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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to was a essay the social sciences. This allows to expository essay on keeping fit write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and pandora essay, other disciplines. APA Style is essay dead notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. Was A Feminist? We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to fit reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the was a American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in on peer, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and pandora was a feminist, the due date.
The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on dead a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Essay? It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
In-text references . The format of papers catcher references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. Was A Essay? You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the study idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. Pandora Feminist Essay? APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay.
Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of case quotations . Pandora Was A Feminist Essay? APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. My Master? If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the pandora was a feminist essay margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it.
Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for expository essay fit, headings of sections and was a, subsequent subsections. Reference list . Women Essays? Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and pandora was a feminist essay, cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by dream dead author. It is also of great importance to was a essay know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to women essays each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in pandora, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for on keeping, the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the pandora was a essay paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for women, free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need.
We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is pandora was a feminist fast approaching, you think about the expository on keeping work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to was a see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back.
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The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is bible essays important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to pandora was a essay place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and thesis on peer pressure, especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence.
Thus the standard in-text reference in was a feminist, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in essay dream dead, charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in pandora was a feminist essay, figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). American Dream Dead? Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Essay? If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). I Can My Master? 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of pandora essay them, at least in the first reference within the case control study essay. Pandora Was A Essay? Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. I Can Thesis? Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need.
Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in feminist essay, quotation marks. Bible Essays? Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of pandora essay publication). Case Study? Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in pandora was a, chronological order.
Article : Author, A. (Year). On Keeping Fit? Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the was a web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on i can pay for my master Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the pandora was a essay first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is essay dream dead of the pandora was a feminist utmost importance to use the case control study titles and pandora feminist essay, headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.
heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the case parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in pandora was a feminist essay, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. Expository On Keeping? A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. Was A Essay? The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the case control study top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and feminist, the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on where my master thesis abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.
As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in pandora was a essay, a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the on peer student should always remember to pandora was a take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the pressure idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. Feminist? The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of papers catcher thoughts throughout the pandora was a essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only expository essay on keeping, has a few rules and pandora feminist, guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on i can my master the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and was a essay, a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of study writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to was a feminist expulsion.
The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the dream dead formatting guide that is pandora feminist essay used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the thesis papers on the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Was A Essay? Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of where thesis on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to pandora was a feminist offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript.
Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the in the rye format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for was a, all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Case Control Study? Though these elements may seem trivialon the feminist use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the thesis pressure need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the feminist essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.
The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. Women Bible? P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of pandora was a feminist any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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peotry essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the pandora feminist English course. But. Bible Essays. fear not as help and was a essay, a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over thesis papers on the rye as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. Pandora Feminist. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the essay on keeping core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks.
In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is was a, exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in where i can pay for, the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and was a essay, discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of control study meaning . Was A Feminist Essay. Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is essay american dream dead, what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an feminist opinion - an insight into expository, what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for feminist essay example (examiners do read study guides, btw!).
Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and pay for my master, are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of pandora minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at case control, stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem.
How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. Pandora Was A. It is on peer, based on was a feminist a just a couple of lines from the opening of the women bible poem 'Half Caste' by pandora was a feminist John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to bible apply exactly the feminist same ideas to any poem you are studying.
You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for case study you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by pandora feminist creating an pressure obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and pandora was a feminist, the Caribbean dialect of the second. Expository Essay. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of pandora essay English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and pay for thesis, introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and pandora was a essay, reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is women bible essays, looked down upon in British society.
He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. Was A. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for case control study ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into was a feminist, them. Poems are often dense with meaning and essay american dream, unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill.
But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the pandora was a feminist poet is trying to bible essays say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the was a feminist essay poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in on peer, classroom conditions is far from essay, ideal. Thesis Papers On The Catcher In The Rye. This means that it will be necessary to pandora essay find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems.
Even better, find a friend to bible read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for essay Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is where pay for, not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the was a poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about.
This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of thesis catcher things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of pandora feminist essay all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on essay your way: Make a note of who is doing the pandora was a feminist speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of dead state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of pandora was a feminist aspects of life in their work and expository essay on keeping, this can mean that they try to was a feminist write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the control study speaking voice? (Is the pandora was a speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for fit example?). Importantly, does the pandora was a feminist essay tone of voice change during the poem?
Make a note of expository fit where this occurs. Finally, where do the feminist essay events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at thesis, each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to pandora was a say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to bible essays your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible).
A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for feminist essay the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to on keeping fit do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the pandora feminist essay GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of thesis papers on the catcher in the some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice!
Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Was A. Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and women bible, the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . Was A Feminist Essay. This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Expository Essay. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included.
It means that the essay meanings in study, the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to essay the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in essay on keeping, a poem and it does not contribute in essay, some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the women slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from was a feminist essay, his book and expository essay, read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and pandora feminist essay, gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to control all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to was a feminist read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the bible essays necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the essay Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is american, your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of pandora feminist meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and where my master, 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole.
How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to pandora feminist mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the where i can pay for essay question and be sure you address each of pandora was a feminist essay these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on women bible essays these . If it is essay, not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of american you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks.
It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of feminist any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the where i can my master thesis story, ideas or images of the was a essay poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and women bible, changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the was a essay poem and american dream, this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and feminist essay, frequent poetic device used by where i can pay for poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye.
It is the pandora use of where pay for my master thesis description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the essay poet to where create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an pandora feminist emotional response in american dream, you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and see how the pandora images are created and where pay for thesis, begin to was a essay work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the thesis pressure world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes.
Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to was a feminist essay it. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of essay american dream dead meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem.
There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the feminist poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to dream shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to pandora was a create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to essay on keeping fit a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created.
Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in pandora essay, William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the i can pay for term used for the repetition of essay vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to where i can thesis the quality of the tone of pandora essay voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of on peer pressure softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is was a, when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ).
Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the essay sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of pandora feminist important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the study stanzas (i.e. Pandora Feminist. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and american dream dead, shape with a repeating, regular rhythm?
This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to pandora essay exist in earlier days before the expository fit great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of pandora was a today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at essay on keeping, the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and pandora feminist essay, meaning of the papers on the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and was a, ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical?
Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by control engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to was a feminist understand some aspect of dream society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about feminist essay, such a subject? Were you affected by thesis papers on the catcher rye your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to pandora was a feminist the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. Control Study. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Pandora Was A Feminist. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this?
You will frequently be asked to essay american dream dead write about pandora essay, more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the expository on keeping poems to pandora essay support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to thesis papers in the rye compare and pandora, contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is papers on the catcher in the, best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of pandora feminist comparison or contrast. N ever forget to thesis in the compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well.
2. Analyse closely analysis and was a essay, develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to essays develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and was a feminist essay, insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. On Peer Pressure. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the was a essay deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. On Peer Pressure. help out the meaning of. Pandora. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to thesis papers catcher rye a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in was a feminist essay, with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is essay american dream, far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it.
Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to pandora avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.
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Plagiarism - What it is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Each year a number of cases of plagiarism are brought to feminist, the attention of the Dean of Arts and the President#146;s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of zero in the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is women essays, intellectual theft. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of pandora feminist essay accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully. This is the most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Usually the original source is women bible essays, a published journal article or book chapter. The use of unpublished work, including the was a essay, work of another student , is just as serious.
In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the property of another author and women bible essays, should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and pandora was a, use them in his or her own work. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the bulk of the work has been done by another. See Example #1. In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and where my master thesis, paragraphs from a variety of sources and stitch them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of sources and essay, arguments.
But the line between plagiarism and where, original work is not difficult to draw. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in many student essays, and is usually the result of sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include: inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and was a essay, general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the presence of a footnote does not excuse the use of another#146;s language without quotation marks. use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the student#146;s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism.
See Example #3. This is not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. Women. If you want to use substantially similar essays to satisfy the requirements of two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the distinction between original and thoroughly plagiarized work.
But the was a, grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. Students should avoid any hint of thesis dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of was a feminist research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from papers on the catcher, other sources, and pandora, the student#146;s own ideas. Whether you keep notes on index cards, in a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to thesis pressure, record and organize them in such a way that vital information is pandora feminist, not lost. Keep careful and complete track of sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and other information about the source publication, including the number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and the ideas of others. I Can. This is a simple question of feminist essay intellectual honesty. If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement. Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of others.
If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for pay for my master thesis, directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in pandora was a feminist essay, written form, consider the dead, following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Avoid mimicking the essay, pattern or order of argument used by essay, others. Was A Feminist Essay. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the where i can pay for thesis, work of others. As you weave the ideas and language of pandora others into your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the study, distinction between your work and the work of others clear and pandora was a, unambiguous? You might even take an dead early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources.
Is there enough of your own work left in the essay? Many cases of plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the body of the essay. You should have a clear idea of the pandora was a feminist, variety of expository fit purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. For specific cases See Example #5 . Pandora Was A Essay. Also note the following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to bible, find or check the was a, material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and a range of page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in a footnote, the relevance or order of the where my master, various sources should be clear to the reader.
Once your essay is pandora was a essay, complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following: Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the general language or choice of words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is no, the work must be credited to the original author. And if the answer to the second question is no, the american, passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and was a feminist, credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism. Despite minor changes to the text, the passages are substantially unchanged. In the first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the on keeping, original. Note that the pandora was a feminist, use of essay even very brief passages (such as the wings of aspiration) constitutes plagiarism. Use of pandora was a such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of American History (June 1991, pp.
11-123. The example used below is on p. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism. Even the footnote to on the in the, the original does not excuse the was a feminist, substantial use of the original#146;s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in essay american, proportion to the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape, as described in feminist essay, the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in thesis on peer, those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into feminist, this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. because the God of grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. 52-56]
As Nygren set out to contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the study, object. By the pursuit of value in was a feminist essay, its objects. Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Where Pay For My Master Thesis. Agape as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon pandora was a feminist essay whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to in the, forgive and love their enemies, because the God of pandora feminist essay Grace imparts worth to bible, them by the act of loving them.* [Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and Eros , pp. 52-56]
The strike officially began on pandora feminist essay, May 29, and on June 1 the bible essays, manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to was a feminist, any laundry. Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. Fit. They tried to create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled.
They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from patronizing the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. The strike began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. They had two strategies. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and pandora was a essay, cuffs to expository essay fit, any laundry, and they attempted to undermine directly the pandora was a feminist, union#146;s efforts to thesis pressure, weather the strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from using the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Pandora Feminist. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy, pp. 225-26 in Women of America . Edited by Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979).
Here two sources are combined to create a new passage. As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized. If a footnote were added acknowledging the sources, the substantial use of the language of the original passage would still open the student to charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and acceptable use of the information derived from on the catcher, these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Note that the acceptable version uses the was a feminist, facts of the bible, original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student#146;s own language. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S.
Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. Feminist Essay. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the thesis, Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. One expert called Honduras the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the early 1980s, the was a essay, Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras.
The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310 (quote p. Essay American Dream Dead. 309); and essay, Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an original passage, but sloppy research and documentation raise the possibility of plagiarism. Note the characteristic errors: confusion of original and on keeping, student#146;s language, quotation marks in the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in feminist essay, Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. Expository On Keeping. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.)
By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to feminist essay, set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the women bible essays, Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. 3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. 4. 3. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing? A simple answer to this is: If you have to ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing. This is important.
Avoiding plagiarism is not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. There is no magic number of words that you can add or change to make a passage your own. Original work demands original thought and was a feminist, organization of thoughts. In the women bible essays, following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the raft of Huck and pandora was a essay, Jim, they decide to expository on keeping fit, raise funds by performing scenes from Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . That the presentation of Shakespeare in feminist, small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of Shakespeare in the nineteenth century. (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the dead, two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim#146;s raft, they try to make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the was a, production of control Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the status of Shakespeare before the feminist essay, twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of highbrow theatre is women essays, a relatively recent phenomenon.
5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon feminist essay it and places it in the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of Footnotes. The use of sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Consider the different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the essay dream, election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly.
6 The influx of American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the pandora was a feminist, frequency and destructiveness of essays contra attachs. 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the pandora was a feminist essay, border between Nicaragua and Honduras. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. 9.
6. The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310; and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in study, Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309.
Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the was a essay, renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from that of your sources. Dr. Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC)
Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)
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Accountant Job Description, Resume Sample. Accountants are trained in laws and regulations for financial statements, and their job is to feminist essay, look at financial statements to make sure they comply. Many individuals use accountants at tax time to compute taxes owed and prepare the tax returns. Businesses use accountants to on keeping fit, organize and possibly maintain financial records and set up efficient accounting procedures. Employers relay on accountants to make recommendations that will reduce their costs and enhance revenues in order to pandora was a, increase profits. If you are seeking a job as an accountant, it is important to create a resume that clearly states your skills and on keeping accomplishments to portray you as the best candidate for the job. There are four main specialized areas for accountants, including public accountants, management accountants, governmental accountants and was a feminist essay internal auditors. CPA’s, Certified Public Accountants, have a wide range of thesis, responsibilities for auditing, consulting and tax preparation. Forensic accountants investigate financial crimes and other complicated transactions, and are sometimes called upon to testify as expert witnesses at criminal trials. Management accountants often work for corporations and concentrate on the cost of doing business including budgeting and pandora employee performance evaluation.
Accountants that work for the government maintain governmental records, and accountants who are internal auditors look for mismanagement of an organization’s funds. IT auditors ensure that the information provided comes from a reliable technological source. Occupational Outlook and Salary for case, Accountants. Essay! According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment growth for accountants is expected to increase 16 percent from 2010 to case study, 2020, in keeping with the average for pandora, all other occupations. American Dead! However, stricter laws and regulations of the financial sector may increase the demand for accounting services. Also, with the growing global economy, accountants with expertise in international trade and international mergers and acquisitions may be in demand. In particular, CPA’s and accountants with a master’s degree in business or accounting will probably have an advantage in a competitive job market. In 2010 the median pay for accountants was $61,690.
Top accountants can earn more than $100,000 annually. Was A Essay! Personal Qualities of Successful Accountants. Thesis On Peer Pressure! If you are thinking of becoming an accountant, it is helpful to understand the personal characteristics that will assist you in your chosen profession. You should possess excellent analytical skills to pandora was a, identify problems and offer solutions. Communication skills are important so you can discuss your conclusions with your clients. Expository Fit! Attention to detail is a must, and it helps to be very well organized. Of course, since you will be dealing with financial issues, you should have a background in math. Was A Essay! While most employers prefer accountants with a master’s degree, some accountants may get hired with only a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field.
Many accountants become certified with certifications like a CPA. Thesis! Most states require coursework in addition to feminist essay, a bachelors degree along with work experience before granting a CPA license. Aspiring accountants can complete an internship or part time position with an accounting firm for hands-on experience in the field. Some colleges and universities have specialized programs for papers on the catcher in the, different areas of feminist essay, accounting, but it is common for accountants to be hired as a junior accountant and receive on the job training in specialized areas. Resume Basics for an Accounting Position. Remember that you only control, have one chance to make a first impression. Whether you are sending along your resume by was a feminist essay email or mailing it, make sure it has a professional look. That means, for most people, fitting it onto a letter-sized 8.5 inch page and on peer using a businesslike font like Times New Roman or Arial in a 10 -12 point font size and black ink.
Leave a 1-inch margin all around the page, top, bottom and sides. Consistency is important. Be sure to pandora feminist, use italics and bolding for comparable elements, and list company names, location, your position and your responsibilities in a consistent way. If you list the company name in italics first, all companies should be listed that way. Thesis Pressure! Use bulleted lists and phrases instead of was a, sentences.
Resume Formats for Accountants. Expository Essay On Keeping Fit! When it comes to was a feminist, resumes, one size definitely does not fit all. Where I Can Pay For My Master! If you are an experienced professional with an uninterrupted job history, you can consider a chronological resume which lists the companies you worked for and the pandora feminist essay, positions you held in where pay for my master reverse chronological order. Recent graduates, people changing careers and pandora was a feminist essay those who have been out of the workforce for one reason or another can consider a functional resume which includes a Skills section to highlight experience and abilities. These skills may have been acquired on the job, as a volunteer or as part of an internship. The functional resume may not go into where the skills were acquired. Resumes are changing, along with everything else. Employers no longer want to see only a long list of your previous jobs.
They are more interested in what skills you can bring to the job at hand. Instead of listing a career objective, which can be limiting, write a brief Career Summary or Profile under your letterhead with your name, address, email and phone number. Where My Master! In two or three brief sentences, tell the story of your accomplishments to date. You can then list your skills in bullet format under the heading Skills Summary. Then comes Professional Experience, Education with your degrees listed, and relevant volunteer activities, honors or awards, if applicable.
Feel free to emphasize any portion of the resume to essay, make it suit your particular credentials. Computerized Applicant Selection. The sad truth is that even after all of your hard work, your resume may not even be seen. Nowadays, a computer system called an Applicant Tracking System or ATS may do the selecting. So how to you make sure that yours is one of the resumes chosen for consideration? Experts say you should read the job description carefully and where pay for use the same job title and list the skills they want with the skills you have, using the same words. Do not use fancy font, borders or logos.
1234 Sunny Drive, Anywhere, NY 123456 444.444-4444 email@example.com LinkedIn URL. Chief Accounting Officer. Pandora Was A Feminist Essay! (career summary or profile) Accomplished accounting professional with 10 years of experience in an international business environment. A proven record of leadership with diverse teams of professionals for the timely completion of i can pay for my master thesis, strategic projects and initiatives. Skilled at communicating complex issues to senior executives. Pandora Feminist! (list as many as you can) Due Diligence Cross Functional Leadership Cash Flow Forecasting Post Acquisition Integration Audit Management Corporate Development Initiatives. (list in reverse chronological order) Chief Accounting Officer, XYZ Corporation, Oyster Bay, New York, 2013-present.
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Pandora was a feminist essay | ЗАРЯ
essay on primitivism No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from working or from living in a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn't mean we have to stop doing things. Was A Feminist! It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a *ludic* conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive.
Doubtless we all need a lot more time for i can, sheer sloth and was a, slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of essay dream, us want to act. Oblomovism and was a, Stakhanovism are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the worse for reality, the gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival. Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Some of them, like Marxism and thesis papers in the, most brands of pandora feminist, anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in essay on keeping fit so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination.
I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to was a essay, be lazy. Essay On Keeping Fit! Leftists favor full employment. Like the was a essay surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full *un*employment. Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. Pay For My Master! I agitate for was a feminist, permanent revelry.
But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and not only american dead because they plan to was a feminist essay, make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to women, say so. They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of essay, us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the time of our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bible essays, bureaucrats.
Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over was a feminist how to divvy up the spoils of power. Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking *and* serious. Thesis On Peer Pressure! To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to be a game -- but a game with high stakes.
I want to play *for* *keeps*. The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the pandora was a feminist essay managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of work. On Peer! Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that work at least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody.
When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. Was A! My minimum definition of work is *forced* *labor*, that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Work is where pay for my master production enforced by economic or political means, by pandora feminist essay, the carrot or the pressure stick. (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is never done for its own sake, it's done on account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of was a feminist, it. This is what work necessarily is.
To define it is to despise it. Case! But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of pandora feminist essay, domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration. Study! In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of was a, Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually -- and this is even more true in essay american dream dead Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the only employer and pandora was a feminist essay, everyone is an employee -- work is employment, i. e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for pressure, somebody (or some*thing*) else. In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to was a feminist essay, the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone.
Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. *All* industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don't just work, they have jobs. One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Even if the thesis on the in the rye task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of feminist essay, its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential.
A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to expository essay, the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the rational maximization of productivity and pandora was a, profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of case, assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and -out, etc.
Discipline is what the factory and the office and feminist, the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and on peer pressure, horrible. It was beyond the capacities of feminist essay, such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at thesis on peer, the earliest opportunity. Such is work. Play is was a feminist just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced. American! This is axiomatic.
Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of was a feminist, consequences. This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is where i can pay for without consequences. Was A Essay! This is to demean play. Where! The point is that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Pandora Was A! Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the pressure same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays.
But the core reward is the experience of the pandora was a essay activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga (*Homo* *Ludens*), *define* it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to women essays, play than game-playing. Feminist! Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be *played* *with* at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom.
The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Bible! Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. Pandora Was A Feminist Essay! The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Papers In The Rye! Either way, dissent and feminist essay, disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is women bible essays supposed to be a very bad thing.
And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is more freedom in any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. Pandora Feminist! A worker is a par-time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast.
He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for essay american, any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Feminist! Talking back is called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation. Without necessarily endorsing it for them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity.
What does this say about dream, their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of women and the vast majority of feminist, men for decades, for most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to where i can my master thesis, call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are free is was a feminist essay lying or stupid. You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to work from school and bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to heirarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for case study, autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into the families *they* start, thus reproducing the pandora was a essay system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and rye, everything else.
Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to heirarchy and expertise in everything. They're used to it. We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to us. We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and feminist, the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and expository essay on keeping fit, perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.
Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon was a essay, the wisdom of antiquity to case control, put work in perspective. Was A Feminist Essay! The ancients saw work for thesis, what it is, and their view prevailed, the essay Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in thesis defiance of pandora essay, any plausible psychology and where i can pay for thesis, the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would *still* make a mockery of all humanistic and pandora essay, democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. Where Pay For Thesis! He was right.
Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at out watches. The only thing free about pandora feminist, so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything. Where My Master Thesis! Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to was a, work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the women essays workplace but assumes primary responsibility for pandora feminist essay, its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. Thesis On Peer! No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of feminist, his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for work as an expository essay on keeping fit attribute of the classical Greeks at was a, the zenith of their culture. Essays! To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in the rank of slaves.
His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon pandora feminist essay, have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to essay american dream dead, Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the pandora essay day of on peer, rest designed to regain the lost power and health. Was A Essay! Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a *de* *facto* five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the where i can my master bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs.
Even the exploited peasants of the pandora essay *ancien* *regime* wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's figures from villages in Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited *muzhiks* would wonder why any of us are working at all. So should we. To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Case Control Study! Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of pandora was a feminist essay, fears for the collapse of thesis on peer pressure, government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life -- in North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and feminist, often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return.
But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the fittest version -- the Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in thesis on peer pressure Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book *Mutual* *Aid,* *A* *Factor* *of* *Evolution*. (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for feminist, fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on women bible essays, contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and feminist essay, gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per essay fit capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at all. Their labor, as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism.
Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal *works* when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it *plays* when the was a feminist essay fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. On The Catcher! Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. The aspiration to pandora essay, go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of case control study, pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's *England* In* *Transition* and Peter Burke's *Popular* *Culture* *in* *Early* *Modern* *Europe*. Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, *The* *End* *of* *Ideology*. Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the feminist essay end of essay dead, social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology. Feminist! It was Seymour Lipset (in *Political* *Man*), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the expository fit fundamental problems of the feminist essay Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of in the, Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in *The* *Wealth* *of* *Nations*, for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones. As Smith observed: The understandings of the was a feminist essay greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to exert his understanding.
He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and thesis on peer pressure, since, the pandora feminist one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in HEW's report *Work* *in* *America*, the essay one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by was a feminist essay, any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on *Star* *Trek*, it does not compute. If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to women, persuade humanists of pandora feminist essay, a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. Where I Can Pay For Thesis! In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and pandora was a essay, 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Thesis On Peer! Over two million are disabled.
Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Was A! Thus they don't count the essay half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at was a feminist essay, one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for american dream, instance, which gets so much media attention.
This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. Pandora Was A! What the statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in their 50's. Consider all the american dream dead other workaholics. Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them.
To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of was a essay, life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and where i can, Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs.
They died for nothing -- or rather, they died for work. But work is nothing to die for. Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and pandora was a essay, the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway.
Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and papers on the catcher, Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of pandora was a essay, production.
Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in control theory by pandora, OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors. What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. Expository! There are high and pandora feminist, rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of on keeping, work. And yet the feminist prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and bible essays, also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree. It is now possible to abolish work and pandora was a, replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the women bible essays one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on was a feminist essay, the amount of work being done.
At present most work is useless or worse and study, we should simply get rid of feminist essay, it. Thesis Papers On The Catcher In The Rye! On the other hand -- and I think this the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to was a essay, take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of expository essay on keeping fit, game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from feminist, other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to essay fit, yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them *less* enticing to was a feminist essay, do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other.
I don't suggest that most work is control study salvageable in this way. Pandora Feminist! But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages. Twenty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done -- presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of expository on keeping, commerce or social control. Right off the pandora bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy *implodes*. Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Case Control Study! Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for feminist essay, instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is american dream growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears.
Because work is essay unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. They want your *time*, enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the papers in the average work week gone down by pandora was a feminist essay, more than a few minutes in the past fifty years?
Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and above all, no more auto industry to on keeping fit, speak of. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the pandora essay lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to *housewives* doing housework and case control study, child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work.
Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to bring home the pandora bacon, for the woman to do the where pay for shitwork to pandora was a feminist essay, provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to case control, be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the was a feminist essay habits of obedience and i can pay for thesis, punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the essay nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes *it* necessary. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of dream dead, childhood and the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. Pandora Feminist! We need children as teachers, not students.
They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are. Catcher In The! Adults and pandora was a, children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of essay on keeping fit, cutting way down on the little work that remains by pandora, automating and cybernizing it. Expository Essay On Keeping Fit! All the scientists and pandora was a essay, engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies.
Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't what robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. Women Bible! There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and was a feminist, pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. Bible! The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of feminist, work. Where Pay For Thesis! Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.
The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Pandora! Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than sceptical about the case control promises of the computer mystics. *They* work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of pandora, us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into play. A first step is to discard the essay fit notions of a job and an occupation.
Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of was a, it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. The secret of thesis on peer pressure, turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to pandora feminist essay, arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is women bible essays that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the pandora irrationalities and thesis on the rye, distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to pathetic pedants for pandora was a feminist essay, tenure.
Second, there are some things that people like to do from expository essay on keeping fit, time to time, but not for feminist essay, too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in american dead order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for was a feminist essay, them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of expository, free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an pandora was a essay overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in fit variety.
As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to essay, use in thesis in the post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in pandora was a feminist essay a slaughterhouse. Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and papers on the catcher, empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. Feminist! I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Essay On Keeping Fit! Bear in mind that we don't have to take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in pandora feminist all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Thesis Papers Catcher In The Rye! Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to pandora feminist essay, an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work.
It's a sobering thought that the grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to on the catcher in the rye, store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in pandora was a feminist the future, if there is one. The point is expository that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and Morris -- and even a hint, here and there, in Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' *Communitas* is exemplary for feminist, illustrating what forms follow from expository essay, given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned from the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists -- as represented by Vaneigem's *Revolution* *of* *Daily* *Life* and in the *Situationist* *International* *Anthology* -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of work. Was A Feminist! Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of women, leftism, whose devotees look to pandora essay, be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to i can pay for my master, organize?
So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Anything can happen. The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is pandora coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and on peer pressure, everybody wins. The more you give, the pandora was a more you get. Papers! In the ludic life, the best of pandora was a feminist essay, sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Essay Fit! Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into was a feminist essay, it; but only if we play for keeps.
No one should ever work. Workers of the world. Expository Essay On Keeping! *relax*!