvertising, sponsoring, beurzen (bezoeken of eigen stand), etc. Alles begint met wie je wilt bereiken en wie jou moet begrijpen. Kun je het werk alleen aan, of economics coursework het nodig personeel aan te trekken? Personeel aannemen moet zorgvuldig gebeuren. Essays Stories? Het belang van de uitstraling van het personeel naar buiten toe is thematic rose, van groot belang en wordt regelmatig onderschat. Stories? Hoe kom je aan jouw personeel? Heb je behoefte aan hoog- of obama w laaggekwalificeerd? Wordt het personeel zelf opgeleid?
Welke normen en waarden worden er gehanteerd? Een missie is essays short stories, waarvoor we staan, een visie is charles lamb, waarvoor we gaan. Essays? De missie heeft te maken met waarden en identiteit. Economics? Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is essays stories, noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven. Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in essay guns, het plan zelf terug komen. Essays? Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn. Essays? Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie.
SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden. Stories? Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of essay fourth deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan? Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in te schatten hoe groot de omzet is essays stories, die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over toefl writing 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt? Het financieel plan is in stories, feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld.
Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken. Obama W? Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld. Short? Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten.
In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is onderverdeeld in vaste activa en vlottende activa. Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in essay fourth, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Essays? Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in coursework, je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Essays Short? Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Coursework? Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen.
Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Essays? Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of essay guns america met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Essays Stories? Dit kan in vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of obama w kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is essays short stories, een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of america kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Stories? Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Obama W? Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of short de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is charles lamb, geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen.
Er is onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Stories? Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of thematic for a for emily inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Essays Short? Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Charles Last Essays? In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is essays short stories, een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment.
Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in guns, de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of short met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is guns america, de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Short? Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Economics? Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of short dat voldoende is guns america, om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen.
Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of short verlies. De berekening is simpel. Essay America? Het aantal verkochte producten per essays maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Thematic Rose For Emily? Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven.
Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. (21%, 6% of 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Short Stories? Dat wil in toefl writing, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Betalen je klanten direct (contact of essays short stories PIN) zoals in thematic for a rose for emily, de detailhandel, of stories moet je weken op je geld wachten. Essay? Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix.
Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Stories? Ga je direct in obama w, je eerste maand omzet maken, of is essays, er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Essay July Fourth? Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen.
Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in essays short stories, te kopen is je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Coursework? De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Stories? De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Obama W? Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering).
Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Essays Short Stories? Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of charles last essays agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen.
Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of stories ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Essay? Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Short Stories? Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Toefl Writing? Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Short? verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per lamb last kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in of je bedrijf rendabel is. Essays Stories? Door de omzet en kosten in een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in charles last essays, een oogopslag zien of essays short stories je bedrijf winst of thematic for a rose for emily verlies maakt. Essays? In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld.
Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Essay July Fourth? Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Essays? De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Toefl Writing? Dit bepaalt of essays short stories je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Charles Last? Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Essays? Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Last? Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in short stories, de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Thematic Essay For A? Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren.
Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Short Stories? Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of essay guns VOF.
In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Essays Stories? Het salaris is fourth, een kostenpost voor de BV. Essays Short Stories? De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Thematic For A For Emily? We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of short stories er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. Economics? Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn.
Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Essays Short Stories? De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over lamb last het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in essays short, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Zeker in obama w, een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen.
Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Short? In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of economics coursework je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Essays Stories? De cashflow berekent vervolgens of charles last jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of essays stories reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Economics? De cashflow is stories, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat.
De cashflow is negatief als er per thematic essay for a jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Essays Stories? Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in toefl writing, kaart.
Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is essays short, het in de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over economics een bepaalde periode. Stories? Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of economics vrachtwagens in short stories, de loop van de jaren afnemen. Obama W? De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat.
Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is short stories, het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven.
Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over toefl writing je onderneming. Essays Short? Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of guns america het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in essays, hun bedrijf.
We bieden coaching, kennis in obama w, de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Stories? Lees meer.
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Best collections of short stories, essays of 2015 | The Kansas City Star
1346 words essay on Hitler#8217;s rise to power. Essay on Hitler#8217;s rise to power. Germany was in an exceedingly unpleasant state after the WWL. The Treaty of Versailles, to take full blame for the war, had forced it. This meant that Germany would have to pay reparations for all of the other countries. Reparations were even harder to pay since Germany was in the midst of one of the essays short worst stagflation epidemics in history. Not to mention a brand new government, one that had nothing to essay do with the signing of this treaty, had taken over power. All of the people of this once superpower of a country was in a state of perplexity because they had lost a war at had been fought entirely on enemy soil. Germany was searching for an answer to its insurmountable problems, and found that answer in a Nazi named Adolf Hider. Hitler was born in Austria, into a troubled house.
He had aspirations of becoming an artist, but those subsided when he was rejected from the college of art he planned on attending. He had started listening to essays stories a man named Lueger who was at that time the mayor of Vienna. Lueger was a Nazi, with strong anti-Semitic views, which seemed to be a logical answer for Hider and guns america his problems. It was around this time that Hitler was drafted by the army. Instead of going to fight for his country, he chose to essays short stories flee to Germany. Which is economics coursework, a bewildering thought seeing as how he voluntarily joined the German army when he got there. After the war, Hider joined up with a right wing campaign whose job was to spy on other government groups. Upon spying on essays short stories one of the parties, the N.S.D.A.P. Essay America? or Nazi party, he found that he had a lot in common with their views.
He decided this was his calling so he ended up joining that particular party. While in this party, he found out about his abilities to essays stories draw a crowd and make them believe what you are saying. It was at this time he started his famous speeches that could captivate and somewhat hypnotised whoever happened to essay july fourth listen in. He started speaking in short beer halls, and gaining a lot of attention. He would speak on essay guns many topics, giving his ideals as the basis for what Germany should be. Stories? He wanted to make Germany the great dynasty it had once been. The party was growing at an astounding rate, mostly attributed to Hitter#8217;s use of the #8216;gift of gab#8217; in the taverns. Guns America? Hider started organising groups known as the S.A., or storm troopers to cause havoc for opposing parties, mainly the essays communists.
He had modeled this militia after Mussolini#8217;s Fasci. Image Source: i.ytimg.com. In November of 1923, Hider ordered the SA to arrest the coursework mayor of Munich, and the leader of the garrison, in essays stories an attempt to start a coup of Germany#8217;s Weimar Republic. When the SA does get to Munich, they are halted, and essay opened fire on by the garrison. A lot of them were either killed, or sent to essays stories prison, as was Hider#8217;s case. While he sat in confinement serving a five-year term for treason (a capitol offence), he wrote his thoughts out in the infamous book, Mein Kompf. Toefl Writing? Upon his release from lockup, he came to stories find the essay fourth Nazi party was not as powerful as it had been before his incarceration. It is then that Hitler realised that it would be impossible to essays short stories overthrow the government in violence. Instead of seizing power through bloodshed, Hider was going to rise to power politically, once he found a way to get in. This way was lit when the great depression hit the United States. When the depression came about, Germany stopped receiving funds.
That in essay america turn sent Germany#8217;s economy on a downward spiral. Throughout all of this chaos, Hitler unlocked the path. He started becoming friendly with wealthy business owners who liked his philosophies, and started funding his cause. He started heavy campaign tactics to win support for the Nazi Party. This was made evident when in 1929 they had only had 12 representative is Reichstag, but in 1931, just two years later, they had 107, approximately one quarter of Germany#8217;s Parliament were Nazis. With his Nazi underlings in place in the Reichstag, it seemed only perfect to Hider that the presidential elections were coming up. So he focused all of his attention on campaigning for the 1932 elections. Hitler#8217;s political stands on current issues involving Germany were extremely vigorous. He had started pointing the #8216;Stab in the back#8217; theory at the Jews, he promised to get revenge on Great Britain and France, and stories he wanted to make Germany the great nation it once had been.
When the coursework elections came around, it was Hider against Hindenberg, another WWI veteran. Hindenberg was counting on the support from business owners and essays from the toefl writing respect he had earned in the war. With that support he came out of the elections as president. Short? Even though he was defeated, Hider was not deterred in the least in his quest for conquest on the German government. Toefl Writing? He opened a new course of action, which focused on the parliament. Essays? Whichever party in parliament had the most leaders usually meant their party leader would be chancellor?
So the obama w N.S.D.A.P. Short Stories? focused on getting the majority of parliament to toefl writing be its own members. With intense campaigning, their plight was successful. The Nazi party in the Reichstag went from its former 107 party members, to stories 230, which was over half of the seats. Although they did hold the majority, they did not get the chancellor of their choice. Instead, Von Papen had been appointed in the place Hider was hoping for. With the amount of Nazi influence over the government, it was possible for the new-fangled chancellor to toefl writing get anything approved by die governing body. Von Papen tried to lower the amount of control the Nazis possessed by calling for now elections of the parliament. This tactic failed when the final count after the elections showed the essays stories Nazis with 250 members.
Hindenberg decided to appoint a new chancellor, Von Scheicher, who immediately called for re- elections. However, these elections were a success for the new chancellor, and economics Nazi affiliates within the Reichstag dropped to 196. Even with this decrease in the major party, it was still impossible to get something done. This situation compelled Von Scheicher to go to Hindenberg and request that Hitler should take over as chancellor in hopes that this will progress towards a cure for the countries many severe problems. Hindenberg did not like the idea at first, but realised that it was die only way. Essays? Hindenberg placed conservatives in other posts, in hopes of keeping Hider#8217;s power at a minimal but substantial state. So in January of july fourth 1933, Hitler took what is quite possibly the essays short decisive factor in his assumption of power, because it put him, for the first time, in a position of political power.
With his strong inhibitions, and poise to maintain goals he was after, this was the gateway to last his dictatorship. After Hitler#8217;s reception of Chancellor of Germany, the Reichstag building somehow burnt down, with the only Person around being a mentally deficient #8216;communist’. Hitler used this scenario to make the commies out to be a flaw of society, and was granted the right to suspend all of communists civil rights, and essays short send them to prison camps. Hider planned to kill all of the old S.A. leaders, and form the S.S. These were his own personal bodyguards, but now the army was pleased with his actions and took a personal oath to Hider, not Germany. Now that everything was coming together for toefl writing, his supreme rule over essays stories, Germany, there still remained some obstacles. These were dealt with in each of their respected ways. The chancellor prior to Hitler, Von Scheicher, was assassinated along with the leader of the garrison in Munich. This left only one obstruction in Hitler#8217;s path, President Hindenberg. Since he was nearing his own demise, Hider decided to just wait it out. Once Hindenberg passed away, the gateway to autocracy appeared, and Hitler was about to unlock it.
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define essayiste The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and short, conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and july, how to essays use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Economics Coursework? Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the essays, results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning.
A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the thematic essay for a rose for emily, essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to essays short stories find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the obama w, essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the essays short stories, theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. Toefl Writing? To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper.
Following this norm allows you to cut to stories the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of obama w, all the essays stories, genres. Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the obama w, Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm.
It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for short, an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the fourth, academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the short, body of the essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement.
#149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is obama w either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance. Essays Short Stories? Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point.
The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple.
One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in order to july do so will have to essays short establish the guns, elements that comprise the essays short, Western Genre and essay guns america, demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an short essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to charles essays prove. In this respect, the essay will have to short stories organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven.
Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the charles lamb last essays, ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for stories, the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion.
In this respect, the thematic essay for emily, thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and essays short, statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in essay guns my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups.
Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to essays meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in obama w other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. Short? The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an charles last essays example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the essays, ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to have to do more to prove their thesis. For A For Emily? They will not only have to short stories define what the ideology of thematic essay for emily, patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria.
The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the short, essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of thematic essay for a rose, types of argument, I made the short stories, point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and for a for emily, the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make.
They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and stories, as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to coursework your essay is to essays stories only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the economics, function of the essays short, body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. Essay America? They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the short stories, body of the essay is to establish the economics, criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is short going to have to obama w first establish the essays short stories, elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by which the obama w, thesis can be proven.
To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Essays? Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of essay guns, patriarchy is. Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to essays short stories point to specific things within the text and essays, argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the object of essays, investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the proof is essay not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to the terms and concepts of the established criteria.
The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to short not be very feasible. The film is not set in the West, and obama w, it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and essays short stories, then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Lamb? Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the short, criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria.
To stick with the economics, Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of short, setting and even remotely hope to persuade the audience. America? In some way, the writer is going to have to address the fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. Essays Short Stories? In this respect, the writer is going to toefl writing have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to stories each other in terms of thematic essay, comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the short, thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the charles, writer to essays stories draw conclusions. Before that process is for a rose discussed, however, it is stories necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process.
The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the essay july, object of the thesis back to short the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of description, however, clarifies the essay fourth, issue of scope. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the essays, shot) relates to the criteria being used.
It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in charles lamb last essays such a manner as to establish the basis of the relationship between the essays, object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is toefl writing not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements.
It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in some respects, the essays short stories, conclusion does not seem to obama w have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the essays short stories, thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to fourth do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to close, and then close off the discussion itself by short stating something definitive about the toefl writing, work. Like the essays short, introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to coursework signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by short stories pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the essay, running examples, the conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of short stories, proving your argument).
Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. Economics Coursework? (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon what has been discussed. There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of specific instructors. Short? To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by toefl writing which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to essays stories elevate your thinking, not control it. Economics Coursework? The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it.
Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the essays, genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis. More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in essay life and professional endeavors.