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Army Enlisted Job (MOS) Descriptions. The Army calls their enlisted jobs MOSs, or #34;Military Occupation Specialties.#34; The Army has around 190 MOSs available for enlisted Soldiers. Similar specialties are divided into #34;branches#34; or #34;fields.#34; Below are the Army enlisted job fields. Click on each field so see a list of MOS#39;s that fall under that branch, as well as links to complete information about that MOS (job). Field 09 -- Native Language Speaker. Field 09 -- Native Language Speaker, includes only celebrities models essays one MOS (09L), Interpreter/Translator.
These Soldiers are those the Army recruited for their native language ability, and perform translation and interpreter duties. The Infantry Field includes four Army enlisted jobs (MOS#39;s). Women Essays? Infantry is the oldest and largest branch in celebrities as good, the US Army combat arms. There are 22 enlisted MOS#39;s included in the Corps of essay want to be a cosmetologist, Engineer branch. Soldiers in this branch help the Army and the Nation in building structures, developing civil works program, working with natural resources as well as providing combat support on essays, the battlefield. More.
The Field Artillery Field consists of 8 MOSs. The Army#39;s Field Artillery Branch is responsible for neutralizing or suppressing the enemy by cannon, rocket, and missile fire and to help integrate all fire support assets into how does the conflict harrison bergeron, combined arms operations. Celebrities? Air Defense includes seven Army enlisted MOSs. Soldiers in this field implement tactics, techniques and about why i to be, procedures for the employment of air defense systems. There are 21 Army enlisted MOSs included in the Aviation Field. Famously known as the as good role models #34;Green Beret,#34; Army Special Forces Soldiers are the essays elite of Army Special Operations. There are seven Army enlisted MOSs included in this branch. The Army#39;s Armor Branch is responsible for all the celebrities role models essays tank and cavalry/forward reconnaissance operations on the battlefield.
There are three Army enlisted MOS#39;s included in this field. More. 16 enlisted MOS#39;s make up the Army Signals branch. In An? The Army#39;s Signal Corps is responsible for all systems of as good role models, communication for the entire Army. On every mission, communications and data management (handled by the Signal Corps) have become increasingly critical for the Army and its continued success.
More. Field 27 -- Judge Advocate General's Corps. There is only one Army enlisted MOS under this field, MOS 27D - Paralegal Specialist. They assist judges, Army lawyers and unit commanders with legal matters and judicial work. In the Electronic Warfare field, Cyberspace, and the broader electromagnetic spectrum (EMS), are optimized by soldiers and leaders who understand both the operational and technical dimensions of are poems, this segment of the operational environment. Soldiers and leaders are outfitted with cyber-electronic capabilities that enable a broad range of joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational activities during Full Spectrum Operations while concurrently reducing risk to the force. The Military Police field includes four Army enlisted MOS#39;s. The Army#39;s Military Police can be utilized during offensive operations, defensive operations, stability operations, and civil support operations. The Intelligence Branch includes thirteen Army enlisted MOSs, responsible for all intelligence (information) gathered or learned during Army missions. Celebrities Role Essays? More.
The Finance field includes only how does one enlisted MOS, 36B - Financial Management Technician. Soldiers in this MOS are responsible for receiving and posting funding, commitment, and obligations documents to accounting and as good models, budget systems. Field 37 -- Psychological Operations. Field 37 includes 37F - Psychological Operations Specialist. A Psychological Operations Specialist is an information and media specialist who can assess the information needs of in an are poems italicized, a target population and develop and deliver the right message at role essays, the right time and place to create the intended result. The Civil Affairs field includes MOS 38B - Civil Affairs Specialist.
Civil Affairs specialists identify critical requirements needed by local citizens in combat or crisis situations. Causes Of Globalization? Field 42 -- Adjutant General's Corps. Celebrities As Good Role Models Essays? There are three Army enlisted MOSs included in the Adjutant General#39;s Corps, including band members and human resources specialists. There are three Army enlisted MOS#39;s included in why i to be, the Public Affairs field. The Army Public Affairs Specialist participates in celebrities as good role models essays, and assists with the essay to be a cosmetologist supervision and administration of Army public affairs programs primarily through news releases, newspaper articles, Web-based material and photographs for use in military and civilian news media. There is one MOS in as good models essays, the Field of Acquisition Corps. 51C NCOs serve as contingency contracting officers in support of a headquarters, principal assistant responsible for writing services los angeles ca, contracting, contracting support brigades, contingency contracting battalions, and/or installation contracting offices for training and as good models, mission support. Chaplain Assistants (the only resume writing enlisted MOS assigned to this field) provide much-needed support to the Chaplains during missions and everyday activities. As Good Role Essays? A Chaplain Assistant primarily provides support for the Unit Ministry Team programs and worship services. The 24 enlisted MOSs in the Medical field provide medical care to members of the US Military and their family members.
The CW field includes MOS 74D - Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and are poems, Nuclear (CBRN) Specialist. CBRN Specialists plan, employ, and coordinate CBRN defense systems in support of celebrities as good role models essays, joint and combined arms operations including CBRN reconnaissance systems, biological agent detection systems (BIDS), obscurant systems, CBRN decontamination systems, and other CBRN hazard detection and warning systems. Women Essays? Field 79 -- Recruiting and Retention. The four MOS#39;s in the Recruiting and Retention field are responsible for attracting and keeping high-quality enlisted Soldiers in the active Duty Army, Army Reserves, and ?Army National Guard. There are nine enlisted MOS#39;s in the Transportation Field. The Transportation Corps is responsible for moving supplies, troops and equipment anywhere on the globe. More. There are three enlisted MOS#39;s assigned to the Ammunition Field.
Ammunition, explosives, their components, and weapons are known within the Army as #39;ordnance#39; and as good role models essays, require proper care when dealing with them. The Mechanical Maintenance field includes the 16 MOSs that are responsible for mechanical maintenance on Army vehicles and essay about why i want to be a cosmetologist, equipment. There are 10 Army enlisted jobs in the Supply and Logistics field. They are responsible for making sure equipment, materials and systems are available and functioning for missions. More. Field 94 -- Electronic/Missile Maintenance. There are 16 Army enlisted jobs in the Electronic/Missile Maintenance field that are responsible for direct and general support (DS/GS) level maintenance on all electronic maintenance operations. Role? More. Causes? Complete List of celebrities, Army Enlisted MOS's.
A complete listing of essays, Army jobs (MOS#39;s) available for enlisted Soldiers. More.
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Internet Encyclopedia of models, Philosophy. Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. In mathematics, he was an early pioneer in the fields of game theory and probability theory. Services Los Angeles Ca! In philosophy he was an early pioneer in existentialism. As a writer on theology and religion he was a defender of Christianity. Despite chronic ill health, Pascal made historic contributions to mathematics and to physical science, including both experimental and theoretical work on hydraulics, atmospheric pressure, and the existence and nature of the vacuum. As a scientist and philosopher of science, Pascal championed strict empirical observation and the use of controlled experiments; he opposed the rationalism and logico-deductive method of the Cartesians; and he opposed the metaphysical speculations and reverence for authority of the theologians of the Middle Ages. Although he never fully abandoned his scientific and mathematical interests, after his uncanny “Night of Fire” (the intense mystical illumination and midnight conversion that he experienced on the evening of November 23, 1654), Pascal turned his talents almost exclusively to religious writing. It was during the period from 1656 until his death in 1662 that he wrote the Lettres Provinciales and the Pensees . The Lettres Provinciales is a satirical attack on Jesuit casuistry and as good models essays a polemical defense of Jansenism.
The Pensees is a posthumously published collection of unfinished notes for what was intended to be a systematic apologia for the Christian religion. Along with his scientific writings, these two great literary works have attracted the essay, admiration and celebrities models critical interest of philosophers and serious readers of every generation. “Pascal’s life is causes of globalization inseparable from his work.”—A. J. Krailsheimer. Pascal’s life has stirred the same fascination and generated as much lively discussion and learned commentary as his writings. This is largely attributable to his intriguing, enigmatic personality. To read him is to as good models essays, come into direct contact with both his strangeness and causes of globalization his charm. It is also to encounter a tangle of incongruities and seeming contradictions. For Pascal himself – humble yet forceful; fanatical as well as skeptical; mild and empathetic, yet also capable of as good role, withering scorn – personified the essay about why i a cosmetologist, very “chimera” he famously declared man to be ( Pensees , 131/164). Models Essays! [Note: Throughout this article, fragments of the Pensees are identified first (that is, before the slash) by the numeration system of causes of globalization essay, Lafuma and second (after the slash) by that of Sellier – L/S.] Interest in his life is also due to our natural desire to learn more about this “scary genius” , or effrayant g enie – Chateaubriand’s memorable phrase, whose unique combination of talents enabled him to celebrities role, make revolutionary contributions not only to mathematics and in an italicized physical science but also to role essays, the theology and literature of his age. Merely to services los angeles ca, list his achievements is once again to encounter Pascal the “chimera,”— the human riddle who was both an celebrities role, avant-garde crusader for essay are poems italicized, empirical science as well as an avid supporter of ancient prophecy, mysticism, miracles, and Biblical hermeneutics.
Modern readers are usually shocked to discover that the father of gambling odds and the mechanical computer wore a spiked girdle to chastise himself and further mortify a body already tormented by recurrent illness and chronic pain. He has been the subject of dozens of biographies, beginning with La Vie de M. Pascal , the brief hagiographic sketch composed by his sister Gilberte Perier shortly after his death in 1662 and first published in 1684. New treatments of the author’s life have appeared in both French and English with remarkable regularity ever since. Perier’s memoir established a precedent by applying an underlying pattern and symmetry to her brother’s life. The implied form is that of a well-made play with classic five-act structure. In Perier’s treatment this life-drama is a divine comedy showing the spiritual rise and eventual salvation of a distressed soul who, after a series of as good role models, trials and setbacks, reunites with God.
Meanwhile Pascal’s secular biographers and commentators, beginning with Voltaire, offer an opposite view. They portray Pascal’s career as essentially a tragedy, a descending arc tracing the decline into timidity and superstition of a once bold and independent thinker. Nietzsche’s characterization of Pascal as “the most instructive victim of Christianity, murdered slowly, first physically, then psychologically” is a typical summation ( Ecce Homo , II, 3, p. 243). Both views are oversimplified. First of all, at causes of globalization no point during his lifetime was Pascal ever a libertine or libre-penseur . So portraying his life as though it consisted of two sudden and powerful “conversions,” with an intervening slide into worldliness and sins of the flesh, seems a bit too pat and melodramatic. Similarly, since Pascal was a lifelong supporter of the Catholic faith, and since he also maintained an interest in scientific and celebrities as good models mathematical problems well after his commitment to Jansenism and Port-Royal, it seems unfair to portray his final years as a betrayal of his scientific principles rather than as an intensification or culmination of his religious views. Despite these and women bible essays other distortions, the traditional division of Pascal’s biography into five stages or periods remains a convenient way of reviewing his career.
Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623, in Clermont (now Clermont-Ferrand) in the Auvergne region of central France. His parents were Etienne Pascal (1588 – 1651), a magistrate, civil servant, and member of the aristocratic and professional class known as the as good, noblesse de robe , and Antoinette Begon Pascal (1596-1626), the daughter of a Clermont merchant. Im King Castle! Pascal was named for his paternal uncle as well as for St. Blaise, the 3rd-century Armenian saint martyred by having his flesh flayed by iron carding combs as his namesake would later punish his own flesh by wearing a belt studded with sharp nails. The Pascal family, including Pascal’s older sister Gilberte (b. Celebrities Models! 1620) and younger sister Jacqueline (b. Essay! 1625), enjoyed a comfortable, upper-bourgeois lifestyle. Etienne, in addition to being a lawyer, public official, and tax administrator, was proficient in Latin and Greek, a dabbler in as good role natural philosophy, and an expert mathematician.
He was also a demanding but loving father who took great pride in how does the conflict end in bergeron his children’s accomplishments. Gilberte would go on to become Pascal’s first biographer and role essays serve as a fierce guardian of his reputation. Jacqueline displayed an early literary genius and earned acclaim as a poet and dramatist before becoming a nun at Port-Royal. Pascal’s mother, who was known for her piety and charitable work, died when Pascal was only three years old and Jacqueline was but an infant. Pascal was a sickly child who suffered various pains and bible diseases throughout his life. According to a family anecdote related by his niece, at essays age one he supposedly fell victim to essay, a strange illness. His abdomen became distended and swollen, and the slightest annoyance triggered fits of crying and screaming. This affliction supposedly continued for celebrities, more than a year, and the child often seemed on the verge of death.
Hearing of the boy’s condition, neighbors attributed it to witchcraft and blamed a poor elderly woman who occasionally performed household chores for why i, the Pascal family. Etienne, as an educated gentleman, at as good role essays first scoffed at the accusation, but when his patience eventually wore thin he confronted the woman and threatened her with hanging if she didn’t come forward with the truth. The woman reportedly fell to the floor and in an essay are poems italicized promised to divulge everything if her life would be spared. She confessed that in a moment of anger and resentment she had cast a spell on the child – a fatal spell that could be undone only by having it transferred to some other living creature. Supposedly the family cat was given to her and as good models made a scapegoat for writing los angeles ca, the otherwise doomed child. The old woman then prescribed that a poultice of special herbs be applied to Pascal’s stomach. After an intense crisis, during which he appeared to as good role models essays, be comatose and close to death, Pascal awoke from his “spell” and eventually recovered his health.
This strange and end in harrison improbable “witch” tale is scarcely credible today. But that Pascal endured a serious and potentially fatal childhood illness during which his parents desperately tried all kinds of fanciful cures and treatments seems very likely. In fact, the anecdote is perfectly consistent with the wild and paradoxical world of 17 th_ century culture and especially the essays, medical practice of the time – a time when empirical science and natural magic, enlightened new techniques and antique superstitions, were routinely intermingled and practiced side by side. The exact cause and basis of Pascal’s lifelong health problems have never been fully settled or accounted for. According to Gilberte, after his 18 th birthday Pascal never lived a day of his life free from pain or from some sort of illness or medical affliction. The most common medical opinion is that he contracted gastrointestinal tuberculosis in early childhood and that manifestations of the disease, along with signs of possible concurrent nephritis or rheumatoid arthritis, recurred periodically throughout his lifetime. The accounts of his pathology are also consistent with migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia – a complex of illnesses often found together and which also frequently occur in combination with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Scholarly interest in this matter involves more than just idle curiosity and medical detective-work. The question of Pascal’s physical and mental health goes to the heart of writing los angeles, desires to learn more about the conditions and circumstances that produce extraordinary genius.
Affliction and disease, physical or emotional trauma, a natural disadvantage or disability have often served as an added motive or accelerator for high-level creative achievement. Examples abound – from the ancient legend of the blind and vagabond Homer to the documented histories of role, modern creative figures like Isaac Newton, Van Gogh, Stephen Hawking, and Christy Brown. We can only speculate whether and to in an italicized, what extent Pascal’s physical ailments and disabilities, instead of retarding his career, may have actually spurred and celebrities role essays given rise to his intellectual triumphs. In 1631, a few years after the death of his wife, Etienne sold his government post (a common practice of the day) along with most of his property and moved with his children to Paris. Women Bible! Over the next nine years he devoted himself to his amateur scientific and mathematical pursuits and took personal charge of his children’s education. Recognizing early on his son’s exceptional intellectual gifts, Etienne designed and supervised a special program and celebrities as good role models essays curriculum for the boy based on his own anti-scholastic and progressive educational principles. Young Pascal was taught Latin and essay Greek as well as history, geography, and philosophy – all on an impromptu schedule, including during meals and at various hours throughout the day.
Science, or natural philosophy as the discipline was then known, ignited Pascal’s imagination, and as good role essays he demonstrated an early inquisitiveness about natural phenomena and a fondness for devising experiments. Civil and canon law were also part of a varied curriculum that included study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. The latter studies were in accordance with Etienne’s personal religious views, which were plain and respectful and in an essay are poems italicized as progressive as his views on education. He taught his son his own cardinal principle that whatever is a matter of faith should not also be treated as a matter of reason; and vice-versa. It is a tenet that Pascal took to heart and followed throughout his career.
In the belief that, once exposed to role, mathematics, his son would be so captivated by it that he would forsake or ignore his other studies, Etienne determined to withhold instruction in math and geometry until Pascal had completed the rest of his training. However, upon discovering that the boy had already achieved an intuitive understanding of the discipline including his own independently worked out demonstration of a proof in Euclid, Etienne acquiesced. The pages of Euclid were finally opened to why i to be a cosmetologist, the youth, and thus began Pascal’s belated introduction to mathematics – the subject with which he would conduct, at celebrities as good role models essays times guiltily, a lifelong love affair. Pascal’s education was unique for resume ca, his own time and celebrities models essays would be unusual in any era. A passionate student who delved earnestly into each new subject, he absorbed new material, including, at a later period, the most arcane and technical components of theology quickly and effortlessly. However, his learning, while deep in essays a few areas, was never broad and was in some ways less remarkable for what it included than for what it left out.
For example, due to his assorted maladies, Pascal’s regimen included no physical training or any form of exercise. In addition, because of the sequestered, hermetic, entirely private form of his schooling, he never experienced any of the as good role models essays, personal contacts or opportunities for social development that most young people, including even novice monks in monastic schools, commonly do. To what extent this may have deformed or limited his social and interpersonal skills it is hard to say. He was known to be temperamentally impatient with and demanding of about why i to be a cosmetologist, others while sometimes seeming arrogant and self-absorbed. At a later point in his career, he fully acknowledged his deficiencies and as good models essays indeed chastised himself for his social ambition and intellectual vanity. Pascal was not widely read in the classics or in contemporary literature. Resume Writing Services Ca! Though he was well acquainted with Aristotelian and Scholastic thought, philosophy for him consisted mainly of Epictetus, Montaigne, and the traditional debate between Stoicism and Epicureanism. Celebrities As Good Essays! Profane literature was foreign to him, and given his tastes and habits it’s impossible to how does the conflict end in, imagine him reading, say, Ovid or Catullus, much less Rabelais. In fact it’s uncertain whether he had even read Homer or Virgil or for that matter any verses other than the Psalms and his sister Jacqueline’s religious poems. As for drama, Corneille was a family friend who at one time personally championed Jacqueline’s poetry and dramaturgy, and celebrities as good role models essays the young Racine studied classical literature and im king castle essays rhetoric at the school at Port-Royal while Jacqueline and Pascal were also there.
Yet Pascal never mentions the work of either great writer and indeed – other than to refer to the stage as a “dangerous diversion” ( Pensees , 764/630) – seems to have taken little interest at celebrities models essays all in contemporary French theatre, which was then at its artistic zenith. But whatever he may have lacked in physical education, humanistic studies, and art appreciation, Pascal more than made up for in his favored pursuits. In fact, so rapidly did he advance in physics and mathematics that Etienne boldly introduced the boy at the age of only thirteen into his small Parisian academic circle known as the Acad emie libre. The central figure of this group was the polymathic philosopher, mathematician, theologian, and music theorist Pere Marin Mersenne, one of the essays, leading intellectuals of the age. Mersenne corresponded with Descartes, Huygens, Hobbes, and other luminaries of the period and actively promoted the work of controversial thinkers like Galileo and Gassendi. The Mersenne circle also included such notable mathematicians as Girard Desargues and Gilles de Roberval. These inspirational figures served the young Pascal as mentors, examiners, intellectual models, and academic guides.
It was during his involvement with the Mersenne circle that Pascal published, at age sixteen, his Essai pour les Coniques , an important contribution to the relatively new field of projective geometry. The essay includes an role models essays, original proof concerning the special properties of hexagons inscribed within conic sections that is still known today as Pascal’s Theorem. Around the same time that Pascal was working on his Theorem, Etienne, who had at one time served as an women bible essays, adviser to Cardinal Richelieu, incurred the wrath of the First Minister by leading a protest over a government bond default. Threatened with prison, he sought refuge in Auvergne. He was eventually restored to the Cardinal’s good graces by the intervention of his daughter Jacqueline. (The Cardinal, a patron of the celebrities as good models, theatre, was charmed not only by Jacqueline’s poetic and dramatic skills but also by her beauty and courtly manners.) It’s also likely that Richelieu had an additional motive for welcoming Etienne back. For no sooner was Etienne returned to royal favor than Richelieu appointed him the chief tax administrator for Rouen. At the Cardinal’s behest, the Pascal family moved from essay are poems, Paris to celebrities as good models essays, Rouen in im king early January of 1640. Rouen was a city in crisis, beset by street violence, crop failures, a tax revolt, and as good an outbreak of plague. It was Etienne’s job to essays, handle the taxpayer revolt, which he eventually managed to do by working with the local citizens and earning their confidence and respect. Pascal meanwhile seems to have been little affected by the change of scene and continued with his mathematical studies.
He also undertook a new project. Celebrities! Impressed by the massive number of calculations required in his father’s work of accounting and tax assessment, he wondered if the drudgery of such labor might not be relieved by some type of mechanical device. Castle! Setting to work on the idea in 1642, he eventually conceived, designed, and oversaw the construction of what was presented to the public in 1645 as la machine arithmetique , later known as the Pascaline. His simple design consisted of a sequence of interconnected wheels, arranged in such a fashion that a full revolution of one wheel nudged its neighbor to the left ahead one tenth of a revolution. The Pascaline thus became the world’s first fully functional mechanical calculator, and in 1649 Pascal received a royal patent on the device.
Over the next five years he continued tinkering with his design, experimenting with various materials and role trying out different linkage arrangements and gear mechanisms. Nine working models survive today and serve as a reminder that Pascal was not just a mathematical Platonist absorbed in a higher world of pure number but also a practical minded, down-to-earth engineering type interested in applying the services los angeles, insights of science and mathematics to the solution of real-world problems. On an role models, icy day in January of writing services, 1646, Etienne Pascal, in his capacity as a public official, was summoned to prevent a duel that was to take place in a field outside Rouen. While en route, he slipped on the ice, fracturing a leg and injuring his hip. The family called in two local bonesetters, the brothers Deschamps, who moved into the Pascal household for a period of celebrities models, three months to care for in an are poems italicized, Etienne and oversee his recovery. As Good Role Models Essays! The brothers turned out to be members of the small, saintly community of Augustinian worshippers established at essay are poems italicized Port-Royal by the Jansenist priest Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, more simply known as the celebrities role models essays, abbe Saint-Cyran.
The Jansenists (named for essay, the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen) accepted the as good, strict Augustinian creed that salvation is achieved not by human virtue or merit but solely by the grace of God. At Port-Royal they practiced an resume writing services los angeles ca, ascetic lifestyle emphasizing penance, austerity, devotional exercises, and good works. While treating Etienne, the Deschamps brothers shared their stringent, exacting, and somewhat cheerless religious views with the Pascal family. Pascal himself, along with his father and sisters, had never displayed much in the way of genuine religious fervor. They were good upper-middle-class Catholics, mild and celebrities models essays respectful in their beliefs rather than zealous, neither God-fearing nor, to any extraordinary degree, God-seeking. Los Angeles! Yet the ardor of the role essays, Deschamps brothers proved contagious. Pascal caught the fire and essay read with avidity the Jansenist texts that were given to him – sermons by Saint-Cyran along with doctrinal works by Augustine, Antoine Arnauld (Saint-Cyran’s successor), and Jansen himself. Gradually, with growing assurance, and eventually with complete sincerity and conviction, Pascal embraced the Jansenist creed. According to Gilberte’s account, he was the first in the family to convert to the new faith, and as good role no sooner had he done so than he set about to essay italicized, convert the rest of family, first Jacqueline, then Etienne, and finally Gilberte and her husband Florin Perier. It should be added, however, that from Pascal’s own point of view he wasn’t so much “converting” to celebrities role models, Jansenism, or any particular group or sect, as he was declaring or reaffirming his commitment to the true faith.
In her memoir, Gilberte refers to the events of this period as Pascal’s “intellectual conversion,” distinguishing it from his later, more emotional, and im king castle traumatic “second conversion” of 1654. She also asserts that at essays this time Pascal formally renounced all his scientific and mathematical researches and ever afterward devoted himself entirely and exclusively to the love and service of God. This claim is inaccurate and indeed hard to fathom given that only a year later Florin Perier, Gilberte’s own husband, assisted in how does the conflict bergeron what is probably Pascal’s most famous scientific investigation, the celebrated Puy-de-Dome experiment measuring air pressure and proving the existence of the vacuum. In fact, despite Gilberte’s claim, it would probably be closer to celebrities as good models essays, the truth to say that, shortly after his conversion to castle, Jansenism, Pascal resumed his scientific endeavors with even more zest and energy than before. In the celebrities as good, spring of 1647, partly on the advice of causes of globalization essay, his physicians, he returned to Paris where he linked up once again with former colleagues and began organizing several new essays and celebrities role models essays treatises for publication. Why I! His supposed renunciation of as good role, natural philosophy and the bright world of Parisian intellectual life had lasted all of six months. Contrary to Gilberte’s account, most biographers have accepted the causes, years 1649 -1654 as a periode mondaine in Pascal’s career – that is, as a time when he retreated from his pledge to serve only God and resumed to as good role models, a significant degree the life of a gentleman-scientist. It was not a period of castle essays, debauchery and libertinism or anything of the kind. Although he showed an occasional weakness for celebrities as good essays, silk and im king castle brocade and enjoyed the amenities of both a valet and a coach-and-six, Pascal did not become a salon habitue or even much of a bon vivant. He was simply a young man who sought the company of fellow experts, savored the spotlight of recognition for personal achievement, and delighted in the social world of learned conversation and sparkling intellectual debate. His lapse or personal failing, if it can be called that, was what the Port-Royalists referred to as libido excellendi – a concupiscence of the mind rather than of the flesh and an example of the natural human desire for fame that his contemporary, John Milton, called “that last infirmity of noble mind.”
Pascal’s companions during this period included such stars of the Paris social scene as Artus Gouffier, the Duc de Roannez, a former military officer, noted courtier, and amateur dabbler in science and mathematics; Antoine Gombaud, the Chevalier de Mere, a soldier, gambler, author, and paragon of honnetete (more than mere “honesty,” this term connotes an entire code of conduct and the gallant, cheerful lifestyle of an celebrities models essays, independent-minded man of the world); and Damien Mitton, another champion of honnetete whose name became a byword for debonair charm and colorful raconteurship. Several commentators on the Pens ees argue that the work is directly aimed at the culture of honnetete and that it specifically targets figures like Mere and Mitton, that is, persons who seek a life of in an essay, virtue and happiness apart from God. Shortly after his return to Paris in as good models essays 1647 and during a turn for the worse in about to be a cosmetologist his health, Pascal reunited with his old circle of role models, friends and fellow intellectuals and was also introduced into polite society. Descartes himself paid a visit (and according to reports wisely suggested that Pascal follow a regimen of are poems italicized, bed-rest and bouillon rather than the steady diet of enemas, purgings, and blood-lettings favored by his doctors). Models! The historic meeting between the two scientific and essays philosophical rivals reportedly did not go well. Pascal’s new life in Paris was interrupted in 1648 by the outbreak of the Fronde , the violent civil clash that began as a power struggle between Chief Minister Mazurin and leaders of Parliament and celebrities role models which continued as a conflict between the crown and various aristocratic factions over the next five years. To escape the mob havoc and pervasive military presence in Paris, Pascal returned to Clermont along with his sisters, brother-in-law, and father. There he effectively inserted himself into the Auvergne equivalent of in an italicized, Parisian high society and celebrities role resumed his temporary infatuation with la vie honnetete . He returned to Paris in how does the conflict end in harrison 1650, reconnected with his old friends, and began revising and polishing several scientific papers, including portions of a never completed or partially lost version of his Treatise on role models essays the Vacuum . On September 24, 1651, Etienne died; he was 63.
Pascal and Jacqueline were at his bedside. Gilberte was in Clermont awaiting the birth of in an essay italicized, a child who would be named Etienne Perier in honor of his grandfather. Pascal’s letter of consolation to Gilberte, preserved among his complete works, has disappointed some of his admirers due to its austere tone and cold Jansenist view of death (we should not grieve but rejoice at God’s will; the deceased is now in as good role models essays a better world; and why i to be a cosmetologist so forth.). However, the as good models essays, letter includes a note of affection for the man who had taken personal charge of his education and who was the first to introduce him to the world of science and causes essay mathematics. Pascal ends the letter with a pledge that he, Gilberte, and Jacqueline should redouble on one another the love that they shared for their late father. A few months later, Jacqueline finally made good on as good her determination (long postponed in obedience to women, her father’s and brother’s wishes) to dedicate her life to holy service and celebrities as good role essays enter Port-Royal as a nun. In the summer of 1654 Pascal exchanged a series of letters with Fermat on the problem of calculating gambling odds and probabilities. It was also at this time (although many have doubted his authorship) that he completed his Discourse on Love . Are Poems Italicized! And according to at least two of his biographers (Faugere and Bishop) it was during this same period (1653-54) that Pascal himself fell victim to amorous passion and even contemplated marriage (supposedly to the comely Charlotte de Rouannez, his frequent correspondent and the sister of his good friend the Duke). On the other hand, Gilberte in role models essays her account of in an essay are poems italicized, her brother’s life makes no mention whatsoever of as good role models essays, a love affair, and the evidence that Pascal ever succumbed to essay want, romance or became a suitor remains sketchy at as good role models best. One other oft-cited, but dubious and unverified, event in Pascal’s life also dates from this period. According to various sources, none wholly reliable, in October of 1654, Pascal was supposedly involved in a nearly fatal accident while crossing the Pont de Neuilly in his coach.
His affrighted horses reportedly reared, bolted, and plunged over the side of the bridge into the Seine, nearly dragging the coach and causes essay Pascal after them. Fortunately, the main coupling broke and the coach, with Pascal inside, miraculously hung on to the edge and stabilized. The commentators who credit this tale attribute Pascal’s “second conversion” to it and view his return to Jansenism as an immediate and direct consequence of his near-death experience. Sigmund Freud accepted the story and even used it as an example of how severe trauma can trigger an obsessive or phobic reaction. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the event ever happened.
The crucial event of Pascal’s life and career occurred on November 23, 1654, between the hours of 10:30 pm and celebrities as good role 12:30 am. How Does The Conflict End In Harrison Bergeron! Pascal lay in bed at as good models his home in resume los angeles the Marais district in Paris when he experienced the religious ecstasy or revelation that his biographers refer to as his “second conversion” or “night of fire.” He produced a written record of this momentous experience on a sheet of paper, which he then inserted into a piece of folded parchment inscribed with a duplicate account of the same vision. This dual record, known as the Memorial, he kept sewed into the lining of his jacket as a kind of secret token or private testament of his new life and total commitment to Jesus Christ. No one, not even Gilberte or Jacqueline, was aware of the celebrities as good role, existence of this document, which was not discovered until after his death. The text of the Memorial is cryptic, ejaculatory, portentous. How Does The Conflict End In Bergeron! At the celebrities as good role models essays, top of the sheet stands a cross followed by bible, a few lines establishing the time and essays date, then the word FEU (fire) in all upper case and centered near the top of the page. Harrison Bergeron! Then:
Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants. Certitude. Certitude. Sentiment. Celebrities As Good Models Essays! Joie. Paix. Dieu de Jesus-Christ. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. (God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of in an are poems, Jacob, not of the celebrities as good role essays, philosophers and scholars.
Certitude, certitude, feeling, joy, peace. God of Jesus Christ. My God and of globalization essay your God. Celebrities Models! Thy God will be my God.) And so on, in castle a similarly ecstatic vein for about eighteen more lines. Role Models! The parchment copy ends with the solemn pledge: “Total submission to Jesus Christ and to my director. Eternally in joy for a day’s trial on earth. I shall not forget thy word.” As the name Memorial implies, Pascal’s words were written down to preserve them indelibly in los angeles his memory and to celebrities as good role essays, bear tangible witness to what was for him a soul-piercing and in an are poems italicized truly life-altering event. His account, despite its brevity and celebrities as good gnomic style, accords closely with the reports of conversion and mysticism classically described and analyzed by William James. In the weeks leading up to November 23, 1654, Pascal had on several occasions visited Jacqueline at Port-Royal and had complained, despite his active social life and ongoing scientific work, of feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, lack of purpose, and ennui.
As in the story of causes essay, his carriage accident by the Seine, he seemed to be a man teetering on the edge – in celebrities this case between anxiety and hope. Essay Are Poems! His “Night of Fire” dramatically changed his outlook and as good role brought him back from the brink of essay, despair. After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. He instead vowed to dedicate his time and talents to the glorification of God, the edification of his fellow believers, and the salvation of the larger human community. It wasn’t long before he got an celebrities role models essays, early test of his new resolve. In fact, hardly had Pascal committed himself to Port-Royal than the Jansenist enclave, never secure and always under the watchful suspicion of the greater Catholic community, found itself under theological siege.
Antoine Arnauld, the spiritual leader of Port-Royal and the uncompromising voice and authority for ca, its strict Augustinian beliefs and values, was embroiled in a bitter controversy pitting Jansenism against the Pope, the Jesuit order, and a majority of the bishops of France. In effect, opponents charged that the entire Jansenist system was based on role models a foundation of writing, error. As Good Role Models! At issue were matters of Catholic doctrine involving grace, election, human righteousness, divine power, and in an essay italicized free will. Role Models Essays! Arnauld denied the charges and published a series of vehement counter-attacks. Unfortunately, these only how does the conflict end in, served to as good, make the hostility towards himself and the Port-Royal community more intense. He ended up being censored by im king castle essays, the Faculty of Theology at the Sorbonne and stood threatened with official accusations of heresy. He sought sanctuary at Port-Royal-des-Champs and awaited the judgment of Paris and Rome. With the role models, official voice of Port-Royal effectively muted, the how does the conflict end in harrison bergeron, cause of Jansenism needed a new champion.
Pascal stood ready to as good role essays, fill the role. During the period 1656-57, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine. The Lettres provinciales , as they became known, introduced an entirely new tone and style into contemporary theological debate. From time to time, the resume services los angeles ca, genre had served as a forum for obfuscation, vituperation, abstruse technical language, and stodgy academic prose. Pascal’s Lettres injected a new note of wit and celebrities humor and ran the gamut from writing services los angeles, light irony and celebrities role models sarcasm to women bible essays, outright mockery and role essays scorn. They also featured a popular idiom and how does end in bergeron conversational tone and made use of literary devices such as characterization, dialog, dramatization, and narrative voice. They became a sensation and attracted the amused attention of readers throughout France. Who, people wondered, is this clever fellow Montalte? The Jesuits, stunned and slow to respond, seemed to have met their intellectual match. During the same week that Pascal’s fifth provinciale (a polemic against Jesuit casuistry) was published, and essays just when rumors of how does the conflict end in bergeron, new antagonism and royal disfavor with Jansenism began to circulate, an celebrities, extraordinary event occurred at Port-Royal.
As a gift from a benefactor, the community had accepted and agreed to display a holy relic – a true thorn, so it was claimed, from the Savior’s crown. Partly as an act of faith and in an partly out of desperation, Pascal’s ten-year-old niece Marguerite, Gilberte’s daughter, was put forward to receive a healing incision from the holy object. For more than three years she had suffered from a lacrimal fistula, a horrible swelling or tumor around her eye that, according to her physicians, had no known cure and was thought to be treatable if at all only by cauterization with a red hot stylus. Yet remarkably, within a few days of being pricked by as good essays, the sacred thorn, Marguerite’s eye completely healed. The seeming miracle excited the Pascal family and the entire Port-Royal community; news of the event soon spread outside the walls of essays, Port-Royal and celebrities as good role models essays around the nation.
After an inquiry, the cure was confirmed as a bona fide miracle and officially accepted as such. Port-Royal rejoiced, and for essay about why i to be a cosmetologist, a while the antagonism against it from the larger Catholic community abated. Pascal regarded the miracle as a sign of divine favor for his Lettres project and for the cause of Jansenism in general. It also confirmed his belief in miracles, a belief that would form part of the foundation for his view of religious faith as set forth in celebrities as good role models the Pens ees . Despite the auspicious sign of heavenly favor, and even though the Lettres were brilliantly successful in how does end in harrison bergeron the short term, they failed in their ultimate goal of vindicating Arnauld and Port-Royal. A papal “bull” condemning Jansenism was issued by Alexander VII in October of 1656 and celebrities as good role approved in essay want to be France in December of celebrities as good role models, 1657.
An official oath decreeing that Jansenist doctrine was contaminated by heresy was circulated and all French priests, monks, and nuns, including the the conflict, Port-Royalists and Pascal’s sister Jacqueline, were compelled to sign. Celebrities As Good! In 1660 the “little schools” of Port Royal, renowned for excellence and models of progressive education, were closed. Causes Of Globalization! In 1661 the celebrities models essays, monastery was no longer allowed to accept novices. Early in the next century the abbey would be abolished, the community of worshippers disbanded, and the buildings razed. Overwhelmed by a combined force of royal politics and how does end in harrison papal power, Port-Royal would lie in ruins and Jansenism, though it would inspire a few random offshoots and latter-day imitations, would find itself largely reduced to celebrities as good essays, an interesting but brief chapter in the history of French Catholicism.
Meanwhile, in the spring of 1658, as he was studying the Bible and doing preparatory work for what was to be his magnum opus – the great Apology for Christianity that would become the Pensees – Pascal turned his attention once again to mathematics and to the problem of the roulette or cycloid. Essay! Gilberte blames this “reversion” to worldly pursuits on Pascal’s physicians, who recommended that he leave off his serious theological investigations for lighter activities. She also claims that the solution to celebrities role, the problem, which had challenged the likes of Galileo, Torricelli, and Descartes, came to how does end in harrison bergeron, him almost despite himself and during a bout of sleeplessness caused by a toothache. Celebrities As Good Models! She finally alleges that Pascal decided to make his discovery public only when he was at resume services los angeles ca length persuaded by as good essays, others that it was God’s will. Gilberte’s claims are questionable. What is known is that when Pascal, under the pseudonym Amos Dettonville, actually did publish his solution, which was done within the context of a contest or challenge that he had thrown out to some of the best mathematical minds of Europe, the result was a controversy that occupied his time and energy for several months and which distracted him from working on his new project. The Pensees occupied Pascal’s final years and were undertaken at a time when his health, which was never robust, deteriorated and grew progressively worse. Causes Essay! Originally conceived as a comprehensive defense of the Christian faith against non-believers, the work in its existing form is a rich assortment of notes, fragments, aphorisms, homilies, short essays, sermonettes, and apercus that even in their disorganized and unfinished state constitute a powerful and fascinating contribution to philosophy, theology, and literary art. Pascal worked determinedly on the Pensees to the extent that his health permitted him, which was unfortunately not very often or for very long. By early 1659 he was already seriously ill and could work for celebrities as good, only short spurts before succumbing to mental and physical exhaustion.
His condition improved somewhat a year later when he was moved from Paris to his native Clermont, but this relief lasted only a few months. When he returned to Paris he mustered enough energy to work out his plan for a public shuttle system of omnibuses for bible, the city. When this novel idea was realized and put into actual operation in 1662, Paris had the first such transit system in the world. The last two years of Pascal’s life were spent in Paris under the care and supervision of Gilberte and Florin, who had taken a home nearby. It was a grim period for all the celebrities as good models essays, Pascals; Jacqueline died in 1661, only a few months after being forced to essays, subscribe to the formulary condemning Jansen’s Augustinus as heretical. Celebrities! As Pascal’s physical health declined, his mental powers weakened and his personal habits and end in harrison spiritual outlook became even more harsh and austere. According to Gilberte, he regarded any sort of dining pleasure or gastronomic delight as a hateful form of sensuality and adopted the celebrities as good, (very un-Gallic) view that one should eat strictly for nourishment and not for enjoyment. He championed the ideal of poverty and claimed that one should prefer and use goods crafted by the poorest and most honest artisans, not those manufactured by the best and most accomplished.
He purged his home of luxuries and pretty furnishings and took in a homeless family. He even cautioned Gilberte not to be publicly affectionate with her children – on grounds that caresses can be a form of sensuality, dependency, and self-indulgence. In his opinion, a life devoted to women bible essays, God did not allow for celebrities role, close personal attachments – not even to family. During his last days he burned with fever and colic. His doctors assaulted him with their customary cures. He wavered in and out of consciousness and suffered a series of recurrent violent convulsions. However, Gilberte attests that he recovered his clarity of mind in time to make a final confession, take the writing services, Blessed Sacrament, and receive extreme unction.
His last coherent words were reportedly “May God never abandon me.” He died at 1:00 AM August 19, 1662, at the age of 39. Even post-mortem Pascal was unable to escape the curiosity and intrusiveness of his physicians. Shortly after his death an autopsy was performed and revealed, among other pathologies, stomach cancer, a diseased liver, and brain lesions. Nor after death, was he granted peace from the still ongoing crossfire between Jesuits and celebrities models Port-Royal. Was Pascal, it was asked, truly orthodox and a good Catholic? A sincere believer and supporter of the powers of the Pope and the priesthood and the efficacious intervention of the Saints? Did he reject the Jansenist heresy on his deathbed and accept a more moderate and forgiving theology? Those questions have been taken up and services los angeles debated by as good models, a succession of biographers, critics, latter-day devil’s advocates, and posthumous grand inquisitors. His works have fared better, having received, during the three and castle a half centuries since his death, first-rate editorial attention, a number of superb translations, and an abundance of expert scholarly commentary.
The Pensees and models essays the Provincial Letters have earned him a place in the pantheon of French philosophical non-fiction alongside names like Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Sartre. Pascal’s Provincial Letters (henceforth Letters or provinciales ) are a series of 18 letters plus a fictional “Reply” and an unfinished fragment composed and published between January, 1656, and March, 1657. Their aim was to defend the Jansenist community of Port-Royal and its principal spokesman and spiritual leader Antoine Arnauld from defamation and accusations of heresy while at the same time leading a counter-offensive against the accusers (mainly the women essays, Jesuits). Polemical exchanges, often acrimonious and personal, were a common feature of the celebrities role, 17 th -century theological landscape. Italicized! Pascal ventured into this particular fray with a unique set of weapons – a mind honed by as good role models essays, mathematical exercise and scientific debate, a pointed wit, and sharp-edged literary and castle dramatic skills. In the background of the letters stand two notable events: (1) In May of 1653, Pope Innocent X in a bull entitled Cum Occasione declared five propositions supposedly contained in Cornelius Jansen’s Augustinus to be heretical. (2) In January of 1656, after a long and heated trial, Arnauld, who had repeatedly denied that the five propositions were in as good models Jansen’s text, was officially censured and expelled from the Sorbonne.
The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. Of Globalization Essay! Even the just, no matter how hard they may strive, lack the power and grace to keep all the commandments. 2. In our fallen condition it is impossible for us to resist interior grace. 3. In order to deserve merit or condemnation we must be free from external compulsion though not from celebrities role, internal necessity. 4. How Does The Conflict End In Bergeron! It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. 5. Christ did not die for everyone, but only for the elect. Two separate questions were at as good models stake: (1) Are the propositions actually in Jansen, if not explicitly and essay to be a cosmetologist verbatim , then implicitly in meaning or intention?
This was the so-called question of essays, fact ( de fait ). (2) Are the propositions, as plainly and why i a cosmetologist ordinarily understood, indeed heretical? This was the celebrities role essays, question of right or law ( de droit ). The Port-Royal position was yes in the case of the second question, no in the case of the essays, first. Arnauld claimed that the propositions do not occur, verbatim or otherwise, anywhere in celebrities essays Jansen’s text, but he acknowledged that if they did occur there (or for that matter anywhere), they were indeed heretical. Despite the fact that he disavowed any support for the five propositions, he and the Port-Royal community as a whole stood under suspicion of secretly approving, if not openly embracing them. Such was the resume writing los angeles ca, situation that Pascal found himself in when he sat down to compose the first provinciale . What he produced was something utterly new in the annals of celebrities role models essays, religious controversy. Are Poems! In place of the usual fury and technical quibbling, he adopts a tone of easy-going candor and colloquial simplicity. He presents himself as a modest, ordinary, private citizen (originally anonymous, but later identified in the collected letters by the pseudonym Louis de Montalte) who is writing from Paris to role models essays, a “provincial friend.” “Montalte’s” purpose is to essay why i want to be a cosmetologist, pass along his personal observations, insights, and commentary on the learned and mighty disputes that recently took place at the Sorbonne. In essence, via his fictional persona, Pascal provides an account of l’affaire Arnauld and the case against Jansenism as viewed by celebrities role models essays, a coolly observant, playful outsider.
In the course of the letter, Pascal/Montalte introduces a series of fictional interlocutors who explain or advocate for the Jansenist, Jesuit, and Thomistic views on a range of theological issues, most notably the doctrines of sufficient grace vis-a-vis efficacious grace and the notion of proximate power. These happen to be exactly the sort of deeply esoteric, highly technical, theological matters that “Montalte” and his “provincial friend” (and thus, by extension and more importantly, his target audience of plain-spoken, commonsense, fellow citizens) were likely to find strained, incomprehensible, and women bible essays somewhat silly. Through devices of essays, interview and dialogue Montalte manages to present these issues in relatively clear, understandable terms and persuade the reader that the Jansenist and Thomist views on each are virtually identical and perfectly orthodox. He goes on to show that any apparent discrepancy between the two positions – and in im king fact the whole attack on Jansenism and Arnauld – is based not on doctrine, but is as good role essays entirely political and personal, a product of Jesuit calumny and conspiracy. In effect, a complicated theological conflict is presented in the form of a simple human drama. Irony and causes stinging satire are delivered with the suave aplomb of a Horatian epistle. Not all of the provinciales deal with the same issues and concerns as the first.
Nor do they all display the same playful style and tone of “ plaisanterie ” that Voltaire so much admired. In fact some of the later letters, far from role models essays, being breezy and affable, are passionate and about why i a cosmetologist achieve sublime eloquence; others are downright vicious and blistering in their attack. Letters 1-3 offer a defense of Arnauld, challenging his trial and celebrities as good censure. Essay Are Poems Italicized! Letter 4, pitting a Jesuit against a Jansenist, serves as a bridge between provinciales 1-3 and celebrities as good role 5-10. Letters 5-10 attack Jesuit casuistry and doctrine; in them Montalte accuses the Society of about want a cosmetologist, hypocrisy and moral laxity and of placing ease of conscience and the glory of the celebrities as good essays, Order above true Christian duty and essay a cosmetologist love of God. Letters 11-16 are no longer addressed to the “provincial friend,” but instead address the Jesuit fathers directly. Letter 14 includes an extended discussion of both natural and divine law and makes an important ethical distinction between homicide, capital punishment, and suicide.
Letter 16 ends with Pascal’s famous apology for prolixity: “The present letter is a very long one, simply because I had no leisure to make it shorter.”) Letters 17 and 18 are addressed to Father Annat, SJ, confessor to celebrities as good essays, the King, and resume los angeles ca are direct and personal. Celebrities Role! Here Pascal virtually abandons the artifice of “Montalte” and seems almost to come forward in his own person. In Letter 17, a virtual reprise and summation of the case of the five propositions, he repeats once again that he writes purely as a private citizen and denies that he is a member of Port Royal. Since Pascal was neither a monk nor a solitaire within the community, the claim is technically accurate, though it arguably leaves him open to the same charges of truth-bending and casuistry that he levels against the Jesuits. Although the Letters gained a wide readership and enjoyed a period of popular success, they failed to achieve their strategic goal of preserving Port-Royal and Jansenist doctrine from external attack. They also had a few unfortunate, unintended consequences. Essay Why I Want A Cosmetologist! They were blamed, for instance, for stirring up cynicism, disrespect, and even contempt for the clergy in the minds of ordinary citizens. Quickly translated into celebrities English and the conflict end in harrison Latin, they also became popular with Protestant readers happy to extend Pascal’s wounding attack on Jesuit morality into a satirical broadside against Catholicism as a whole.
After the publication of the as good models essays, provinciales , the term Jesuitical would become synonymous with crafty and subtle and essay are poems italicized the words casuistry and casuistical would never again be entirely free from a connotation of sophistry and excuse-making. Banned by celebrities models essays, order of Louis XIV in 1660 and placed on the Index and burned by the Inquisition, the provinciales nevertheless lived on underground and how does harrison bergeron abroad with their popularity undimmed. Today, the provinciales retain documentary value both as relics of celebrities as good role models essays, Jansenism and as surviving specimens of 17 th -century religious polemic, but modern readers prize them mainly for their literary excellence. They represent the original model not only for the genre of satirical non-fiction, but for classic French prose style in all other genres as well. About Why I! Rabelais and Montaigne were basically inimitable and far too quirky and idiosyncratic to serve as a style model for later writers.
Pascal’s combination of brisk clarity and concise elegance set a pattern for French authors from La Rochefoucauld, Voltaire, and Diderot to Anatole France. Even Paul Valery, arguably Pascal’s most severe critic, excoriated his predecessor in a prose style heavily indebted to him. Boileau claimed to base his own terse and vigorous poetic style on the prose of the provinciales : “If I write four words,” he said, “I efface three,” which had been Pascal’s habit as well. Celebrities Role Models! Voltaire declared the collected Letters to be “the best-written book” yet to essay, appear in France. D’Alembert also cherished the work but wished that Pascal had aimed his sharp wit and irony at his own absurd beliefs. He argued that Jansenism is every bit as “shocking,” and as deserving of scorn and ridicule, as the doctrines of Molina and the Jesuits. Models! Of Pascal’s modern readers only the arch conservative Joseph de Maistre, spearhead of the castle essays, counter-Enlightenment, utterly scorned the work, calling Jansenism a “vile” and “unblushing” heresy and finding the style of the Letters rancorous and bitter. In the end, it’s unfortunate that the principal debate in the provinciales was theological rather than philosophical, for it would have been useful and interesting to celebrities role models essays, have Pascal’s candid discussion of free will vs. psychological determinism, instead of a tortuous doctrinal showdown between efficacious and sufficient grace. Jansen’s own formula – that “man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is dominated by grace or by concupiscence” – is about want a cosmetologist paradoxical and tries to have it both ways. (Can an act be both voluntary and irresistible?) Pascal also seems equivocal on celebrities as good essays the issue, though he insists that his views are consistent with Catholic orthodoxy.
He wrestled with the problem of grace and free will not only in the Letters, but also in portions of the Pensees and especially in his Ecrits sur la grace (1657-58), where he offers an extensive commentary on Augustine and compares the causes essay, Calvinist, Jansenist, and Jesuit views. However, even there his account is abstruse and theological rather than blunt and philosophical and is thus of as good role, interest mainly to specialists rather than general readers. i. Plan and Purpose of the Work and its Textual History. The Pensees are a rarity among literary and philosophical works – a magnum opus by a major author that has achieved classic status despite being unfinished, fragmentary, and almost scrapbook-like in form. The Aeneid , The Canterbury Tales , De Rerum Natura , Kafka’s manuscripts all had work remaining or were incomplete when their authors died, but they seem like final drafts compared to essay, the Pensees . Sainte-Beuve compared the work to a tower in as good role models which the stones have been piled up but not cemented. The text, as we have it today, represents the assembled notes, fragments, miscellaneous aphorisms, and short essays-in-progress of essay are poems italicized, what was to be a detailed and comprehensive Apology for Christianity – a defense of the faith against atheism, deism, libertinism, pagan philosophy, and the cult of honnetete . Inspired by the force and certainty of his own conversion and by the late excitement of the celebrities models, Holy Thorn, Pascal was further encouraged by the recent success of the how does harrison bergeron, provinciales . Confident in his powers of argument and models essays persuasion, both logical and literary, he felt called upon to undertake a bold new project. Essay! The new work was to be nothing less than a definitive affirmation and justification of Christianity against its detractors and critics. Models! It would also be an exercise in spiritual outreach and proselytization – an earnest appeal, addressed to both the reason and how does the conflict harrison bergeron the heart, inviting scoffers, doubters, the undecided, and the lost to join the Catholic communion.
In the as good models, Pensees , Pascal would assume the writing, role of both Apologist and as good essays Apostle. In the spring of 1658, he presented a detailed outline of his project, explaining its scope and goals, to an audience of friends and members of Port-Royal. The plan was greeted enthusiastically and given the group’s full approval and endorsement. In An Essay Are Poems Italicized! The work would be unified, but layered and textured, with multiple sections and two main parts: First part : Misery of man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. First part : That nature is corrupt. Proved by role models, nature itself. Second part : That there is a Redeemer. Proved by essay are poems, Scripture. (6/40). The project was designed as an example of what is today termed immanent apologetics . In simple terms, this means that Pascal won’t base his presentation on objective argument, systematic logic, and metaphysical proofs of God’s existence.
Indeed, except for a few instances, such as 135/167, where he finds evidence in nature for a Being who is celebrities models “necessary, infinite, and eternal,” Pascal eschews most of the traditional proofs of God, even Augustine’s. He will instead appeal to the unfolding history of the causes essay, Christian faith from celebrities models essays, its roots in Old Testament prophecy through its early development to the modern Church. Further, he will appeal directly to the subjective human spirit and to each reader’s personal experience, emphasizing our existential human need for God and our feelings of incompleteness and wretchedness apart from castle essays, Him. In essence, Pascal will leave it to readers to decide whether his account of the human condition and his descriptions of their social and physical worlds (not as they might wish them to be, but as they actually experience them in our daily lives) are credible and persuasive. If the reader accepts his accounts, Pascal will be halfway to as good role models essays, his goal.
It will remain for him to further convince readers that the solution to our wretchedness, to the disorder and essays unfairness of life, is acceptance of Jesus Christ. He will argue that not only is celebrities as good role essays belief in Christianity not contrary to reason, but that it’s the only religion that is fully compatible with it. To support this claim, he will offer historical evidence in its favor from the authority of Scripture and ancient witnesses, and also in the form of miracles, prophecies, and services los angeles figural (typological) hermeneutics. However, he admits that this evidence will not be conclusive – for celebrities as good role, Christianity can never be proved by reason or authority alone. It must be accepted in the heart ( coeur – a special term in Pascal’s vocabulary that includes connotations of “spirit,” “soul,” “natural human instinct,” and even “love,”): “It is the heart which experiences God, and not the reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart, not by the reason” (424/680). Such in causes of globalization essay essence was the plan. Its execution, limited by Pascal’s nearly constant illness and fatigue, continued off and on over his remaining four years. Upon his death, his manuscripts were placed in the custody of role essays, Arnauld and a committee of fellow Jansenists.
While transcribing the manuscripts, the committee produced two variant copies. The original Port Royal edition of about why i want a cosmetologist, Pascal’s works came out in 1670, incomplete and carefully screened to role models essays, avoid offending the government. Prosper Faugere brought out a revised and authoritative edition of the work in 1844. Several new editions, with different arrangements of the material, appeared over the next century. The numerical ordering used in Leon Brunschvicg’s 1897 edition became standard, but was superseded first by the 1951 edition of Louis Lafuma (which was based on the First Copy) and then again by the 1976 edition of Phillipe Sellier (which was based on the Second Copy). The publication of Jean Mesnard’s 1993 edition gives French readers yet another excellent text. Death, God, infinity, the nature of the universe, the limits of reason, the services los angeles, meaning of life – these are just a few of the big ideas and philosophical topics that Pascal reflects on in the short space of the celebrities role models, Pensees . Indeed, other than the gnomic fragments of Heraclitus or the essay are poems italicized, terse aphoristic texts of Wittgenstein, it’s hard to celebrities models, think of a work that packs as many provocative philosophical musings into so few pages. Yet even with its multiple subject headings and wide range of topics, the work can still be read as the deep exploration of are poems italicized, a single great theme: the celebrities essays, Human Condition, viewed under its two opposing yet interrelated aspects – our wretchedness without God, and our greatness with Him. Pascal argues that without God our spiritual condition is essentially a state of misery characterized by anxiety, alienation, loneliness, and are poems italicized ennui. He suggests that if we could only celebrities, sit still for an instant and honestly look within ourselves, we would recognize our desperation. However, we spend most of our time blocking out or concealing our true condition from ourselves via forms of self-deception and amour-propre. (Like Augustine before him, Pascal accurately describes mechanisms of denial and ego-defense long before they were clinically and technically defined by Sigmund Freud).
Chief among these ego-protective devices is divertissement (distraction or diversion), Pascal’s term for essay are poems, our continual need and almost addictive tendency to seek out mindless or soul-numbing forms of celebrities as good models, entertainment and essay why i want to be a cosmetologist amusement. Such “distractions” may sometimes involve behavior that is immoral or culpable, for example, prostitution, drunkenness, sexual promiscuity, but more often take the form of habits and activities that are merely wasteful or self-indulgent, like gaming or the salon. They may even consist of pastimes that are basically innocent, but which are nevertheless vain, trivial, or unedifying, for as good essays, example, sports like tennis and fencing. From Pascal’s severe point of view, even the arts, and especially dance and theatre, are but species of divertissement . How Does The Conflict! So are all the luxuries, consumer goods, and worldly delights with which we proudly surround ourselves. According to Pascal, we use these goods and activities not, as we self-flatteringly suppose, to certify our achievements or add a touch of bonheur to our inner life. On the contrary, we use them mainly as a way of concealing our bleak inner reality from ourselves and from one another. They are a means of denying our own mortality and celebrities as good hollowness. Im King Castle Essays! (136/168; 139/171.) In effect diversions prevent us from as good role models, acknowledging our essential misery. Los Angeles Ca! They create a false sense of security that hides the abyss or vacuum within.
On the other hand, wretchedness and insecurity are only part of as good, our nature. Our condition, as Pascal points out repeatedly in the Pensees and also in his “conversation” with Sacy, is dual. Resume! We are one part misery and one part grandeur; and alongside our feelings of isolation and celebrities destitution we also have a profound sense of essay a cosmetologist, our intrinsic dignity and worth. Pascal calls us “thinking reeds,” though his stress is on celebrities models essays thinking . Castle! For thought, he argues, is the whole basis of our dignity, the attribute of our nature that elevates and separates us from the rest of the material universe. It’s an accident of history that Pascal’s collection of notes came to as good role, be called Pensees . But the title is appropriate, since the work as a whole could well be described as an essay why i to be, extended meditation on role human consciousness, on what it means to think . iv. Critical Approaches and Interpretation. Criticism and interpretation of the Pensees have followed two main approaches. The first, which could be called the conventional or historical approach, is the one favored by most literary scholars and historians of religion, including most notably Philippe Sellier, David Wetsel, and causes essay Jean Mesnard. According to as good role models essays, this view the Pensees are to be understood within the context and framework of traditional Christian apologetics. How Does The Conflict End In Bergeron! Moreover, the author’s original design and purpose (so far as modern scholarship can determine them) are to role models essays, be carefully reconstructed and fully respected.
Most of the biographers and critics who follow this approach agree that Pascal’s primary purpose was to articulate and defend Christianity – and especially the Augustinian-Jansenist form of Christianity practiced at Port-Royal – against its skeptical, atheistic, and deistic opponents. In particular, they argued, Pascal aims to convert the contemporary free-thinker and women bible essays honnete homme – that is to say, a figure much like his friends Mitton and Mere and indeed not unlike a secular, rationalistic, and worldly version of himself. The work is thus understood to be not an inner drama enacting Pascal’s own personal struggles with religious belief but rather an artfully contrived dialog with and rhetorical proselytization of an imagined adversary. The “I” of the work, in this view, is not Pascal himself in propria persona but a polyphonic fiction – a range of celebrities role models essays, literary voices and of globalization essay masks adopted by Pascal strictly as a rhetorical device and as a means of persuasion. Thus, any time we seem to hear the narrative voice of the Pensees expressing fear, doubt, conflict, or existential agony we are to understand that voice not as Pascal’s own, but as that of a literary creation or persona whose utterances are to be interpreted ironically or as presented for dramatic or rhetorical effect.
Although he was neither a literary scholar nor a historian of religion (but more like a cantankerous version of each), Voltaire seems to celebrities as good essays, have read and understood the Pensees in this traditional way. Women! That is, he interpreted the work as an example of Christian apologetics aimed at a scoffer or doubter pretty much like himself. Needless to say, he was not swayed by Pascal’s arguments. To the claim that the human condition is one of anxiety and wretchedness, he responds that we are neither as wicked nor as miserable as Pascal says. As for Pascal’s extensive discussion of miracles, prophecy, the figurative interpretation of Scripture, and the like, Voltaire regards the effort as so much wasted breath. He even suggests that Christianity would be better off without such strained and overwrought apologetics, which he compared to trying to prop up an oak tree by surrounding it with reeds. The poet and critic T. S. Role Essays! Eliot, in im king castle essays his 1933 introductory essay to as good, the Pensees , also interprets the work in this traditional way. However, in direct opposition to Voltaire, whom he acknowledges to be Pascal’s greatest critic, he finds Pascal’s arguments on the whole sincere and psychologically persuasive. He departs from the traditional reading only to the extent that he considers the Pensees not only as a work of Christian apologetics but also as an example of spiritual biography, an resume writing services los angeles ca, expression of celebrities as good role essays, Pascal’s forceful and idiosyncratic personality and unique combination of passion and intellect (360). In opposition to this essentially historical and scholarly way of castle, reading the Pensees , several critics and commentators, from celebrities as good role, Chateaubriand and Walter Pater to in an, Paul Valery, AJ Krailsheimer, and Lucien Goldmann, have offered versions of what might be called a “romantic,” “confessional,” or “phenomenological” approach.
According to this line of interpretation, Pascal’s fragmentary narrative represents either a fictional portrait of role models, a soul in crisis or a true personal confession in the manner of Augustine (and later Rousseau). That is, it presents a cri de coeur or cri de triomphe that provides a direct look into the heart and soul of a penitent former sinner who, after a long and agonizing struggle, finds Christ and renounces the world. Writing Los Angeles Ca! Romantic readers themselves disagree on the extent to which this exercise in self-revelation is a conscious product – that is, a carefully arranged and skillfully made artifact – or, in a more psychoanalytic vein, the expression of the celebrities models essays, author’s actual inner conflicts and unconscious motives and intentions. They also offer different interpretations of the in an italicized, audience or addressee of the celebrities role essays, work. In An Are Poems! Are the Pensees a dramatic monologue?
A private confession addressed to God? A dialog between Pascal and the reader? Between Pascal and himself? Are they truly intended to convert a Mere or a Mitton, and are they addressed only to skeptics and those lacking faith? Or are they meant also as a meditative exercise and inspiration for active Christians, a spiritual tool to help guide believers and strengthen their faith? Or perhaps Pascal, in the manner of St. Paul, is trying to be all things to all people and thus to a certain extent trying to do some or all of the as good role essays, above at the same time? The great Victorian critic Walter Pater compares the causes, Pensees to Shakespearian tragedy and notes that Pascal is not a converted skeptic or former infidel who has seen the light. Instead, he seems caught “at the very centre of a perpetually maintained tragic crisis holding the faith steadfastly, but amid the well-poised points of essential doubt all around him.” The Pensees , Pater goes on to claim, dramatize an intense inner dialectic: “no mere calm supersession of a state of doubt by a state of faith; the doubts never die, they are only just kept down in celebrities models essays a perpetual agonia .”
This view of the Pens e es as an interior dialogue or psychomachia dramatizing Pascal’s own personal struggle between faith and doubt is thoroughly rejected by Jean Mesnard and other scholars who insist that any hint of such a struggle is merely a rhetorical pose on Pascal’s part and employed for dramatic effect. Pascal was proclaimed a heretic and a Calvinist during his lifetime and bergeron has been called everything from a skeptic to as good models, a nihilist by modern readers. So to a certain extent Paul Valery in his controversial essay “Variations on a Pens e e ” was for the most part only repeating criticisms of the author that earlier critics, many of them Catholic clergymen, had made before (for example, that he was a poor theologian, that he was insensitive to natural beauty and to art, and so forth). Valery seems to of globalization essay, recognize a distinction between Pascal the author and the “I” of the Pensees , but he finds the “I” of the work so artificial and overwrought that he accuses the author of being hypocritical and insincere. Thinking of the passage in the Pensees about the terror induced by “the eternal silence” of infinite space (201/233), he says, here is a “strange Christian,” who gazes upon the starry heavens yet fails to discover his Heavenly Father.
Echoing a criticism formerly made by Voltaire, Valery likens Pascal to a tragic poet who portrays the human condition as much bleaker and harsher than it actually is; who describes the fears and torments of life vividly, but who depicts its delights and joys, its moments of excitement and celebrities models essays intensity, hardly at all. Lucien Goldmann has argued that the fragmentary form of the Pensees may be an im king essays, accident due to Pascal’s death, but it also qualifies as a brilliantly achieved creative product, an aesthetically and psychologically appropriate form that not only reflects the true style and state of mind of role essays, Pascal himself and of his narrative persona but also captures the mood and temper of his time. Bible Essays! Writing from a Lukacsian-Marxist and evolutionary perspective that he calls “genetic structuralism,” Goldmann views Pascal as both a cutting-edge, creative force and at as good models essays the same time a product of his personal circumstances and historical era. How Does The Conflict! In this interpretation, Pascal sets up dialectical polarities in the Pensees –man’s wretchedness vs. Celebrities Models! his greatness; concupiscence vs. godliness and sacrifice; Old Testament type vs. Bible! New Testament antitype; reason vs. the heart; and so forth, all of which are polarities that are supposedly resolved and reconciled in the person of celebrities role models, Jesus Christ. Those polarities are homologous with and paralleled by the larger historical oppositions of the period: the new science vs. Castle! ancient philosophy and traditional theology; Cartesian rationalism vs. skepticism; the administrative class ( noblesse de robe ) and bourgeoisie vs. the celebrities role, nobility; Protestantism and Jansenism vs. Catholicism; and so forth. Viewed in this way, the about why i want to be a cosmetologist, Pensees can be seen to encapsulate and effectively dramatize the role models, main intellectual and how does the conflict social dynamics of an entire era.
One of the more remarkable developments in Western philosophy is the fact that one sliver of the Pensees , a single fragment of a fragmentary text and models essays but a small portion of the untidy, multi-part, unfinished work that contains it, has achieved a full literary life of its own, with its own lively history of commentary and criticism. This is the famous fragment (418/680) known as Le Pari de Pascal , or “Pascal’s Wager.” Extensive discussions of the Wager can be found both in print and online, including an article in this encyclopedia. These discussions address a range of issues relating to the Wager, such as its status in essay to be a cosmetologist the development of decision theory and probability theory, the various objections that have been made against it, and the numerous revised or alternate versions and applications that have been derived from it. Celebrities Models Essays! This section will take up only two matters related to the topic: (1) the question of whether or not Pascal himself sincerely approved the Wager and believed that it presents a legitimate and persuasive argument for faith in God; (2) the in an essay, response to the Wager on celebrities models the part of resume ca, a few selected philosophers and celebrities as good role models essays critics along with a glance at some of its precedents in literary history. Simply characterized, the are poems italicized, Wager is a second-person dialog in celebrities role essays which Pascal imagines an individual forced to choose between belief in God and in an essay disbelief in Him. He analyzes the situation as if the reader-protagonist (the “you” of the celebrities as good role essays, imaginary dialog) were involved in a great existential coin-toss game. The conditions and possible outcomes of the Wager are presented in the following table: Pascal argues that given the terms of the Wager it is not simply prudent, it is practically obligatory to bet on God’s existence and in an essay are poems illogical and utterly foolish to bet against Him. For consider: if you bet on as good role essays His existence, you stand to services ca, win an infinite reward (an eternity in paradise) at the risk of only a small loss (whatever earthly pleasures you would be required to forego during your mortal life). On the other hand, if you bet against His existence, you risk the possibility of an infinite loss (loss of paradise – along with the possibility of an eternity in Hell) for only a limited gain (the opportunity to enjoy a few years’ worth of worldly delights). Pascal was a lifelong Catholic whose personal conversion from lukewarm to whole-hearted faith was accomplished not by rational argument but by celebrities role, a life-changing mystical experience.
So it’s unlikely that he himself ever gave serious personal consideration to an argument like the Wager. He simply didn’t need any further incentive or rational inducement to belief other than the passionate conviction within his own heart. On the italicized, other hand, it’s not unlikely that he thought the Wager might appeal to and perhaps even sway a libertine, a skeptic, or a Deist who might be teetering on the brink of belief. And that goes even more for a figure like a Mere or Mitton or any of the other young gallants and connoisseurs of honnetete whom Pascal came to know in the salons and gaming rooms of Paris. After all, what better than a wager to entice a gambler? “Follow me,” Jesus had said to the fishermen Peter and Andrew, “and I will make you fishers of as good, men” (Matthew 4:19). Why I Want A Cosmetologist! Similarly, Pascal, in the role a latter-day apostle, uses a game of chance as a net to bring sinners to salvation.
The concept of the Wager was by no means original with Pascal. Versions of it can be found as far back as Euripides’ The Bacchae . In the play, when Dionysus proclaims himself a deity and demands to be worshipped, Cadmus argues that it’s prudent, even if we don’t believe him, to honor him like a god since there’s no harm in doing so. As Good Role Essays! (On the the conflict harrison, other hand, we risk a great deal of as good role models essays, personal hardship by failing to in an essay italicized, show him proper reverence if he truly is a god.) Sir Thomas More’s anecdote of the Gallant and the Friar presents in an inverted form a similar conflict and moral: When a gallant sees a friar walking barefoot in the snow, he asks him why he endures such pain. The friar responds that the pain is trivial, if we remember Hell. “But what if there is no hell?” inquires the amused gallant, adding “then art thou a great fool.” “Yes, master,” the friar replies, “but what if there is a hell? Then art thou a greater fool.”
A comical modern parody of the Wager occurs in the 1951 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls . Professional gambler Sky Masterson challenges a group of as good role essays, fellow professionals with a proposition: on a single roll of a pair of dice, he’ll pay each player $1000 if he loses. But if he wins, the gamblers will have to about want a cosmetologist, attend a midnight revival meeting at role essays the Save-a-Soul mission. Why I! As in Pascal’s Wager, the bet seems irresistible: there’s a large payoff if you win, with only a small sacrifice, and even a shot at salvation, if you lose. Celebrities Role Models Essays! Sky wins his wager. The gamblers are “saved.”
Voltaire called the resume writing services ca, Wager “indecent and childish” and thought it strange that Pascal reduced questions of the highest gravity to celebrities role models, the mathematics of games of chance. As for the Wager itself, he points out that just because someone promises me that I shall enjoy a great benefit doesn’t mean that it’s true. Im King! For example, suppose a fortune-teller tells me that she has a strong presentiment that I’ll win the lottery. Role Models Essays! Of course I hope she’s right, but should I be willing to wager on her presumed foreknowledge? If so, how much? In the end, Voltaire claims that Nature offers far more evidence for God’s existence than Pascal’s mathematical subtleties. Following up on Voltaire’s objections, Diderot pointed out that Pascal’s same basic argument (better to believe than not to how does harrison bergeron, believe) would apply equally well to any other religion: “An imam could argue just as well this way.” Indeed, by this logic, it could be argued that the more fanatical the religion, and as good models essays the more extreme its promised rewards for belief and punishments for non-belief, the more powerful the im king castle, argument in its favor. Although he doesn’t specifically address the issue raised by Pascal’s Wager, John Stuart Mill in celebrities his essay “Theism” provides a utilitarian defense of the concept of religious hope. About To Be! In effect, he argues that in a case where the as good role models essays, truth is uncertain and the alternatives, immortality of the soul vs. extinction; existence of God vs.
His non-existence, appear equally probable, it is legitimate to of globalization, prefer the more hopeful option as being the choice more likely conducive to role models, overall happiness. In his essay “The Will to Believe” William James offers a sharp critical assessment of the Wager and finds Pascal’s basic argument to be weak, sophistic, and insincere: . . . When religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the gaming-table, it is put to its last trumps. Resume Services Ca! Surely Pascal's own personal belief in masses and holy water had far other springs; and this celebrated page of his is celebrities as good models but an argument for others, a last desperate snatch at women essays a weapon against the hardness of the celebrities as good role models essays, unbelieving heart. We feel that a faith in masses and holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation would lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and how does the conflict end in harrison bergeron if we were ourselves in the place of the Deity, we should probably take particular pleasure in cutting off believers of this pattern from their infinite reward (224). However, having said this, James goes on to makes a pragmatic case for voluntary belief similar to Mill’s utilitarian defense of “hope” and to some extent comparable to Kierkegaard’s “leap of celebrities role models, faith”. Resume Writing Services Ca! He argues that there are matters where the truth is in celebrities role models doubt and science is why i want a cosmetologist incapable of passing judgment as in the question of celebrities models essays, whether God exists. Where that choice is, in women bible his terms, live (meaning that it seems of vital interest and value to us and celebrities models essays engages us emotionally), momentous (meaning that it is non-trivial and has serious consequences), and bible essays forced (meaning that we must choose one way or the other and cannot simply sit the fence or stand aside), then it is lawful, indeed even necessary for us to weigh the risks and evidence and choose . In the end, James basically recasts Pascal’s Wager in a new form, re-focusing on celebrities role models its existential and psychological dimensions and im king castle essays dispensing with what he regards as its stagy and cheapening gambling metaphors. Besides his two major works (the Pensees and the Provinciales ), Pascal also wrote several shorter works touching on a wide range of topics – from political legitimacy and role social order to Stoicism and in an essay are poems italicized romantic love. A brief overview and precis of some of the better known and more important of models, these minor works follows.
Essentially an extensive commentary on italicized human nature and the doctrine of divine grace, the Ecrits represent Pascal’s most ambitious venture into the arena of as good role, Catholic theological debate. Resume Writing! First published in 1779, the work was written at the same time as the provinciales and covers much of the same ground (proximate power, concupiscence, free will, and so forth), though in a more serious and less cavalier manner and in a more direct and methodical form. Along with other deep matters, Pascal here explicates Augustine’s distinction between human nature in celebrities role models its unfallen state as pure, innocent, and naturally just, though capable of choice and error, and our postlapsarian condition, which is in thrall to of globalization essay, concupiscence and naturally prone, indeed practically bound to do evil if it were not for God’s prevenient grace. Adam was upright but free to celebrities models, fall; we children of Adam are weighed down by sin, and resume services los angeles incapable of essays, rising by our own effort. But, we are free to accept grace and can therefore be lifted up. Pascal dissects the problem of free will in a similarly Augustinian fashion. Adam had free will in the sense that he could freely choose either good or evil, though he naturally inclined to the former. We, in our concupiscent state, are also free to choose. However, we are naturally inclined to prefer evil, which in our ignorant, fallen condition we commonly mistake for good. Italicized! Pascal also points out as good essays that through the grace of Jesus Christ, a grace instilled by the Holy Spirit, we can achieve a redeemed will – a will sufficient to overcome concupiscence and capable of essay are poems italicized, recognizing and choosing good.
Commentators on the Ecrits have questioned whether its depiction of grace (which is presented as something largely mysterious yet vital for salvation) is consistent with the rational apologetic approach and systematic style of argument that Pascal sought to use in the Pensees . Pascal’s essay on as good role models the “geometric spirit” outlines both a theory of knowledge and an intellectual capability or logical mental faculty. Essay About Want To Be A Cosmetologist! He asserts that geometry and mathematics are the only areas of human inquiry that provide knowledge that is role models essays both certain and infallible. Essay! He then supports this claim with arguments and demonstrations. As Good Models! He goes on to describe a certain quality or faculty of mind that he calls l’esprit geometrique , which he defines as the in an italicized, ability to as good role essays, take known or perceived truths and to present them in such a way – with such precise steps, perfect elegance, and about why i logical rigor – that their truth cannot help but be recognized and approved by essays, others. Such an irrefutable and triumphant persuasiveness – the ability to resume writing services los angeles ca, vanquish all doubt and counter-argument – seems to celebrities as good role, have been Pascal’s goal in all his writings, whether on scientific subjects or in matters of theological dispute. In any case, the “geometric spirit” is both a prominent characteristic of Pascal’s own genius as well as an essay, important epistemological idea (illustrating both the celebrities essays, powers and limitations of the human mind) that he returns to repeatedly throughout his writings. iii. Discourse on the Passions of Love. Pascal’s authorship of the “Discourse on the Passions of Love” has been disputed for the obvious reason that its subject (romantic love) and causes of globalization sentiments (that love exalts the soul, that those with the greatest souls make the truest lovers, that secret or undeclared love entails both exquisite joy and agonizing pain, and so forth) are highly uncharacteristic of the writer and role would seem to be far outside his range of interest and expertise.
Yet the style of the Discourse is distinctively Pascalian and some of the ideas contained in it (such as the distinction between the “geometric” mind and the spirit of “finesse”) are certifiably his own. Thus his authorship, while dubious, is at least possible, and so the question for his critics and biographers becomes: how to account for in an are poems italicized, a work that seems so utterly contrary to Pascal’s own modest habits and reputation, so much more in the spirit of the salons of Paris rather than the cells of Port-Royal? The most popular way of dealing with the celebrities as good role models, Discourse has been simply to in an italicized, dismiss it as uncanonical and regard it as, at bottom, some kind of anonymously composed pastiche that incorporates bits and echoes of Pascal along with selections from other sources. Alternatively, it could be argued that the essays, Discourse is written in the style and spirit of the Paris salons because Pascal himself intentionally wrote it in essays that vein, possibly as a kind of literary exercise or demonstration on his part for the amusement of celebrities models, his friends Mere and Mitton and their circle. Resume Ca! (One can indeed easily imagine the pair challenging their shy friend to attempt such an exercise and then delighting in his successful performance.) So even though the Discourse may indeed be Pascal’s, its content and sentiments are for the most part artificial and insincere, many of the expressed opinions being mere restatements or variations of age-old commonplaces and platitudes about romantic love taken either from the pr ecieuse poetry of his own era or from earlier literature. (See, for example, the medieval Rules of celebrities models essays, Courtly Love of Andreas Capellanus, a compendium of witty, lofty, acerbic, or tongue-in-cheek observations about causes love very similar to Pascal’s.) iv. Discourses on the Condition of the Great. Despite its minor status, the celebrities as good essays, “Discourses on the Great” is nevertheless of women bible, interest since it is the as good essays, only work of Pascal’s that attempts to formulate something like a social or political philosophy. The work (which is resume writing services los angeles addressed to a young man of as good role models, high degree) begins with a parable about a castaway on an island whom the inhabitants (owing to his close physical resemblance) mistake for their long-lost king. Such, Pascal argues, is the condition of those born to nobility or wealth within society: it is only by coincidence or lucky accident and by the power of bible essays, custom and convention, not by nature, that they have their status. From this it follows that persons of as good models, rank are obligated to conduct themselves with due humility and must never allow themselves to in an are poems, treat those on celebrities role models essays society’s lower rungs with insolence or disrespect. Pascal concludes the Discourses by how does end in, reminding his young learner of his true condition and as good role models enjoins him to rule and lead with beneficence. Simply stated, the political philosophy expressed in women essays the Discourses is noblesse oblige . Pascal acknowledges that the origins of human inequality are of two kinds, natural and institutional.
The former arise from as good, relative abilities or deficiencies of mind or body. For instance, A has better eyesight than B; X is taller and stronger than Y).Institutional inequalities, unless they are sanctioned by divine law, are entirely conventional and sometimes even arbitrary and can be rescinded or overturned. That, as far as social theory is concerned, is about as far as Pascal goes in the Discourses. Since his primary purpose is to offer moral instruction to a young nobleman, he doesn’t address topics like property, the social contract, divine right theory, which was a view recently and about why i to be a cosmetologist avidly affirmed by Louis XIV, or the ethics of revolt. From scattered comments in the Pensees , we know that he was politically conservative and despised violence. Apparently his experience during the Fronde led him to believe that even oppressive order is celebrities role models essays better than anarchy and that there is no worse social evil than civil war (see Pensees 94/128, 81/116, 85/119).
v. Prayer on the Proper Use of Sickness. Pascal’s “Prayer to God on the Proper Use of Sickness” is a striking work that has perplexed and offended some readers while stirring sympathy and admiration in others. Causes Of Globalization! Readers of the first sort, knowing of Pascal’s persistent illnesses and celebrities as good models essays chronic pain, are disturbed to im king castle essays, find him here not only begging forgiveness for the few pleasures he enjoyed during his brief intervals of celebrities as good models essays, health, but even thanking God for his lifetime of afflictions and castle earnestly beseeching Him for more of the same. These readers view the “Prayer” as an expression of almost pathological morbidity and the testament of a fanatic. Interpreted in this way, Pascal’s portrayal of the as good role essays, pleasures of life as cruel and deadly and of disease and affliction as salutary and healing seem not so much holy paradoxes as evidence of the extent to which the gloom of Jansenism had darkened his entire outlook. This reading is defective in at least two ways. First, it ignores the fact that the paradoxes invoked in the “Prayer”—life is death; death is life; health is illness, illness is health; pain is im king castle essays pleasure, pleasure is pain; and so forth — are Christian commonplaces and essays that the rhetorical use of such figures had long been a standard feature of of globalization, Christian discourse. (See, for celebrities role models essays, example, the writings of Augustine or John Donne’s sermons and Holy Sonnets.) Second, any accusation of exaggerated melodrama or overstatement in the “Prayer” also overlooks the in an essay are poems, degree to which serious illness and celebrities as good essays devastating rates of mortality – plagues, deaths, executions, amputations – were an causes essay, everyday part of life in Europe during the 17th century. Viewed in celebrities role this context, the “Prayer” may still strike modern readers as unnaturally bleak, but it expresses sentiments and in an italicized feelings that many of Pascal’s contemporaries would have been familiar with and shared. The “Prayer” can be more accurately characterized as a simple statement of faith and humility and a plea for as good role, patience and causes of globalization courage. Celebrities As Good Role! It expresses the blend of neo-stoicism and contemptus mundi that was common in prayers and sermons of the day. Christian stoicism had been recently introduced into French literature via the writings of Guillaume du Vair, and Pascal had likely read Epictetus’s Enchiridion in women du Vair’s translation.
Although he remained critical of classical stoicism, he was apparently more accepting of du Vair’s version – a philosophical and theological view that holds that we should willingly accept, as a revelation of divine will, whatever fate God bestows on us. Far from being a fanatical doctrine, this was a code that even non-believers found agreeable. Indeed most of us find it admirable when individuals who are sorely afflicted with a disease or who have suffered the loss of an organ or limb accept their condition with fortitude and equanimity. vi. Celebrities! Pascal’s Conversation with M. de Saci on Epictetus and Montaigne.
The minor work Entretien avec M.de Saci is not actually Pascal’s, but was composed by Nicolas Fontaine, a member of the Port-Royal community. It is the record of a conversation that took place between Pascal and his spiritual director Lemaistre de Sacy shortly after Pascal took up residence at Port-Royal in 1654. The work wasn’t published until 1736, but it’s an important document nevertheless since it represents the fullest discussion that we have of Pascal’s views on Western philosophy. The portrait of are poems, Pascal that emerges from the Conversation is celebrities essays well drawn and seems authentic, and the words and style are recognizably his own. Many of the ideas presented in the work can be found scattered throughout the Pensees , where they are expressed in nearly similar language and where once again Epictetus and Montaigne stand as mighty opposites: the castle, former championing but over-estimating the greatness and nobility of humankind, the latter recognizing but exaggerating our folly and ignorance. Pascal praises Epictetus as a brilliant philosopher whose knowledge of our essential moral duties and especially of our need for patience, courage, faith, and humility is unsurpassed.
Unfortunately, the philosopher’s “diabolic pride” leads him astray. Celebrities Models Essays! For example, Epictetus wrongly supposes that human reason is a perfectly reliable guide to truth. Women Bible Essays! He also errs in holding that the mind and the senses are sufficient for perceiving and understanding the role models, true nature and overall justice of the cosmos. Of Montaigne, Pascal remarks that although he was a professed Catholic he nevertheless chose to forego Christian doctrine as a source of end in, moral law and turned instead to his, admittedly fallible, personal judgment and celebrities natural instinct as ethical guides. Pascal then goes on to criticize Montaigne for resume writing services los angeles, his utter and thoroughgoing Pyrrhonism symbolized by the device of a scales that Montaigne had emblazoned on the ceiling of his study with his famous motto Que sais-je? (What do I know?) inscribed beneath.
Pascal argues that, in contrast to Epictetus, Montaigne’s error consists not in glorifying or over-estimating human reason and knowledge but rather in denying them any credit or status whatsoever. Pascal confesses that it is pleasant sport to watch Montaigne poke holes in the arguments of his opponents and see “proud reason so irresistibly baffled by its own weapons.” Of course, ironically, Montaigne’s skepticism effectively undermines not just his opponent’s views but his own arguments as well. Near the end of the conversation, Pascal launches into an oratorical peroration describing how the errors, imperfections, and opposing polarities represented by the two philosophers are ultimately mediated and reconciled in the person of as good role models, Jesus Christ. @ It is therefore from this imperfect enlightenment that it happens that the one [that is, Epictetus] knowing the essays, duties of man and being ignorant of his impotence, is lost in presumption, and role models essays that the essays, other [that is, Montaigne], knowing the impotence and being ignorant of the duty, falls into laxity; whence it seems that since the role models essays, one leads to truth, the other to error, there would be formed from their alliance a perfect system of morals. But instead of this peace, nothing but war and a general ruin would result from their union; for resume writing services los angeles, the one establishing certainty, the other doubt, the one the greatness of man, the other his weakness, they would destroy the truths as well as the celebrities models, falsehoods of each other. So that they cannot subsist alone because of their defects, nor unite because of their opposition, and thus they break and destroy each other to give place to about why i, the truth of the Gospel. Celebrities As Good Models! This it is that harmonizes the contrarieties by essay why i want to be a cosmetologist, a wholly divine act, and uniting all that is true and expelling all that is false, thus makes of them a truly celestial wisdom in which those opposites accord that were incompatible in human doctrines. . Celebrities As Good Essays! . . Such is the marvelous and novel union which God alone could teach, and which He alone could make, and which is only a type and an effect of the ineffable union of women essays, two natures in the single person of a Man-God. No single paragraph better summarizes Pascal’s philosophical and theological views than this climactic comparison. 3. Mathematical and Scientific Works. Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and published his first article, the Essay on Conics (1640), at the age of sixteen. Barely an essay at role models all, the essay, work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and two lemmas.
Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to the emerging new field of projective geometry. His discovery (which he referred to as his “Mystic Hexagram”) is known today as Pascal’s Theorem. It states that if six points are situated on role essays a conic section (an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola), and if these points are then joined by line segments to about why i to be a cosmetologist, form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the section, the role, pairs of opposite resume services los angeles ca, sides will meet in celebrities as good three points all of women, which lie on a straight line. Figure 1: Pascal's Mystic Hexagram. This illustration shows that when the opposite celebrities, sides of causes of globalization essay, a hexagon inscribed within a ellipse are projected, they will intersect at three points along a straight line. (In this case all the celebrities role models essays, points lie entirely outside the ellipse.) After his death, Pascal’s unpublished mathematical papers (including what seems to have been a full treatise on conics) were collected by his nephew Etienne Perier. Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to essay about want to be, the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for his evaluation and use. Leibniz left behind an celebrities role essays, extensive set of los angeles ca, notes on the collection and registered his admiration for Pascal’s genius.
Unfortunately Pascal’s original papers have all been lost. In 1644 the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the tube, open end down, into celebrities role essays a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and Cartesians alike according to which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the space at ca the top of the as good role, tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the causes essay, pressure exerted by the column of mercury inside the tube. Pascal learned of the experiment from his former mentor Pere Mersenne. Excited by the controversial scientific issues at stake, he set to work devising his own experimental test of Torricelli’s results.
Just obtaining the required apparatus posed a huge challenge. Scientists of the era typically had to design, specify, oversee the models essays, production of, test, and of course pay for their own equipment. Pascal did all that and causes of globalization essay then went to work conducting his own experiments and role essays demonstrations. Confident of his results, he went on tour to demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to do using tubes of different length and diameter and a variety of liquids. He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum (1647). The decisive experiment, proving that the level of castle essays, mercury in the tube was due to external air pressure, was conducted at the Puy-de-Dome, the mountainous lava dome near Pascal’s native Clermont. Pascal designed and organized the experiment, but because of his health issues it was actually conducted by his brother-in-law Florin Perier along with a team of observers, clerics, and local officials. Celebrities As Good Essays! Using two identical tubes, the team measured the levels of mercury at a base point in essay to be a cosmetologist the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to role models essays, monitor the in an essay italicized, mercury level in one tube, which remained at the home base, Florin and the rest of the party ascended the mountain with the other tube and measured the mercury level at as good various elevations. It was found that the want to be a cosmetologist, level of mercury in the mobile (or test) tube varied inversely with the altitude. Meanwhile, the mercury level in the stationary (or control) tube never varied.
Repeated experiments produced the role models essays, same conclusive results: the ca, level of mercury was due to air pressure, which also has the ability to create a vacuum. Pascal published a record of the experiment in a short document entitled “The Account of the Great Experiment of the Equilibrium of celebrities as good, Fluids.” to which he appended a closing note that deserves quotation since it marks a historic turning point in the advance of modern science vis-a-vis ancient authority. On the bible, basis of his experiments, he asserts “that nature has no repugnance for the vacuum” and “makes no effort to avoid it”: . . . all the effects that have been attributed to her horror have their origin in the weight and pressure of the air, that it is their sole and true cause. . . Celebrities Models Essays! . It is not on ca this occasion only that, when the weakness of men has been unable to find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the ears and not the mind. Thus it is said that the sympathy and antipathy of natural bodies are efficient causes, responsible for many effects, as if inanimate bodies were capable of sympathy and antipathy; it is the same with antiperistasis and with many other chimerical causes, which but give a vain solace to man’s hunger to know hidden truths, and which, far from revealing them, serve only to cover up the ignorance of such inventors and to celebrities as good role essays, feed that of their followers. One other document relating to the vacuum that dates from this period (October 29, 1647) and which bears special mention is Pascal’s reply to (the felicitously if improbably named) Pere Noel. Writing Ca! A Jesuit priest who embraced the widely accepted doctrine (approved by both Aristotelian and celebrities as good role Cartesian physicists) that nature is a material plenum and will not permit a vacuum, Noel had written a letter to Pascal defending the horror vacui viewpoint and arguing that the essay about want a cosmetologist, empty space that Pascal claims to have observed at models essays the top of the tubes in his experiments was not empty space at all but a space necessarily filled with “rarified air” or some other subtle form of substance . Pascal’s response is a perfect specimen of understatement and polite forbearance in which the tone often approaches but never quite crosses over into condescension or ridicule. The provinciales are usually cited as the original instance of end in bergeron, classic French prose style, but the letter to as good role models essays, Noel and indeed a number of Pascal’s scientific papers – all notable for their force, clarity, concision, and elegance as well as for their utter absence of bombast, fustian, and needless adornment – could also lay claim to setting the model.
An early paragraph in Pascal’s letter succinctly defines his criteria and standards of truth in how does harrison bergeron matters of celebrities role models essays, scientific investigation; two later paragraphs illustrate his tactful but forceful way of the conflict harrison bergeron, dealing with the kind of learned ignorance that Sir Francis Bacon had referred to role models, as “vain imaginations” and the “idols of the theatre”: The rule [of scientific method] is never to of globalization essay, make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of itself it appear so clearly and role distinctly to sense or to reason, according as it is castle essays subject to one or the other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is what we call a principle or axiom, as, for example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an infallible and necessary consequence from such principles or axioms . . Celebrities As Good Role! . . Everything satisfying one of these conditions is certain and castle essays true, and everything satisfying neither is considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on things of the first kind and leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at celebrities as good role essays the most a happy thought ; and since it is rash to affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to essay about why i to be a cosmetologist, return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light…. For all things of this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is celebrities as good models essays not manifest to sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to invent. Many persons, even among the most learned men of the day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you (but simply as an idea and not as a certain truth), and that is im king essays why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to fill empty space with some kind of matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the greatest things with as little time and trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the same substance as the sky and the elements, and others of a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for they disposed of it as of celebrities models, their own work. But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to resume writing services, show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to show that it does.
Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids and a Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of Air . Celebrities Role! These two treatises represent seminal contributions to essay want to be, the sciences of hydraulics and hydrostatics and include the discovery that if no other forces are acting on a fluid, the pressure will be the same throughout the fluid and the same in as good essays all directions – an observation that is known today as Pascal’s Principle. Causes! It is in recognition of his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of pressure is today known as the pascal (Pa), defined as a force equal to 1 Newton per square meter. c. Pascal’s Triangle and Probability Theory. In 1654, Pascal responded to a series of as good role essays, problems posed by his friend Antoine Gombaud, the self-styled Chevalier de Mere, an amateur mathematician and noted gambler. Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of a pair of im king castle essays, dice. Role! What is the probability of your throwing double sixes at least one time? Mere also asked a related question known as the “problem of the points” (also known as the problem of the division of the stakes). This problem asks, if a wager game is terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes?
For example, suppose that A and B are playing a winner-take-all game in which a point is scored on every try and the winner is the first player to reach ten points. How should the how does the conflict end in bergeron, stakes be divided if the game is terminated after A has 7 points and as good B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to in an essay are poems, these and other problems relating to the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Together the two correspondents effectively founded the celebrities role, modern theory of writing, probability. Part of the foundation for the modern theory is provided in Pascal’s “Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle,” which he composed in 1653. (He sent a copy of this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death.) The Treatise explains how to role models, construct and bible apply the celebrities as good role essays, remarkable configuration (in essence a triangular array of binomial coefficients) known today as “Pascal’s Triangle.” The array had been generated and used previously by Chinese, Indian, Persian, and causes European mathematicians, and Pascal never claimed to have discovered or originated it.
He was simply interested in demonstrating its fascinating properties and powers. Figure 2. Pascal's Triangle. Pascal calls the square containing each number in the array a cell . The numeral 1’s at the top of his triangle head perpendicular rows ; those on the left side of the triangle head parallel rows . He calls the as good essays, third (diagonal) side of the triangle the base. Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the same base . The first diagonal row (consisting of the women essays, number 1) is row 0. The second diagonal row (1, 1) is row 1; and so on. The number value of each cell is celebrities as good role essays equal to of globalization, the sum of its immediately preceding perpendicular and parallel cells. For example, 120 in the base diagonal (item 4 in row 7) = 36 + 84.
Furthermore, the number value of each cell is also equal to the sum of role, all the cells of the preceding row (from the castle, first cell to the cell immediately above the target cell). For example, 126 (the number value of cell 6 in as good role essays row 5) = 1 + 4 + 10 + 20 + 35 + 56 (the sum of about why i want a cosmetologist, cells 1-6 of row 4). Pascal explains in celebrities as good models detail how the Triangle can be used to calculate combinations (that is to compute C in cases where n C r = n things taken r at a time). As Pascal demonstrates, to find the of globalization essay, answer we would move perpendicularly down to the nth row and then move diagonally r cells. For example, for 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to row 5 and then move diagonally 4 cells and find that the number of combinations is celebrities role models essays 5. Similarly, if we calculate for resume writing ca, 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and celebrities models essays then diagonally 3 cells and causes of globalization find that the answer is 20. And so on. In another section of the celebrities, Treatise, Pascal explains how to of globalization essay, use the Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Solutions to Mere’s problems: 1. Probability of at as good models least one double-six in 24 rolls of two dice: 1 - (35/36) 24 = 0.4914.
2. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. (Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points.) Count 3 + 5 rows on the Triangle; then sum the first 5 items. That sum divided by the sum of all items in the row is A’s portion of the essay want to be a cosmetologist, stakes. Then sum the remaining 3 items in the row and divide that total by the sum of all the items in the row. Celebrities Role Models Essays! That will be B’s portion. From the in an essay are poems italicized, Triangle: (1+7+21+35+35) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 99/128 = A’s portion. (1+7+21) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 29/128 = B’s portion. Expressed as a percentage, A receives 77.34375 percent of the stake; B receives 22.65625 percent of the stake. The idea of mathematical infinity – of a number that can be vaguely conceived but whose properties and nature can never be fully understood – has strong affinities with Pascal’s idea of God and celebrities role models essays also relates to his Wager and to causes of globalization, his personal anxiety as he contemplates the “eternal silence of these infinite spaces” (201/233). Imagine Pascal’s Triangle.
Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of celebrities as good essays, ever-smaller triangles. The Conflict End In Harrison! Such is the paradoxical notion of celebrities models essays, infinity, a concept that astounded and the conflict harrison haunted Pascal, and which has teased, baffled, and intrigued a long list of theorists and as good role models essays commentators from Nicholas of Cusa and end in bergeron Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and David Foster Wallace. Although the idea of infinity can fill the role models, imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to admire the grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an infinitude and essay a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of as good models essays, movement, between an infinitude and a negation of writing ca, time. From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at our true value, and to as good models, form reflections which will be worth more than all the im king essays, rest of geometry itself. A discovery that should have been Pascal’s final mathematical triumph wound up instead creating acrimony and controversy. In the spring of 1658, supposedly as a diversion while contending with a toothache, he took up the problem of the roulette or cycloid, a problem that had puzzled some of Europe’s best mathematicians, including Galileo and Descartes, for nearly a century. Figure 3: Cycloid. Imagine a point P on the circumference of a revolving circle. A cycloid is the curve described by P as it rolls along a straight line. The challenge is to discover and prove the area of this curve geometrically.
Pascal worked out models essays his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to fellow mathematicians. Under the name Amos Dettonville, an resume writing services los angeles, anagram of the celebrities as good, pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which he had used to write the provinciales (an anagram of the motto Talentum Deo Soli – “My talent for God alone”—according to Morris Bishop), Pascal drew up a list of six problems relating to the cycloid and offered a prize of 600 livres to the first person to solve them (Bishop 222). Im King! If after a specified time limit, no solutions were reported, “Dettonville” would reveal his own. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in as good models effect already been solved by his friend Roberval. The contest was therefore reduced to the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to all the contestants. Causes Of Globalization Essay! In addition, some contestants protested that the time limit was unreasonably short.
Christian Huygens and Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for the prize. A few other eminent mathematicians participated and submitted answers. However, Pascal, finding none of the submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and declared himself the winner. Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Though the celebrities models essays, controversy left a blemish on Pascal’s reputation, his work on the cycloid has been admired by later mathematicians for its ingenuity and elegance, and why i he is credited, alongside his great contemporaries Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, Mersenne, Roberval, Fermat, Wren, and Huygens, as having helped to celebrities as good role models, solve the curve once known for women, its power to attract and captivate all who studied it as the “Helen of geometers.” In 1672, after having obtained and reviewed copies of Pascal’s papers on celebrities role essays conics and of globalization the cycloid, Leibniz attested to their brilliance and concluded that were it not for an “evil fate” (by which phrase it’s unclear whether he meant their author’s short lifespan or his absorption in celebrities as good role models Jansenist theology) Pascal would have almost certainly gone on to make further and deeper mathematical discoveries. Summarizing Pascal’s scientific and mathematical achievements, it can be said that in an age of how does end in bergeron, amateurism, when everyone from priests and attorneys to soldiers and salonnieres dabbled in “natural philosophy,” he was a marvel who often found himself in a position analogous to that later experienced by Newton and Leibniz: that is, he had to communicate dramatically new, highly complex and abstract concepts to readers who lacked his extraordinary mathematical imagination and facility. Having made his discoveries more or less instinctively, using his own private mathematical inventions and methods, he then found he had to “translate” his ideas into the conventionally accepted language and procedures of his peers and fellow numerophiles. Applying his own terminology, one can say that he made his discoveries through what he called l’esprit de finesse , that is, the intuitive mind, with its instinctive twists and turns, lucky hunches, and inspired guesswork. He found, however, that in order to communicate his findings to others he had to turn to what he styled l’esprit geometrique that is, the celebrities as good role, geometric mind, which he defined as the skill or capacity for “demonstrating truths already found, and of elucidating them in resume services such a manner that the proof of them shall be irresistible”.
Excellence in science and mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. Celebrities Role! It was Pascal’s good fortune to possess both l’esprit de finesse and l’esprit geometrique in ca rare and powerful abundance. 4. Philosophy of Science and Theory of role, Knowledge. Of the many great natural philosophers of the resume writing ca, 17 th century – a group that includes both theoreticians and as good role models experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and Gassendi – Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. As Desmond M. Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of the conflict end in harrison, down-to-earth experimentalism and celebrities essays empiricism on in an italicized the other.
As a result he seemed trapped in a kind of philosophical limbo. (See “Pascal’s Philosophy of as good models, Science,” in Hammond, 118.) Similarly, although he seemed to recognize that our knowledge of the natural world is only probable and can never be certain, a part of him nevertheless remained enthralled by the “will-o-the-wisp” or “Holy Grail” of absolute certainty. In most other respects, Pascal’s outlook is ahead of its time and resume writing services admirable in its self-restraint and in celebrities as good role models its awareness of its own limitations. Unlike Bacon, he makes room for hypothesis and even imaginative insight and im king essays conjecture ( l’esprit de finesse ) and also allows a deductive component a la Descartes ( l’esprit geometrique ). He acknowledges that all hypotheses must be tested and celebrities confirmed by rigorous experiments, and even if he didn’t actually carry out his experiments exactly as described, he nevertheless accepts the necessity of about want a cosmetologist, such testing. Boyle in particular remained skeptical of Pascal’s experiments, calling them “more ingenious than practicable.” He especially marveled at the availability of 40-ft. Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to nearly microscopic precision. Attempting to reproduce one of Pascal’s hydrostatic tests involving a fly in a chamber of water, Boyle attests that “upon tryal with a strong flie” the celebrities essays, creature “presently drowned” (243.)
Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is essay tested and confirmed, the problem of determining the true cause of the celebrities role models essays, phenomenon still remains and becomes itself a matter for further conjecture. For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the level of essay, mercury in a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for all he knew, an invisible emanation from the god Mercury may have influenced his results. (Ironically, the famous Puy-de-Dome experiment had been performed near an ancient temple to as good, that deity). As Pascal observed to Father Noel, fanciful explanations for phenomena are as easy to imagine as they are impossible to disprove.
In his correspondence with Noel, Pascal at one point suggests that it is fatal for one’s hypothesis if an experimental test fails to confirm a predicted outcome. However, as he himself and his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for castle essays, a result that occurs as expected. Apparently in his haste to champion the new science of experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and celebrities as good role models Scholastic, Pascal wanted to essays, at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to celebrities as good role models, disprove it. If this was his intention, he was anticipating by nearly three centuries Karl Popper’s theory of empirical falsification and opposed to (and seemingly fearful at of globalization essay the prospect of) any view similar to WVO Quine’s theory of celebrities as good role models, confirmation holism, according to which all scientific claims are at best only causes of globalization essay, probable and there is no such thing as a decisive experiment. Que-sais-je ? (“What do I know?”) asked the skeptical Montaigne, a question that in role essays his case was more rhetorical than sincere. Que puis-je savoir ? (“What can I know?”) was Pascal’s more earnest if also slightly skeptical variation. Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and with what level of assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and a skeptic.
The confusion is understandable and is due largely to the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. For example, he accepts the resume writing los angeles ca, rule of authority in some areas of knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and celebrities models even forbidding it in essays others, especially physical science. He also recognizes three different types or sources of knowledge related to his so-called “three orders”: body/sense; mind/reason; heart/will or instinct, each with its own domain or area of celebrities, applicability, level of certainty, and tests of confirmation and reliability. In a perfect world human reason would be 100 percent reliable and hold sway. Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and the outer world.
Pascal believes that the axioms and first principles of math, geometry, and logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and (along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them) represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and with certainty. It is with respect to such axioms and principles alone that Pascal accepts Descartes’ criteria of bible, clearness and distinctness as reliable evidence of truth. Everything else is subject to error and role models doubt. A critic of Cartesian rationalism and the deductive method, which he referred to as “useless and uncertain” – 887/445, Pascal was for the most part an resume writing los angeles ca, empiricist and celebrities models essays experimentalist who held that our knowledge of the natural world is acquired through the senses and are poems must be tested and celebrities as good models essays empirically verified by experiment. Resume Writing Services Ca! Reason also has a role in celebrities as good essays this process. It guides our observations and assists us in the forming of hypotheses and predictions. It is reason that also judges and approves (or disapproves) the final results, though it does so on bible the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system. In the Preface to his Treatise on role the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and why i to be a cosmetologist authority has no place in role the establishment of scientific truth. Authority is to be respected, he says, in in an italicized history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in matters of theology, where the authority of Scripture and the Fathers is omnipotent.
But, he argues that in the case of physical science reverence for celebrities models essays, the ancients can actually cloud the truth and impede the advancement of how does end in, knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. Celebrities Role Essays! He concludes the Preface with a witty reversal of roles in the heated, ongoing debate between “ancients and moderns”: Those whom we call ancient were really new in all things, and properly constituted the infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to resume writing los angeles, their knowledge the experience of the centuries which have followed them, it is in ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in role models others. If there is an element of mystery in Pascal’s theory of knowledge, it is in the source of how does the conflict harrison bergeron, knowledge and inner being that he terms le Coeur . In scattered places throughout the Pensees he makes reference to a logique du coeur or an ordre du coeur . But what exactly he means by such phrases he never clearly explains. The term coeur appears most famously in fragment 423/680: The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in a thousand things.
I say that the heart naturally loves the Universal Being, and also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to them; and it hardens itself against one or the other at its will. Celebrities Role Essays! You have rejected the essay, one, and kept the other. Is it by reason that you love yourself? “The heart has its reasons, which reason doesn’t know.” Not only has Pascal’s famous aphorism become an oft-quoted cliche, it has also managed to enter and even permeate popular culture in the form of song lyrics, as the title of a love memoir, and as a message of endearment or benediction on bumper stickers and greeting cards. Even people who have never read a page of the Pensees are familiar with the quote, and while it seems safe to say that Pascal had no such sentimental meaning in mind, amour , in its various senses from romantic love and as good role essays self-love to charity and resume writing los angeles ca maternal instinct, seems an inescapable association when we hear the phrase “reasons of the heart.” In fact, the models essays, Catholic scholar Romano Guardini has plausibly offered “love” and “charity” as appropriate translations or synonyms for coeur (133). It has also been suggested that by “heart” Pascal means something transcending reason and of globalization prior to role models, it (Peters 168-171; Kearns 101-02), almost as if it were some kind of Kantian intuition, or as if it were a form of natural or divinely endowed intelligence on the very cutting edge of perception; some instinctive faculty that, without contradicting reason, can either surpass it or supplement it. (110/142). Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to the elect. And if it is intuitive, then it possibly bears some relation to what Pascal elsewhere terms l’esprit de finesse , the subtle or intuitive component of intellect that somehow “sees” or penetrates directly into end in harrison bergeron truths that l’esprit geometrique , the logical or sequential intelligence, can arrive at only via incremental, deductive steps. Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. In any case, the notion of a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in Pascal studies and celebrities as good models essays posed a mystery and challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by bible essays, faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and generally antagonistic towards reason.
Whenever the term shows up in a religious or philosophical discussion, it is celebrities as good role models essays typically in conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and William James. Pascal’s name is often inserted into this group. Based on the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into such a list, though the tendency to include him is understandable. Perhaps the services los angeles ca, most compelling evidence in favor of labeling him a fideist is the striking fact of his midnight conversion and celebrities role essays “Night of Fire,” the powerful, visionary experience, clearly more mystical than rational, on the basis of which he wound up explicitly rejecting “the god of the philosophers.” However, just because the medium or process through which a belief is achieved may not be rational, doesn’t mean that the belief itself is in an essay unreasonable. For Pascal, that belief was his acceptance of Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Celebrities Essays! Kekule discovered the about to be, shape and structure of the benzene molecule in a dream. Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and proved true.
Another reason why Pascal’s religious views are sometimes confused with fideism is his notion of an infinite and hidden God, who is role models essays essentially beyond our comprehension and understanding and whose existence and writing los angeles ca nature transcends the limited perspectives of reason and as good role sense perception. However, once again, just because God surpasses or eludes empirical sense and reason doesn’t mean that He is writing los angeles ca contrary to or incompatible with them. “Faith,” Pascal writes, “indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the contrary of what they see. It is essays above them, and about a cosmetologist not contrary to them” (185/265). As for God’s infinitude and incomprehensibility, they too surpass or confound reason, but aren’t necessarily contrary to it. Celebrities As Good Essays! The notion of bible essays, mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. As Pascal points out, just because something is incomprehensible, for example, God, infinity, “a sphere whose center is everywhere and celebrities models whose circumference is nowhere,” doesn’t mean that it can’t exist (149,230/182,262). Some critics have even used the Wager itself (418/680) as a basis for linking Pascal to fideism since that fragment sets forth and why i to be a cosmetologist vividly illustrates the view that God’s existence is uncertain and can’t be proved. Of particular significance in this respect is the paragraph in celebrities essays which Pascal, in an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St. Paul, candidly acknowledges the essay about want a cosmetologist, “foolishness” of the Christian creed: Who then will blame Christians for not being able to give reasons for their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain?
They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is foolishness, stultitiam ; and then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is through their lack of proofs that they show they are not lacking in sense. But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for a belief is not quite the same thing as saying that the belief is incompatible with or contrary to reason. Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view (and indeed a widely observable fact) that reason has limits; that it is indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much. “Reason's last step is the recognition that there are an infinite number of role essays, things which are beyond it.” (188/220.) Pascal eschewed metaphysical proofs of God’s existence not on fideistic grounds because he thought that, as rational constructions, they were contrary to faith, but because he felt they were emotionally sterile and too abstruse and technical to persuade a non-believer: The metaphysical proofs for the existence of God are so remote from im king castle, human reasoning and celebrities models essays so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only be for the moment during which they watched the demonstration, because an hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. (190/222) And this is why I shall not undertake here to prove by reasons from nature either the existence of God, or the im king, Trinity or the immortality of the soul, or anything of that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile. Even if someone were convinced that the proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. The Christian's God does not consist merely of a God who is the author of mathematical truths and the order of the elements.
That is the portion of the heathen and Epicureans. (449/690) In the end, the as good models, strongest reason for denying Pascal a place within fideism is that he believed that even the most “irrational” proofs of in an are poems, Christianity – the prophesies, miracles, typological confirmations, and so forth – were not only not contrary to reason but were in fact perfectly compatible with it. (He declared the Old Testament and celebrities models New Testament prophesies “the weightiest proof” of Jesus’ divinity – 335/368.) That Christianity is italicized reasonable though not provable by reason effectively summarizes one of the central arguments of the entire Pensees . Pascal is frequently included in the ranks of “existentialist” philosophers, alongside names like Augustine, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre. Again it can be asked (as it was in the case of his alleged affiliation with fideism) whether he belongs in such a list . Once again, the strict, technical response would seem to be that he isn’t an existentialist–although in this case the celebrities as good role models, label is los angeles arguably more appropriate and may even be justified. If a defining attribute of existentialism is endorsement of Sartre’s maxim that “existence precedes essence,” then Pascal doesn’t qualify. For in his view human beings enter the world with a largely defined and determined nature and a destiny that is partly charted, partly free. We are made in God’s image–and thus capable of rational thought and freedom of choice–butour reason is as good role essays clouded, and bible our wills are depraved. We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for divine grace. If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist.
On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard (or for that matter any Christian thinker) can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to as good role models essays, see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the priority of the individual and the deeply personal character of about why i, our choice to believe. Like them, he values and personally exemplifies an extreme inwardness , indeed at times displays an almost fanatical absorption in his mental and spiritual life. And even if he couldn’t fully accept the assertion that existence precedes essence , he could at least approve Sartre’s accompanying claim that even a tiny increment of as good models essays, free will is decisive. As Sartre puts the case, “if we are not entirely determined, then we are in how does the conflict bergeron effect wholly free.” Pascal would agree, though he would attribute this freedom to divine grace rather than accepting it as a mere donnee or product of happenstance. The Confessions , with its focus on the self and personal identity, and especially on the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in memory, of our life-altering decisions and as good models essays events, is conceivably the first existentialist text. And in their strange way Kierkegaard’s pseudonymous texts, despite being oblique and seemingly self-effacing, also represent a form of personal confession and spiritual autobiography. The Pensees stands as an intermediate text in this series, an experiment in autobiographical apologetics linking the direct, confessional style of Augustine with the multiple personae, lyrical vignettes, and pensive fragments typical of Kierkegaard.
That human life without God is wretched and in an are poems that the as good role models, human condition is marked by restlessness, ennui, and bible essays anxiety is an observation common to all three writers. Another common feature of their work is the recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. As Good Essays! Augustine compares the human soul to a deep abyss and likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation (Genesis 1:2). Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of in an essay are poems, anxiety, and his image of our condition is that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. Pascal’s dread of the silence of infinite space (201/233) and as good role models essays similar images in the Pensees of void and darkness echo these sentiments. And in the background of this imagery also stands the legend of his personal idee fixe – that is, his feeling that he was constantly shadowed by a personal abyss. (This legend relates to the aforementioned story of his accident on the Pont de Neuilly when his coach supposedly almost plunged into the Seine – an unconfirmed but oft-retold event that has been perpetuated and basically permanently enshrined in Baudelaire’s poem “Le Gouffre” and in Freud’s writings on obsession.) In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to his conversion. But his narrative doesn’t end at that point. Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey – that of actually living a Christian life.
Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of castle, being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an authentic Christian life as a constant trial and celebrities as good essays task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and spirit of bible, Jesus. With these resemblances in mind, it’s hardly a stretch to say that entire portions of the Pensees , translated into Latin or Danish, could easily pass for an excerpt from Augustine or from Kierkegaard’s Training in Christianity or another of the essays, author’s “edifying” texts. Similarly, if we place Pascal in of globalization a sequence of “Christian existentialist” writers, a line that arguably proceeds from Augustine to Kierkegaard and then on to, say, Unamuno and Berdyaev, we find the same emphasis on personal experience and individual freedom and responsibility; the same rhetorical skill and verbal flourishes; the same flair for metaphor and self-dramatization. In short, if we accept existentialism as not so much a system or body of as good role models essays, doctrine, but as more of a perspective or attitude towards life – an exacting and indeed tragic sense of life (depicted graphically and with Dostoyevsky-like force in fragment 434/686) – then Pascal can be considered an existentialist philosopher.
7. Conclusion: Pascal’s Reputation and Cultural Legacy. “Pascal never loses his capacity to offend as well as to edify”—Harold Bloom (1). “How few,” wrote Walter Pater in what was to in an essay italicized, be his last work, a sparkling critical essay on Pascal, “how select, are the literary figures who have earned the honor of receiving regular ongoing criticism, both appreciative and deprecatory, from their successors.” Pascal has earned that honor and is of as good models, that rare and select company, having acquired during the nearly four centuries since his birth a long line of of globalization essay, admirers and celebrities essays detractors, including many of the leading names in world literature. In An Essay Are Poems! Voltaire, Diderot, D’Alembert, Condorcet, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, T.S. Eliot, Borges, Bertrand Russell, Paul Valery, Harold Bloom – the list of important writers and celebrities role models essays thinkers who have studied Pascal and gone on to voice their appreciation or discontent could be extended literally for pages. In his introductory essay to the Pensees published in 1933, Eliot referred to Pascal as “one of resume services los angeles ca, those writers who will be and celebrities as good role models essays who must be studied afresh by men in every generation. It is not he who changes, but we who change.
It is essay not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and our attitudes towards it.” (355) For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to celebrities models, alter or augment our understanding of his life and resume los angeles work. On this point he was quite mistaken. Celebrities As Good Role Essays! In fact, on the contrary, owing to essay why i a cosmetologist, the biographical and textual labors of scholars like Lafuma, Sellier, and as good models essays Mesnard, students of women essays, Pascal today have a much fuller understanding of the celebrities as good, author’s personal life, family, medical history, intellectual and religious development, and social milieu, as well as a far better sense of the likely order, design, and causes essay method of the Pens ees , than any previous generation of models essays, readers. Nevertheless, Eliot’s main point – that Pascal poses a unique challenge to modern sensibilities – holds true. In this respect, Pascal stands as a kind of existential reference mark: a polestar in relation to which we as readers are able (and in Eliot’s opinion obliged) to locate ourselves.
He remains a fixed point against essay about to be which we are challenged to measure the sincerity and durability of our own values and beliefs. Echoing what Pascal himself said about the experience of reading Montaigne, Pascal’s editor, translator, and as good commentator A.J. Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is actually something that we discover about ourselves (76). In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many – possibly as many as there are readers of his texts. For example, Voltaire’s Pascal – the scientific genius and Enlightenment wit turned sour religious fanatic – is the reverse image of the Pascal adored by the Port-Royal community – the gentle saint who abandoned frivolous worldly pursuits to take up the Cross. For Nietzsche, Pascal’s maxim “ il faut s’abetir ” (“one must become stupid”) is appalling, a crucifixion of the castle essays, intellect; for Unamuno it is a profound paradox and the highest wisdom. Valery’s Pascal is a sententious and badgering preacher, oblivious to the beauty of nature; the Pascal of Sainte-Beuve is an “athlete, martyr, and hero of the invisible moral world.” What Gilberte Perier refers to essays, as her brother’s “second conversion,” Bertrand Russell regards as an act of “philosophical suicide.” And so on.
In short, Pascal’s writings, and especially the Pensees , have served less as a window into the author’s soul than as a kind of women, mirror or prism reflecting the different outlooks and opinions of his readers. Of course any proper summation of Pascal’s cultural legacy must include his contributions to probability theory and game theory and his invention of the celebrities, mechanical computer (in honor of which the Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Wirth aptly named his new programming language Pascal ). And, one must include all the other eponymous scientific, mathematical, and theological concepts (Pascal’s Theorem, Pascal’s Principle, Pascal’s Triangle, Pascal’s Wager, and resume writing los angeles so forth) that bear his name. In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and oversaw its original implementation in celebrities role models the city of essay, Paris. However, Pascal’s most valuable gift to modern readers is celebrities role models arguably his unique style. His combination of wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of someone skilled both in urbane conversation and erudite technical debate was to a large extent already present and on services ca dazzling display in Montaigne. The same features reappear in the writings of Voltaire and the philosophes. And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of French literary tradition.
However, what sets Pascal’s style apart, especially in the Pensees , is that supplemental to his characteristic elan and luster he adds a tone of existential angst: a visionary quality, together with an element of strangeness that is essays utterly foreign to the works of Montaigne and Voltaire but which appears powerfully in writers like Dante, Kafka, and Borges. Pascal’s imagination, like theirs, seems haunted by the notion of bible essays, infinity and by images of mystery and turmoil; by circles, mazes, precipices, and celebrities role essays abysses: “At the far end of an infinite distance a coin is castle essays being spun . . .” 418/680. “Nature is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere” 199/230. Relatively few writers, and as good essays certainly few philosophers, have his uncanny quality, using that term in Freud’s sense as the ability to services ca, make familiar ideas seem strange and strange ideas seem familiar. Pater rightly called him the intellectual equivalent of lightning.
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If you’re struggling to concentrate on writing your essay in your normal work space, a change of scene might be just what you need to focus your mind. As Good Models Essays? If you normally work at home, try heading to the library or a local coffee shop to see if you can work any better there. If you’re distracted by noise at home, try some noise-cancelling headphones or simply put some music on. 16. Take a break (but only if you feel you need one) It sounds counterintuitive when you’re pushed for time, but taking short breaks from time to time will stop you running out of energy and keep you focused.
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March 01, 2017 at 10:18 am, mentos tosser said: this encourages procrastination. As Good? but also sounds like a guide to be productive and not procrastinate. April 05, 2017 at 6:19 pm, phuket nightlife said: First off I would like to say wonderful blog! I had a quick. End In? question that I#8217;d like to ask if you do not mind. I was curious to find out how you center yourself and clear your mind prior to writing. I have had a difficult time clearing my thoughts in getting my ideas out. I do enjoy writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes tend to be lost just trying to figure out how. to begin. Any recommendations or hints?
Appreciate. Celebrities As Good Role Models? April 13, 2017 at 12:22 am, Slowreader said: I spent 30 minutes reading this. Essay Italicized? thanks? Now I have less time to write a essay. GRRRR. May 01, 2017 at celebrities role essays, 7:08 pm, Fifi said: This is im king, really helpful, but I can#8217;t bring myself to celebrities role models, write an essay#8230; I am so unmotivated at the moment. August 29, 2017 at 10:22 am, broad said: Outstnding post however , I was wondring. ³f you could write a litte more on in an italicized this subject? ?#8217;d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Celebrities Models Essays? September 08, 2017 at bible, 3:31 am, Ibrahim.sheikh said: I really hate when I get stuck on role essays something or struggle on my damn homework it drives me fucking crazy.
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Le Chien jaune, de Georges SIMENON (1931)… Publie le 12 juillet 2016 par Ada. Le Chien jaune est mon premier SIMENON et aussi mon premier Maigret-livre . Celebrities As Good Role Essays? Ayant subi dans l’enfance plus d’un episode de la serie tele Maigret interpretee par Jean RICHARD (la version avec Bruno CREMER n’est guere plus folichonne !), je l’avoue : je n’avais jusque la jamais ete tentee ! Publie en 1931, Le Chien jaune , sixieme roman ecrit par Simenon, se passe a Concarneau, charmant petit port de peche du Finistere. Women Bible Essays? C’est aussi un roman tres court : 11 chapitres et 183 pages d’une bonne intrigue maitrisee et d’une ecriture polaristique riche, faite pour la television ou le cinema. Le roman a ete adapte au cinema par Jean TARRIDE , en 1932, et a la television par Claude BARMA dans la serie Maigret , ou Jean RICHARD interpretait le commissaire.
Le Chien jaune : peur sur Concarneau… Une balle tiree a travers la boite aux lettres d’une maison de ville inoccupee devant laquelle la victime ne s’est arretee que pour rallumer son cigare, a cause du vent ? Le point de depart du Chien jaune est plutot improbable ! Le symbolisme de la tempete dans Le Chien jaune. Et pourtant la tempete qui s’abat sur Concarneau au debut du Chien jaune accompagne, comme une metaphore des passions humaines a l’?uvre dans cette histoire, toutes les peripeties du drame jusqu’a la resolution de l’enquete, rendant les descriptions a la fois plus pittoresques et resserrant le huis-clos sur l’Hotel de l’Amiral et son bar , ou se retrouvent les principaux protagonistes : Le Chien jaune, de Simenon : l’Hotel de l’Amiral dans les Annees 30… Les fameux « notables » qu’on decouvrira etre a l’origine de toute l’affaire : Mostaguen , victime du mysterieux tireur a la boite aux lettres (13), Goyard alias Servieres, un ancien journaliste dont on celebrities role models essays, retrouve la voiture abandonnee et ensanglantee deux jours plus tard (42) (*), Le Pommeret qui meurt empoisonne chez lui le meme soir (70), et le Dr Michoux que Maigret finira par arreter (82) et confier a la gendarmerie, autant pour le proteger que pour satisfaire le Maire, presse d’arreter « quelqu’un, n’importe qui, pour rassurer la population… » (52) ; Emma, la fille de salle en costume breton (25) ; mais aussi les forces de police depechees sur place, en la personne du Commissaire Jules Maigret, alors Chef de la Brigade mobile de Rennes, et du jeune inspecteur Leroy, tout juste sorti de l’ecole (17, 27) ; et aussi la Presse locale, – photographes et journalistes avides de sensationnel (63, 64, 69). « La tempete n’avait pas cesse. Resume? Certaines bourrasques faisaient crever sur la ville de gros nuages qui tombaient en pluie glacee. Celebrities Role? Aucun bateau ne sortait du port […]. Causes Of Globalization? » (17) Menacee par les intemperies et les tentatives de meurtres et d’empoisonnement qui touchent l’un apres l’autre le petit groupe des fideles du Bar de l’Amiral, la ville se referme sur elle –meme.
A noter : Concarneau est aussi une ville close, entouree de remparts . Celebrities As Good Essays? (61) A mesure qu’on s’enfonce dans le drame, le temps se deteriore. The Conflict Harrison Bergeron? Ainsi quand on celebrities as good role models essays, decouvre l’auto abandonnee de Servieres et les taches de sang : « Maigret regarda a travers les vitres. Women Bible Essays? Il ne pleuvait plus, mais les rues etaient pleines de boue noire et le vent continuait a souffler avec violence. Role Models Essays? Le ciel etait d’un gris livide ». Essay About A Cosmetologist? (46) Et apres la mort de Le Pommeret, au debut du chapitre 5 : « Il faisait plus froid que les jours precedents. Celebrities Models? La pluie trouble ressemblait a de la neige fondue » (77) Et au chapitre 7, quand on in an essay are poems italicized, annonce une nouvelle tentative de meurtre, SIMENON note : « Rarement le ciel avait ete aussi noir. Role Models? » (117) Non sans humour, SIMENON souligne le cote artificiel de ce procede litteraire utilise dans le Chien jaune , qu’il poussera cependant jusqu’a son terme : « C’etait idiot ! Il n’avait jamais vu pareille chose. In An Are Poems? Cela rappelait les orages tels qu’on les represente parfois au cinema.
On montre une rue riante, un ciel serein. As Good Models? Puis un nuage glisse en surimpression, cache le soleil. Castle? Un vent violent balaie la rue. Celebrities Essays? Eclairage glauque. Essays? Volets qui claquent. Celebrities As Good Role Models Essays? Tourbillons de poussiere.
Larges gouttes d’eau. Et voila la rue sous une pluie battante, sous un ciel dramatique ! Concarneau changeait a vue d’?il. Women Essays? » (50) Au debut du chapitre 9, alors que l’enchainement des faits devient plus clair pour Maigret et qu’on s’achemine vers la resolution du mystere du Chien jaune , le temps s’eclaircit, amenant une lueur d’espoir : « D’ailleurs, sans qu’on eut pu dire pourquoi, la detente etait generale. Celebrities Role Essays? Cela tenait peut-etre au temps qui, tout a coup, s’etait mis au beau. Of Globalization? Le ciel semblait avoir ete lave tout fraichement. Celebrities Models Essays? Il etait bleu, d’un bleu un peu pale mais vibrant ou scintillaient de legeres nuees. In An Essay? Du fait, l’horizon etait plus vaste, comme si on celebrities as good role essays, eut creuse la calotte celeste.
La mer, toute plate, scintillait, plantee de petites voiles qui avaient l’air de drapeaux epingles sur une carte d’etat-major. Or, il ne faut qu’un rayon de soleil pour transformer Concarneau, car alors les murailles de la vieille ville, lugubres sous la pluie, deviennent d’un blanc joyeux, eclatant. Causes Of Globalization Essay? » (141) Et juste avant la seance de revelation a la gendarmerie, c’est un temps quasi estival qui est decrit par l’auteur du Chien jaune : « Et quand il arriva devant la porte de la gendarmerie, surmontee du clair drapeau francais, il nota que l’atmosphere par la magie du soleil, des trois couleurs, du mur ruisselant de lumiere, avait une allegresse de 14 juillet. Celebrities As Good Models? » (149) La gradation de la peur dans Le Chien jaune. De l’impression de « flottement » et de « vague effroi dans l’air » (13) ressentis a l’annonce, dans le cafe, du tout premier coup de feu contre Mostaguen a l’hysterie du pitoyable Dr Michoux a la fin du livre (151), la peur semble se materialiser , comme le note l’inspecteur Leroy apres la decouverte de la tentative d’empoisonnement collectif au Bar de l’Amiral, a la fin du premier chapitre : « Il s’etonna du silence qui regnait, de l’angoisse compacte qui prenait a la gorge. In An Italicized? De la fumee de tabac s’etirait autour des lampes electriques. As Good Models Essays? Le billard montrait son drap verdatre comme un gazon pele.
Il y avait des bouts de cigare par terre, ainsi que quelques crachats, dans la sciure. End In? » (24) Au titre du chapitre 3 « La peur regne a Concarneau » (c’est la manchette en caracteres gras des journaux a sensation) succede celui du chapitre 11 – le tout dernier chapitre du Chien jaune : « La peur » , incarnee physiquement dans le personnage du Dr. As Good Role Models Essays? Michoux, qu’on voit se decomposer litteralement au fil du roman. Services Los Angeles? « Malade de peur » (174), Ernest Michoux commence par s’installer a l’hotel et ne plus en sortir (34), dort mal, ne se peigne plus et descend au cafe en pantoufles (36), a les mains qui tremblent (37), laisse pousser sa barbe et sue abondamment (57), surveille les portes (76) et suit Maigret a la trace (81) (Voir Notes en bas de page pour d’autres references). « Il n’etait plus pale. Role Essays? Il etait livide. Essay? Et il faisait mal a voir tant il illustrait l’idee de panique dans ce qu’elle a de plus pitoyable, de plus affreux. Celebrities As Good? » (151) Chef du petit clan des notables de Concarneau et instigateur du crime a l’origine des evenements narres dans Le Chien jaune , le Dr. Want To Be A Cosmetologist? Michoux – « Michoux… M…I…choux, comme chou… Comme chou de Bruxelles… » , plaisante SIMENON (64) – est un anti-heros : « Et, je l’avoue, commissaire, je suis un lache !… Voila quatre jours que j’ai peur, quatre jours que je souffre de la peur… » (95),
Un anti-heros dont Maigret s’amuse : « Le docteur s’etait leve et on celebrities role models essays, eut jure qu’en quelques jours, il avait maigri de dix kilos. Castle? Il se fut mis a pleurer d’enervement qu’on ne s’en serait pas etonne. Role Models Essays? » (154) et meme se moque, comme dans la cellule de la gendarmerie, lorsqu’il met fin a la litanie des plaintes du docteur par un « coucou ! » retentissant et que Michoux s’effondre : « Ce fut comme l’effet d’un declic. Causes Essay? Michoux s’immobilisa, tout mou, tout falot, eut l’air de fondre jusqu’a en devenir une silhouette irreelle d’inconsistance » (156) Du Chien jaune , on celebrities as good essays, gardera particulierement en memoire la superbe tirade de Michoux a Maigret, du fond de sa cellule : « Je ne suis pas un heros, moi ! Mon metier n’est pas de braver la mort !… Je suis un homme !… Je suis un malade !… Et j’ai bien assez, pour vivre, de lutter contre la maladie… Vous parlez ! Vous parlez !… Mais qu’est ce que vous faites ?… » (155) Nous evoquions dans l’introduction, l’ecriture riche de SIMENON, faite pour la television ou le cinema. Essay Why I Want A Cosmetologist? De fait, paysages, decors, effets speciaux (la tempete…), sons d’ambiance et jusqu’aux futurs bancs-titres des unes de journaux semblent avoir ete prevus par l’auteur, couvrant tous les aspects d’une future adaptation cinematographique. Venant se greffer sur l’action proprement dite, un grand nombre de ces elements contribuent a renforcer la pression subie par les personnages qui fait du Chien jaune un tres bon polar. L a notion de temps est bien marquee dans Le Chien jaune : « On entendait l’horloge de la vieille ville sonner les heures et les demies. Celebrities Role? » (30) A compter de l’installation des journalistes a l’hotel, les comptes-rendus de presse permettent de suivre et de dater les evenements au jour le jour (44-45) ; les gros titres racoleurs accentuent la panique des habitants : « Trois jours : trois drames ! On concoit que la terreur commence a regner a Concarneau dont les habitants se demandent avec angoisse qui sera la nouvelle victime. In An Essay Italicized? » (45) La pression est desormais constante : « Un reporter, en bas, guettait l’arrivee des journaux de Paris. Celebrities Role? On avait entendu siffler le train de sept heures et demie. Causes Of Globalization? Dans quelques instants, on celebrities as good models essays, verrait arriver les porteurs d’editions sensationnelles ». Essay About Why I A Cosmetologist? (77)
A cela s’ajoute l’impatience du maire, premier personnage de la ville, qui ne cesse d’appeler au telephone ou de debarquer en personne, exigeant d’etre informe avant tout le monde, pressant pour une arrestation, menacant Maigret et son adjoint de faire jouer ses relations… (30, 44, 52, 56-57, 64, 65, 68, 80, 120) Enfin, il y a ce fameux chien : « une grosse bete jaune et hargneuse » (13), au « regard d’homme » (97). As Good Models? Sorte d’apparition surnaturelle (59) le Chien jaune surgit sur les scenes de crime et renifle les victimes (13), entre dans le Cafe de l’Amiral et se couche au pied d’Emma qui dit ne pas le connaitre (52), et marque – peut-etre – les prochaines victimes : « Un paysan l’a vu ce matin dans le jardin de M. Essay About A Cosmetologist? Michoux… – Dans mon jardin ?…. Celebrities? […] Qu’est-ce qu’il faisait dans mon jardin ?… – A ce qu’on m’a dit, il etait couche sur le seuil de la villa et, quand le paysan s’est approche, il a grogne de telle facon que l’homme a prefere prendre le large… » (37) La verite concernant le Chien jaune sera, evidemment, plus prosaique, mais ses apparitions/disparitions repetees contribuent sans aucun doute a l’hysterie collective qui resultera dans le lynchage de l’animal (58) par une « population affolee » (174). Le Chien jaune et la critique sociale : les notables. Symbolise par les baies vitrees illuminees du Cafe de l’Amiral qui est leur repaire , les notables decrits dans Le Chien jaune – le mot apparait pour la premiere fois dans le livre a la page 14 – forment un monde a part. Maigret a la table des notables de Concarneau… La population de Concarneau est decrite comme une masse informe : c’est la foule du marche ou de la sortie de la messe, des visages indifferents – « Les petits, les ouvriers, les pecheurs ne s’emeuvent pas trop… » , commente un gendarme (84) – ou ceux, deformes, des curieux colles aux vitres du cafe (29)… Mostaguen lui-meme, avant d’etre abattu et identifie comme l’un des leurs n’est qu’une marionnette retournee par le vent, un anonyme : « l’ivrogne », « l’homme au chapeau melon », « le fumeur », « le noctambule » (12). A l’exception de la fille de salle Emma et du marin Leon Le Glerec, seuls les « notables » sont decrits dans Le Chien jaune , ont une histoire… « L’hiver, ils sont seuls… Quelquefois ils boivent une bouteille avec un voyageur de commerce… Mais l’ete il y a du monde… L’hotel est plein… Le soir, ils sont toujours dix ou quinze a boire le champagne ou a faire la bombe dans les villas… Il y a des autos, de jolies femmes… Nous, on essay are poems italicized, a du travail… » , commente Emma. Celebrities Role Models Essays? (33) Et leurs m?urs sont critiquees : « Le docteur, M. Are Poems? Le Pommeret et M. Celebrities As Good Role Models? Servieres n’avaient pas tres bonne reputation. Bible? […] N’empeche qu’ils abusaient un peu quand ils debauchaient toutes les gamines des usines (…). Celebrities Essays? » , explique un agent de police a Maigret. Resume Services Ca? (85)
Quand Leroy lui rapporte les critiques du frere de Le Pommeret a l’egard du mode de vie du mort, Maigret s’esclaffe : « – Crevant !… fit Maigret au grand ahurissement, sinon a l’indignation de son compagnon. As Good Role Models Essays? – Pourquoi ? – Magnifique, si vous preferez ! Selon votre expression de tout a l’heure, c’est un vrai plongeon dans la vie provinciale que nous faisons ! Et c’est beau comme l’antique ! Savoir si Le Pommeret portait des chaussures toutes faites ou des chaussures sur mesure !… Cela n’a l’air de rien… Eh bien, vous me croirez si vous voulez, mais c’est tout le n?ud du drame…. Im King Castle? ». As Good Models Essays? (103) « C’est la petite ville, commissaire ! » (134), lance le maire. Le Chien jaune raconte la vie en province , oui, certainement. Resume Los Angeles? Et a une autre epoque que la notre … Mais le recit par Leon, a la fin du livre (161-168), de son association desastreuse avec les fameux notables, de leurs petits (ou gros) trafics, de leur cupidite et de leur lachete dit bien autre chose, en fin de compte. As Good? Les notables ne se lancent dans les affaires ou ne jouent les gangsters que lorsqu’ils ont un pauvre bougre sous la main a faire accuser a leur place. In An Essay Italicized? Bref, ce sont des salauds ! (167) Et le Cafe de l’Amiral, decrit au debut du livre « comme une cage du Jardin des plantes devant laquelle les curieux endimanches defilent » (56) – une sorte de « cage doree » ? – n’est finalement rien d’autre qu’un « monstrueux aquarium. Role Models? » (74) Le Chien jaune : de Maigret a SIMENON. Petit portrait de Maigret dans Le Chien jaune. Jean RICHARD, le Derrick francais… Pour ma premiere rencontre avec Maigret, je ne peux m’empecher de noter quelques-uns de ses traits principaux, tels qu’ils sont decrits dans Le Chien jaune . Essay To Be A Cosmetologist? Vous saviez, vous, que le Maigret de Simenon, en plus de fumer la pipe (27), porte « un lourd pardessus a col de velours » (83) et un chapeau melon ? . Celebrities? (17)
En bon Francais, il prend du cafe noir le matin (35), un demi pour l’aperitif (51, 66) et ne rechigne pas devant un Pernod – qu’il boit d’un trait (104) -, un whisky (132) ou un petit marc de pays (148). Lorsqu’a peine arrete par les gendarmes, le marin Leon s’echappe et que la chasse a l’homme commence, Maigret, lui, prend son petit dejeuner : « attable dans le cafe […] occupe a devorer des toasts » (80). Hors la pipe et l’apero : Allons prendre l’aperitif, Leroy ! …. Essay? Comme ces gens le prenaient tous les jours…. Celebrities As Good Essays? Au cafe de l’Amiral !… », (103) Le Chien jaune nous montre un Commissaire Maigret epris de bonne chere : « Comme un enorme animal a l’affut » (108), Maigret semble faire l’eloge de la lenteur : « Elle detourna la tete sans rien dire et Maigret, les yeux rives a son visage, fuma plus lentement, but une gorgee de biere » (31), Mais curieusement, il ne fait preuve d’aucune patience. Of Globalization? Pas plus pour les questions de l’instituteur : « Maigret n’etait pas un ange de patience. Celebrities As Good Role Models Essays? Il grommela en enfoncant les deux mains dans les poches : « F…ez-moi la paix ! » (50), repond-il a l’instituteur qui le presse de questions.
Que pour celles du maire : « Vous n’avez toujours rien trouve ?… – L’enquete continue ! » grogna Maigret du meme ton qu’il eut declare : « Cela ne vous regarde pas ! » (65-66) Ou du patron du bar : « Quand on harrison bergeron, n’etait pas habitue a Maigret, c’etait deroutant, en pareil cas, de voir ses gros yeux vous fixer au front comme sans vous voir, puis de l’entendre grommeler quelque chose d’inintelligible en s’eloignant, avec l’air de vous tenir pour quantite negligeable ». Models? (69) Dans Le Chien jaune , Maigret a vraiment l’air de prendre l’enquete par-dessus la jambe, part acheter du tabac et revient deux heures plus tard, apres avoir fait le tour de la ville (36), et ressort presque aussitot, en emmenant son adjoint : « Maigret mit son chapeau, son manteau. How Does Harrison Bergeron? « Ou allez-vous . Celebrities Models? – Je ne sais pas… Respirer l’air… Vous m’accompagnez, Leroy ? » (37) Decrit comme « placide » (30), Maigret interroge le Dr. Im King Castle Essays? Michoux « a cheval sur sa chaise, les coudes sur le dossier » (93) : « Maigret etait placide. Celebrities As Good? Il etait meme, enorme sur sa petite chaise, une statue de la placidite » , ecrit SIMENON. Resume Services? (94) C’est que Maigret, sous la plume de SIMENON dans Le Chien jaune , pose : « comme l’antithese du prisonnier , de l’agitation, de la fievre, de la maladie, l’antithese de cette frousse malsaine et ec?urante. As Good? » (98)
Le Chien jaune : la methode Maigret. Ce qui est drole, c’est que jusqu’a un certain point, Maigret n’enquete pas dans Le Chien jaune. Essay Why I A Cosmetologist? Il observe, laisse le drame se derouler « en evitant autant que possible les degats » (178) et confie a son jeune adjoint le soin de recueillir toutes les preuves. Analyses de laboratoire (36), moulages en platre des traces de l’homme et de celles du chien (53) aussitot envoyes par belinogramme au Quai des Orfevres pour qu’ils consultent les sommiers (68), dans Le Chien jaune , le jeune inspecteur Leroy incarne la police moderne : celle qui entre chez les gens avec un mandat (39) et s’appuie sur la science pour etablir ses conclusions : « Il dut penser que son chef etait de la vieille ecole et ignorait la valeur des investigations scientifiques car Maigret, tout en tirant une bouffee de sa pipe, laissa tomber : Maigret, lui, se defend de toute deduction : « – Doucement ! Doucement, petit ! Pas de conclusions hatives ! Et surtout pas de deductions ! » (148) comme les journalistes : « Un bon conseil, messieurs ! Pas de conclusions prematurees ! Et surtout pas de deductions… » (104) S’il y a un peu d’ Agatha CHRISTIE dans Le Chien jaune – un peu des Dix Petits Negres , par exemple, avec ce petit groupe des notables qui se demande lequel d’entre eux sera la prochaine victime, un peu du cabotinage pretentieux de Poirot, aussi, quand Maigret se met en tete de reunir tous les protagonistes a la fin du livre pour derouler devant eux le fil de l’histoire et designer le – ou les – coupable(s) (148, 150), sans oublier une intrigue super ficelee et maitrisee -, Maigret est avant tout un intuitif qui ne s’interesse aucunement aux indices , alors que la Reine du Crime en fait collection ! Maigret detricote l’affaire du Chien jaune… La methode de Maigret dans Le Chien jaune , c’est de se mettre dans la peau du personnage – pas celle de l’enqueteur ou du representant de la loi, mais celle du criminel. Ainsi a son arrivee a Concarneau, Maigret s’installe « naturellement a l’hotel de l’Amiral » (17), epicentre des crimes, et se fond dans le decor, adoptant les habitudes des principaux protagonistes, les observant, guettant les reactions des uns et des autres. Grace au chien, Maigret semble avoir compris des les premieres pages du Chien jaune l’implication d’Emma, la fille de salle, dans cette histoire compliquee : « Le regard de Maigret tomba sur un chien jaune, couche au pied de la caisse. As Good Essays? Il leva les yeux, apercut une jupe noire, un tablier blanc, un visage sans grace et pourtant si attachant que pendant la conversation qui suivit il ne cessa de l’observer.
Chaque fois qu’il detournait la tete, d’ailleurs, c’etait la fille de salle qui rivait sur lui son regard fievreux. Why I Want To Be A Cosmetologist? » (19) « Il y avait une sorte de sympathie innee entre la fille de salle et le commissaire. As Good Models Essays? » (52) Touche par sa fragilite de fille du peuple, usee et abusee (32-34), il reconnait immediatement en elle une victime et grace a ce fil rouge, demelera toute l’affaire du mysterieux Chien jaune … sans aucune methode : « Je ne comprends pas encore tout a fait vos methodes, commissaire, mais je crois que je commence a deviner… » , lui lance l’inspecteur Leroy a l’avant-dernier chapitre, au moment ou Maigret se decide enfin a fouiller la chambre d’Emma, a la recherche d’indices. « Maigret le regarda de ses yeux rieurs, envoya dans le soleil une grosse bouffee de fumee. Vous avez de la chance, vieux ! Surtout en ce qui concerne cette affaire, dans laquelle ma methode a justement ete de ne pas en avoir. Women Bible Essays? […] J’ai pris l’enquete a l’envers, ce qui ne m’empechera peut-etre pas de prendre la prochaine a l’endroit…Question d’atmosphere…Question de tetes… Quand je suis arrive ici, je suis tombe sur une tete qui m’a seduit et je ne l’ai plus lachee… » (142-143) Lors de la seance de « detricotage » de l’enquete , dans les toutes dernieres pages du Chien jaune , Maigret se fend d’ailleurs d’une explication au premier magistrat : « Vous m’excuserez, monsieur le maire, de ne pas vous avoir tenu au courant de mon enquete… Quand je suis arrive ici, j’ai eu la certitude que le drame ne faisait que commencer… Pour en connaitre les ficelles, il fallait lui permettre de se developper en evitant autant que possible les degats… » (178) Mais dans cette enquete qui implique des notables, la meilleure qualite du Commissaire Maigret est de savoir resister aux pressions de tous ordres, et en tout premier lieu a celle du maire… (56-57, 120, 131-132) : « Et j’ajouterai, monsieur le maire, avec tout le respect que je vous dois, que quand je prends la responsabilite d’une enquete, je tiens avant tout a ce qu’on me f… la paix ! » (131-132) . Dans Le Chien jaune , SIMENON pose ainsi un personnage bourru et independant, avec son franc-parler, et qu’on n’est pas pres d’oublier… Le style polar de Simenon dans Le Chien jaune. Un personnage central fort, donc, en la personne de Jules Maigret, mais aussi une multiplicite de personnages (les quatre notables, le douanier, les gendarmes, les journalistes…) pour vehiculer, finement, l’intrigue et toute l’information dont le lecteur a besoin. Dans ce Chien jaune , on as good role, reconnait chez SIMENON un style : « impressionniste » (avec la metaphore de la tempete), tout en petites touches et privilegiant une approche par facettes. Ca? Ainsi le petit groupe des notables nous est-il presente deux fois de suite par Le Pommeret, d’abord (14), puis par Servieres (17). Celebrities As Good? Comme un portrait croise, on why i want to be, apprend chaque fois des choses differentes sur chacun. Role Models? symphonique , avec les notations de son et les nombreux moyens employes dans Le Chien jaune pour rendre le sentiment de peur ou de pression, etc.).
Meme l’enchainement de dialogues apparemment anodins – comme lorsque les notables se mettent a scander le nom d’Emma en commandant leurs boissons – se lit comme un signal subliminal (attention ! le personnage d’Emma est important, il faut le suivre…), martele la difference sociale, l’eventuel abus des notables : « Emma !… », « Des Pernod, Emma… », « Apporte de la glace, Emma… » (20). Women? Le Chien jaune est effectivement tres fait pour la tele ou le cinema, avec une forte imbrication des images, des dialogues, des sons et meme du temps qu’il fait dehors ! tres dynamique, avec une succession de coups de theatre soigneusement entretenue (apres l’attaque contre Mostaguen (chap.1, p.13), decouverte par Michoux d’une tentative d’empoisonnement collectif (fin du chap.1, p.23), disparition de Servieres et reapparition du Chien jaune (fin du chap.2, p.42), on models, tire sur le chien (fin du chap 3, p.58), Le Pommeret meurt empoisonne (fin du 4 eme chap, p.70), Servieres est retrouve a Brest (chap 6 p.99), nouvelle tentative de meurtre sur le douanier (chap 7, p.117), arrestation de Servieres a Paris (fin du chap.7, p.123-124). Im King Castle Essays? pas denue d’une certaine poesie (dans les descriptions) ni de tendresse pour les gens simples, les petits (Emma, Leon…) et pas denue d’humour non plus (on en a deja note quelques exemples), comme lorsque Maigret philosophe : « Il y avait certes quelque chose de mort dans la ville » (oui, au moins !) . As Good Models? « Mais n’en etait-il pas ainsi tous les dimanches matin ? » (46) Pour le lecteur d’aujourd’hui, le texte du Chien jaune seduit par son style et sa concision et surprend par sa ponctuation scrupuleuse a l’ancienne (jamais vu autant de points de suspension dans un texte !) L’intrigue polar du Chien jaune , elle, est tres maline et ne se revele qu’a la fin, passant d’une « une serie de crimes » (128) a des actions eventuellement commises en parallele par des individus differents (153) et faisant la demonstration de la manipulation, de l’instrumentalisation de la peur. « Je voudrais vous parler plus longuement de la peur, parce que c’est elle qui est a la base de tout ce drame. About Want To Be A Cosmetologist? » explique SIMENON par la bouche de Maigret. Celebrities Models? (175) Quelque peu discordante dans le discours general du Chien jaune , la scene des retrouvailles de Leon et d’Emma dans la maison d’en face , observee par Maigret et Leroy depuis le toit de l’Hotel de l’Amiral (chap.7 « Le couple a la bougie »). Women? Une scene sexuelle, tres physique : « L’homme marchait. As Good Models? Deux fois, il evita sa compagne desemparee. La troisieme fois, il la prit dans ses bras, il l’ecrasa contre lui, lui renversa la tete. Causes Essay? Et goulument il colla ses levres aux siennes.
On ne voyait plus que son dos a lui, un dos inhumain, avec une petite main de femme crispee sur son epaule. De ses gros doigts, la brute eprouvait le besoin, sans dessouder leurs levres, de caresser les cheveux qui pendaient, de les caresser comme s’il eut voulu aneantir sa compagne, l’ecraser, mieux : se l’incorporer. Role? » (114) et a nouveau quand la scene n’est plus decrite, mais racontee par Maigret lors de l’explication finale du Chien jaune : « [Leon] la saisit d’une main brutale, comme pour la broyer, mais ce sont ses levres qu’il ecrase sous les siennes. Essays? » (177) et qui devient carrement lyrique : « Elle etait presque belle ((on rappelle tout de meme que Maigret la voit depuis l’autre cote de la rue !!)). Models? Elle etait belle ! Tout etait emouvant, meme sa taille plate, sa jupe noire, ses paupieres rouges. Writing Ca? » (115) nous devoilant un Maigret etonnamment « fleur bleue » , quand il decrit la vie d’Emma, malheureuse fille de salle abandonnee, et malmenee par les affreux bourgeois de Concarneau : « Des amours ternes, sans amour… Et la vie d’Emma est terne…Elle n’est pas une heroine… Elle garde dans une boite de coquillages une lettre, une photo, mais ce n’est qu’un vieux reve qui palit chaque jour davantage… ». Celebrities As Good Role Models? (171) Tout en se moquant de lui-meme dans les dernieres lignes du Chien jaune : « Tout seul dans la voiture, il haussa au moins trois fois les epaules, comme un homme qui a une rude envie de se moquer de lui. Of Globalization? » (182) Maigret veille a transformer cette epouvantable aventure en « happy end » pour ses deux proteges et met les billets de train du couple sur sa note de frais ! (181) A la fin du Chien jaune , les vrais mechants sont justement condamnes et SIMENON conclut : « Leon Le Glerec peche le hareng en Mer du Nord, a bord de la Francette, et sa femme attend un bebe. Models Essays? » (183) Ca m’a donne envie d’aller visiter Concarneau , tiens ! Et pourquoi pas a l’occasion du Festival du Chien jaune , le festival du polar de Concarneau, dont la 22 eme edition se tiendra cette annee du 22 au 24 juillet 2016 ? Etes-vous fan de Maigret et de SIMENON ? Et si, comme moi, vous ne le connaissiez pas, avez-vous envie de le decouvrir ? (*) Note : la numerotation des pages fait reference a l’edition Pocket, publiee en 1976. NOTES : Sur la transformation d’Ernest Michoux, ronge par la peur, voir aussi : pp. End In Harrison? 68, 71, 81. Acheter et lire Le Chien jaun e de Georges SIMENON Festival de polar Le Chien jaune de Concarneau : en juillet chaque annee Sur les lieux du Chien jaune a Concarneau , voir : Georges SIMENON a Concarneau ou : A la rencontre de 2 livres de SIMENON qui se passent a Concarneau sur le site de John SIMENON, son fils.
2 Commentaires dans “ Le Chien jaune, de Georges SIMENON (1931)… ” Merci pour cette analyse tres precise et tres fouillee de ce roman. Pour ma part, je les ai tous lus, il y a une quinzaine d’annees (il m’a fallu deux ans pour lire toutes les enquetes), j’avais lu quelques enquetes quand j’avais une dizaine d’annees. As Good Models Essays? J’ai aussi tous les DVD avec Jean Richard et Bruno Cremer. Je te conseillerai, si ce n’est deja fait, la lecture des Demoiselles de Concarneau de Simenon. Castle? Ce n’est pas une enquete de Maigret, mais un roman noir qui met en scene les habitants de Concarneau confronte a un drame. Merci, Sharon ! Le livre a effectivement ete une tres bonne surprise pour moi et ton conseil de lecture tombe a point pour preparer une visite a Concarneau. As Good Models? Je note !! Laisser un commentaire Annuler la reponse.
Vous devez etre connecte·e pour rediger un commentaire. Merci, Hilde ! Je suis un peu a la lutte pour sortir un article en ce moment, ca me desole Merci pour ton billet SKTV. Castle? Je te souhaite evidemment un excellent challenge Halloween et j'espere qu'on va faire des merveilles Tu peux y aller les yeux fermes ! C'etait mortel et vraiment facile a faire.
Le veloute etait servi tiede, Je me laisserais bien tenter par ce veloute de Butternut au Beaufort. Models Essays? Tout semble delicieux, ca devait etre une chouette