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anti sakura essay after searching through my naruto tags for the first time after 12 days, i realized how much i really hate this fandom. i also realized how happy i was when naruto wasn’t on study method, my mind. and so, i came to analysis sparknotes a conclusion. no long term exposure naruto = less anger and stress = happier me. so yeah i will never update this blog again or do anything that has to do with naruto except read the manga. don’t care? don’t read. note: i wrote this last week, before chapter 632. btw this is barely edited. copy pasted from my ipod so there are grammatical errors. I don’t like how Sakura is just suppose to run into Sasuke’s arms after he returns to case study method definition Konoha. How he is suppose to be hers. Cause shes been loving him all this time so she deserves him? And somehow Naruto will be Hinata’s.. These boys, they are not objects.
I don’t like that Sasuke’s redemption = sasusaku. It is du maurier, a desperate shortcut. Sakura is all angsty about him for three years and once he comes back hes just gonna be with her? Like nothing ever happened? It can’t work like that, it shouldn’t work like that. Why is it that Sakura still loves Sasuke, I don’t understand.. To me, for Sakura to method truly mature she must forget about Sasuke and move on from him. Wasn’t that the business, point of Sakura’s immaturity and selfish love in part 1? If she still loves him forever wouldn’t her development go to trash? Her love did nothing good for her. Getting over case study method definition, her dumb crush that held her back for so long is a good thing. Should Not Be Banned Essay! Her love made her make some stupid decisions that readers hate her for. “Oh Naruto thank you for bringing Sasuke back to me!” Does it really sound like Sakura would say something as stupid as that.
Again, Sasuke isn’t an object that belongs to her. He’s not a lost cat. After the kage summit, Naruto told Sakura that he would bring back Sasuke for his purposes and not because of his promise. Method Definition! Sasuke’s return means team 7 happy days again and (hopefully) not SasuSaku. She’s doesn’t seem to be trying to speech woo Sasuke anymore and method definition, her feelings towards him haven’t been mentioned in a while. Not saying that means they have disappeared. Rebecca Essays! I think she is smart enough to know that he has changed, that he’s not the study method, same Sasuke and that loving him never did her any good. There was no love shared between Sasuke and Sakura in 631. Cigarette Should Not Be Essay! None.
Her love wasn’t even mentioned and that’s a good start imo. BEWARE getting into NaruSaku now. The parallel in 631 was very good for NS imo. Method Definition! With a confirmed Kushina and Sakura parallel NS has a lot going for it. Basically MinaKushi has been paralleled to NaruSaku. Grounded! We already know that Naruto is case method, paralleled to Minato. ( looks, occupation, jutsu, mindset, w.e) And with this the parallel is complete. . Did Kushina never hit Minato or rage on him?
I can’t say for sure but she probably did. Thesis Grounded! But she still loves him right? She hit Naruto for gods sake, her son that she didn’t see in forever. Does she not love him? Does Naruto not love her? That’s why I think you can’t use physical abuse as an study excuse for NS. Rainforest Speech! (SS and SK had real physical abuse.) And d id Kushina love Minato at first sight?
No. He made her feel confident, he cared about her, and he supported her. I don’t see any of this going on between Sasuke and Sakura but between Naruto and Sakura- sure. Case Method Definition! Lets say Sakura does fall in love with Naruto. Does not loving someone from the start mean feelings are any less valid? I really hope Sakura can move on from Sasuke at least. I want her to realize the one who truly cared about her, the one who supported her, the one who was by her side was Naruto That is how she should truly mature. She doesn’t need to and marketing plan fall in love with him, I just want her to make a verbal statement that is full of truth, acknowledging this fact. Case! BEWARE anti NaruHina (as a couple) If Sakura gets over Sasuke, and Naruto continues to love her just as much, there are no obstacles left for NaruSaku to on criticism analysis sparknotes become canon. Why do I think so? Because I believe Naruto and Hinata can become really close friends.
They went through Neji’s death together; it was an event that brought them closer and made them experience something in common. I believe these two can care so much about each other, and admire each other without being in a relationship. Hinata will still admire and protect Naruto to the max and study, Naruto will see Hinata as strong and love (as a friend) and appreciate her. They can do this without being together because of Hinata’s personality. Hinata is the one harboring feelings towards him when he already likes someone else. Her feelings of admiration can be mutually accepted, but love doesn’t have to be. Hinata can respect the fact that Naruto does not love her. Maybe she will probably be all emo in sales business, private but she would never do anything to threaten Naruto or the one he loves. Method Definition! It’s not in business plan, her character to behave like that. If Naruto is happy, she is happy because he, his nindo, his spirit, is her motivation, and it outweighs her desire to get into case study, his pants by far.
When Naruto thinks of his very good friends, Hinata will have a significant place in his heart. She wont be on the sidelines anymore. She will get to spend meaningful time with him and thinking yahoo, laugh with him, but she wont be in study, the bed with him. That was the on criticism, point of study method definition, their experience together in the war; to tie them together and deepen their almost non-existent bond. It wasn’t romantic ( hellooo Neji died!), it was spiritual. Rebecca Du Maurier! too lazy to case study definition reread this; there are probably a lot of errors. my other post was my reaction immediately after reading the rebecca essays daphne, chapter. i’ve had a few hours to definition sit down and cigarette not be essay, actually think now. i’m a little more satisfied with it now. i would say this chapter was mainly for nostalgic purposes. can i just say sakura wanted both naruto and sasuke to see her back, not just sasuke. Study Method! she wanted to sparknotes show them both how she had grown. and so, she showed them her back they were both obviously quite impressed. sasuke had a pleased smirk on his face and study definition, naruto.. well that’s self explanatory. sakura’s performance was great! it was what i was waiting for. for critical definition yahoo, sakura to study method finally prove that she is indeed powerful! but then she got carried away and noticed those juubi babies itching up on her a bit too late. then i read the next page and daphne, i was like are you fucking serious. Study Method Definition! sasuke uses enton kagutsuchi and thesis grounded theory, naruto uses rasen shuriken to protect her. this didn’t really make me mad, it was expected but at the same time kishi didn’t have to do that. Case Method Definition! it downplayed her performance. my problem is with this panel. i can’t really tell if she is blushing; it could be dirt. let’s say it is essay analysis, blush. i don’t know why it bothers me so much. Study! it is expected of smoking banned essay, her. Study Method! she’s happy or ?surprised? the sparknotes, guy she loves just saved her life and case study definition, appeared beside her. maybe my expectations for sakura were much too high? i thought she was maturing. to me maturing means getting over sasuke or not letting her feelings for him effect her character in a bad way. it’s kinda ridiculous. during the last reunion she almost lost her life to this boy. yet here she is blushing over him. at sales business, least show little signs of distrust sakura. it brings me back to pondering about why exactly sakura still loves sasuke. why i ask. Case Method Definition! i wanted so badly for there to on criticism analysis sparknotes be signs of her getting over sasuke. how will that happen now? with sasuke on the good side, there’s no reason for study definition, her to not love him i am disappoint. a lot of people are complaining that she has returned to her old self, the one who didn’t appreciate naruto, because she neglected the fact that naruto helped too. i agree with this but at the same time i don’t. it’s not like she thanked sasuke. all she did was say his name,it really shouldn’t be a big deal. but to naruto it was like a thanks i’m guessing? and smoking not be banned essay, that’s what makes it significant? it would’ve been nice if she thanked him too then. i mean he also put an effort into saving her, why can’t she acknowledge him too? i like this panel. Case Method Definition! it’s a direct relation to critical thinking definition yahoo answers the past. when sakura always had to case method be saved by sasuke and essay sparknotes, naruto. when she was all SASUKE KUN and naruto was like PAY ATTENTION TO ME TOO and study definition, sasuke was like DON’T GET IN MY WAY USURATONKACHI. and when sakura was the negotiator- well she kinda was. so yeah imo this chapter was more team 7 than sasusaku. i liked sakura this chapter- she was amazing. Rainforest Speech! but the blush was a no no. nothing from sasuke except the study method, smirk. Deforestation! i won’t count the protection bc team 7 has supposedly returned to normal and normal for case study definition, them was caring about and marketing business each other’s well being. Method! kinda weird chapter again. no feels. fucking everyone wants to be hokage. i liked sakura’s speech. yeah that was nice. and her temporary badassness was nice. but it was against deforestation fodder. it just didn’t feel like it was suppose to be this magnificent moment. Case Study Definition! it was my dream to have sasuke and rebecca essays daphne du maurier, naruto fight something side by side after all this time.. but it feels empty and i don’t feel any excitement. kinda disappointing as a huge narsas fan. sasuke is actually protecting sakura instead of trying to kill her! this is progress for study method definition, this pairing. progress that i didn’t want to see. fight for rainforest deforestation speech, sakura chan’s love? (jk) i guess it was to show that team 7 and case method, all the aspects had returned. rivalry between naruto and sasuke, them protecting her. i was so hyped for this chapter. only to be let down.. Business Plan! i don’t have much anti ss to case method definition say.. these two will be in the same location for a while so i shouldn’t be surprised if kishi throws in some SS should i? i really don’t know what to expect anymore. there will probably be more “ss moments”. “I’m gonna go ahead and say it.
I was so mad when Hinata was right next to essay sparknotes Naruto and Sakura and case method, then Naruto says Sakuru is his girlfriend. HINATA SAID SHE LOVED YOU HELD YOUR HAND SAVED YOU FROM DARKNESS HAS MASSIVE BOOBS! IT WOULD HAVE BEEN SO AWESOME IF HE JUST SAID No my girlfriend is over essay on criticism analysis sparknotes, there points to hinata . And yet you still say Sakuru. Then to make it worse Minato says She reminds him of Kushina, Like WTF This is giving NaruSaku more legs and I don’t like it. NaruHina forever bitches!” lol i’m just gonna leave the study, last one there. can i just say that this was a glorious chapter for essay analysis, narusaku so enjoy it ns fans! anybody who completely denies the fact that there was ns this chapter should go fuck themselves btw. just wondering, what happened to study the emotional, heartfelt reunion?. seems Kishi has been rushing everything lately.. anyways to clear up the moments. the reason why sasuke addressed sakura was because she said sasukekun? then she asks a question so he answers it. he doesn’t seem to be so thrilled about talking to her imo. And Marketing Business Plan! he didn’t say anything to naruto because his appearance didn’t faze him. Case Method Definition! it’s as simple as that and it’s sad to think that these are considered moments by the ss fans you sad sad desperate people. Essays Du Maurier! I have come to conclude that sasuke could care less about sakura and her feelings for him. it’s a happy anti-sasusaku day for me because it’s been confirmed once again, SS is shit :D. don’t like sasukarin don’t read this last part.
sasuke has officially pissed me off for case study definition, once. Daphne! i know, his redemption didn’t mean he was going to get a personality change but the chapters before this made me forget about his douche side, since he hasn’t been acting like a huge asshole lately. Case Definition! I don’t know why his behavior irritated me so much. IDK. sasuke’s face was expressionless the whole time and he never said anything out of the thinking definition yahoo answers, ordinary. Study Method Definition! which made me think. back in chapter 627 sasuke was sweating around karin’s presence. he apologized right after seeing her and made that hilarious face! it’s NOW that I think about how ooc that was for rainforest, sasuke! that the fact that he apologized to her shouldn’t be brushed aside. he has come to the battlefield and yet he doesn’t give a shit about anyone there! he even says i don’t care what any of you think of me. karin didn’t get the idgaf treatment. he cares about method what karin thinks of cigarette smoking should banned essay, him, or else he wouldn’t have apologized. at least that’s my take on this. Case Study Method Definition! wtf just happened. sasuke said sakura’s name HOLY SHIT. sasusaku is canon! what do you mean “too much”? no really please explain to me. Essay On Criticism! why does this blog even concern you? why would you come to an anti blog and then complain? i never denied the chances. i think it would be pretty asspully if it were to happen though. he cared about her in case study method definition, the past, again, I never denied that. please do show me some evidence of that happening right now. there isn’t any;you’re only assuming. and plz nigga sasusaku is the rebecca essays, most absurd and overrated pairing in this fandom; of course it’s gonna get bashed. It’s filthy trash. you don’t know what has high chances and what doesn’t, neither do I. you can’t say sasukarin is case study definition, more impossible than sasusaku just cause you don’t like it. and you can’t see anything other than sasusaku because you refuse to accept it. and this has to go into why i like sk and hate ss.. AGAIN. “I support SasuKarin because I believe the two fit each other better than anyone else (of the opposite sex) can. It’s the cigarette banned, first time that a girl steps by Sasuke’s side to behave as his equal, and that on this shared ground Sasuke is so receptive. Not only that, but they’re good for each other; their usual dynamic was never detrimental to case method their respective character growths, behavior or objectives. “ face it, we have different perspectives on this matter.
I find what Sasuke and Karin had before he severed their bond to be more appealing than what Sasuke and Sakura had and you don’t. it’s about bachelor thesis grounded theory taste. i don’t ignore what sasuke did to karin. it was a horrible thing. I like this ship because I believe they can return to their usual dynamic, which i liked. if the same thing was to happen with sakura and sasuke, I would still hate it because I never liked it in the first place. again this is my opinion. Method! when you look at the facts though, what sasuke did to karin is and marketing business, no better than what he did to sakura, so you can’t defend ss with that excuse. and guess what karin still seems to like sasuke too! remember what you ss fans like to say? “as long as there is one party interested in another, there is always a chance of it happening” so going by that logic sk can happen RIGHTT :)? and guess what again! he’s coming to study method definition the battlefield and karin is tagging along! I am so guaranteed a sk moment RIGHT?@??@?@ sasusaku fans think that since sakura has matured since part 1 their relationship will be different. On Criticism! sasuke will realize how strong and study definition, sophisticated she has become and thus fall in yahoo answers, love with her!! cough and case definition, she was fangirling over RTN sasuke in the movie. but that’s just a movie after all. i can’t help but laugh at the people who are somehow connecting sakura’s recent panel time to sasuke coming to sales business the battlefield, in the sense that it’s leading to a sasusaku moment. i don’t think they’re reading the same manga we are, since they clearly haven’t noticed she’s only been thinking
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The Case Study as a Research Method - UT iSchool
Global Warming's Terrifying New Math. Three simple numbers that add up to global catastrophe - and that make clear who the case study method, real enemy is. If the cigarette smoking not be, pictures of those towering wildfires in Colorado haven't convinced you, or the size of case your AC bill this summer, here are some hard numbers about climate change: June broke or tied 3,215 high-temperature records across the United States. Daphne. That followed the warmest May on record for the Northern Hemisphere #x2013; the case, 327th consecutive month in which the temperature of the entire globe exceeded the and marketing plan, 20th-century average, the odds of which occurring by simple chance were 3.7 x 10-99, a number considerably larger than the number of stars in method definition the universe. Meteorologists reported that this spring was the warmest ever recorded for our nation #x2013; in fact, it crushed the old record by so much that it represented the largest temperature departure from critical thinking yahoo average of case definition any season on record. Rainforest Speech. The same week, Saudi authorities reported that it had rained in Mecca despite a temperature of 109 degrees, the hottest downpour in the planet's history. Not that our leaders seemed to case study method definition, notice. Last month the world's nations, meeting in Rio for not be the 20th-anniversary reprise of case method definition a massive 1992 environmental summit, accomplished nothing. Unlike George H.W.
Bush, who flew in for the first conclave, Barack Obama didn't even attend. It was a ghost of the glad, confident meeting 20 years ago, the British journalist George Monbiot wrote; no one paid it much attention, footsteps echoing through the halls once thronged by multitudes. Since I wrote one of the first books for a general audience about global warming way back in 1989, and since I've spent the critical definition answers, intervening decades working ineffectively to slow that warming, I can say with some confidence that we're losing the fight, badly and quickly #x2013; losing it because, most of all, we remain in denial about the peril that human civilization is in. When we think about global warming at case all, the arguments tend to be ideological, theological and bachelor grounded theory, economic. Case Study Method. But to grasp the seriousness of our predicament, you just need to do a little math.
For the past year, an easy and definition yahoo answers, powerful bit of arithmetical analysis first published by financial analysts in the U.K. has been making the rounds of environmental conferences and journals, but it hasn't yet broken through to case study method definition, the larger public. This analysis upends most of the conventional political thinking about cigarette not be banned climate change. And it allows us to understand our precarious #x2013; our almost-but-not-quite-finally hopeless #x2013; position with three simple numbers. I f the study method, movie had ended in Hollywood fashion, the Copenhagen climate conference in 2009 would have marked the bachelor grounded, culmination of the global fight to slow a changing climate. The world's nations had gathered in study definition the December gloom of the Danish capital for what a leading climate economist, Sir Nicholas Stern of Britain, called the most important gathering since the Second World War, given what is at stake.
As Danish energy minister Connie Hedegaard, who presided over the conference, declared at the time: This is and marketing business plan our chance. If we miss it, it could take years before we get a new and better one. If ever. In the event, of course, we missed it. Study Definition. Copenhagen failed spectacularly. Neither China nor the cigarette smoking should banned, United States, which between them are responsible for 40 percent of global carbon emissions, was prepared to offer dramatic concessions, and so the conference drifted aimlessly for study two weeks until world leaders jetted in for the final day.
Amid considerable chaos, President Obama took the lead in essay on criticism sparknotes drafting a face-saving Copenhagen Accord that fooled very few. Its purely voluntary agreements committed no one to anything, and case study definition, even if countries signaled their intentions to cut carbon emissions, there was no enforcement mechanism. Copenhagen is analysis a crime scene tonight, an angry Greenpeace official declared, with the case definition, guilty men and women fleeing to the airport. Analysis Sparknotes. Headline writers were equally brutal: COPENHAGEN: THE MUNICH OF OUR TIMES? asked one. The accord did contain one important number, however. In Paragraph 1, it formally recognized the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below two degrees Celsius.
And in the very next paragraph, it declared that we agree that deep cuts in study definition global emissions are required. so as to hold the increase in global temperature below two degrees Celsius. By insisting on two degrees #x2013; about 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit #x2013; the and marketing business plan, accord ratified positions taken earlier in 2009 by the G8, and the so-called Major Economies Forum. It was as conventional as conventional wisdom gets. The number first gained prominence, in fact, at a 1995 climate conference chaired by case study method, Angela Merkel, then the German minister of the environment and now the critical thinking answers, center-right chancellor of the nation. Some context: So far, we've raised the average temperature of the planet just under 0.8 degrees Celsius, and study method definition, that has caused far more damage than most scientists expected. (A third of summer sea ice in cigarette the Arctic is gone, the oceans are 30 percent more acidic, and since warm air holds more water vapor than cold, the atmosphere over the oceans is a shocking five percent wetter, loading the dice for devastating floods.) Given those impacts, in fact, many scientists have come to think that two degrees is case method definition far too lenient a target.
Any number much above one degree involves a gamble, writes Kerry Emanuel of MIT, a leading authority on hurricanes, and the odds become less and less favorable as the temperature goes up. Thomas Lovejoy, once the cigarette smoking not be banned, World Bank's chief biodiversity adviser, puts it like this: If we're seeing what we're seeing today at 0.8 degrees Celsius, two degrees is simply too much. NASA scientist James Hansen, the planet's most prominent climatologist, is even blunter: The target that has been talked about in international negotiations for two degrees of warming is actually a prescription for case definition long-term disaster. At the Copenhagen summit, a spokesman for small island nations warned that many would not survive a two-degree rise: Some countries will flat-out disappear. When delegates from developing nations were warned that two degrees would represent a suicide pact for drought-stricken Africa, many of them started chanting, One degree, one Africa. Despite such well-founded misgivings, political realism bested scientific data, and the world settled on the two-degree target #x2013; indeed, it's fair to say that it's the only thing about climate change the world has settled on. All told, 167 countries responsible for more than 87 percent of the world's carbon emissions have signed on on criticism sparknotes to the Copenhagen Accord, endorsing the two-degree target. Only a few dozen countries have rejected it, including Kuwait, Nicaragua and Venezuela.
Even the United Arab Emirates, which makes most of its money exporting oil and gas, signed on. The official position of planet Earth at the moment is that we can't raise the temperature more than two degrees Celsius #x2013; it's become the study method, bottomest of bottom lines. Two degrees. The Second Number: 565 Gigatons. S cientists estimate that humans can pour roughly 565 more gigatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by midcentury and still have some reasonable hope of staying below two degrees. (Reasonable, in rainforest speech this case, means four chances in five, or somewhat worse odds than playing Russian roulette with a six-shooter.) This idea of a global carbon budget emerged about a decade ago, as scientists began to calculate how much oil, coal and gas could still safely be burned. Since we've increased the Earth's temperature by 0.8 degrees so far, we're currently less than halfway to the target. But, in fact, computer models calculate that even if we stopped increasing CO 2 now, the temperature would likely still rise another 0.8 degrees, as previously released carbon continues to overheat the study method definition, atmosphere. That means we're already three-quarters of the way to the two-degree target. How good are these numbers?
No one is insisting that they're exact, but few dispute that they're generally right. Rebecca Du Maurier. The 565-gigaton figure was derived from one of the case study method definition, most sophisticated computer-simulation models that have been built by climate scientists around the world over the past few decades. And the number is being further confirmed by the latest climate-simulation models currently being finalized in advance of the next report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Essays Daphne Du Maurier. Looking at them as they come in, they hardly differ at all, says Tom Wigley, an study definition Australian climatologist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Analysis Sparknotes. There's maybe 40 models in case study method definition the data set now, compared with 20 before. But so far the numbers are pretty much the same. We're just fine-tuning things. I don't think much has changed over critical, the last decade.
William Collins, a senior climate scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agrees. Case Method Definition. I think the results of this round of simulations will be quite similar, he says. We're not getting any free lunch from additional understanding of the climate system. We're not getting any free lunch from the world's economies, either. With only a single year's lull in 2009 at the height of the financial crisis, we've continued to pour record amounts of analysis sparknotes carbon into case study the atmosphere, year after year. In late May, the International Energy Agency published its latest figures #x2013; CO 2 emissions last year rose to 31.6 gigatons, up 3.2 percent from the year before. America had a warm winter and converted more coal-fired power plants to natural gas, so its emissions fell slightly; China kept booming, so its carbon output (which recently surpassed the U.S.) rose 9.3 percent; the Japanese shut down their fleet of nukes post-Fukushima, so their emissions edged up 2.4 percent. There have been efforts to use more renewable energy and improve energy efficiency, said Corinne Le Qu#xE9;r#xE9;, who runs England's Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. But what this shows is that so far the effects have been marginal.
In fact, study after study predicts that carbon emissions will keep growing by roughly three percent a year #x2013; and at bachelor thesis that rate, we'll blow through our 565-gigaton allowance in 16 years, around the method, time today's preschoolers will be graduating from high school. Cigarette Smoking Essay. The new data provide further evidence that the door to a two-degree trajectory is about to close, said Fatih Birol, the IEA's chief economist. In fact, he continued, When I look at this data, the method, trend is perfectly in line with a temperature increase of about six degrees. That's almost 11 degrees Fahrenheit, which would create a planet straight out of science fiction. So, new data in hand, everyone at the Rio conference renewed their ritual calls for cigarette not be essay serious international action to case study, move us back to a two-degree trajectory. The charade will continue in plan November, when the next Conference of the Parties (COP) of the U.N.
Framework Convention on Climate Change convenes in Qatar. This will be COP 18 #x2013; COP 1 was held in method Berlin in 1995, and since then the process has accomplished essentially nothing. Thinking Definition Yahoo. Even scientists, who are notoriously reluctant to method definition, speak out, are slowly overcoming their natural preference to cigarette smoking should not be banned essay, simply provide data. Definition. The message has been consistent for close to 30 years now, Collins says with a wry laugh, and we have the bachelor thesis grounded, instrumentation and the computer power required to present the evidence in detail. If we choose to continue on our present course of action, it should be done with a full evaluation of the evidence the scientific community has presented. He pauses, suddenly conscious of being on the record. I should say, a fuller evaluation of the case study method, evidence. So far, though, such calls have had little effect.
We're in deforestation speech the same position we've been in for a quarter-century: scientific warning followed by political inaction. Among scientists speaking off the record, disgusted candor is the rule. One senior scientist told me, You know those new cigarette packs, where governments make them put a picture of someone with a hole in their throats? Gas pumps should have something like that. The Third Number: 2,795 Gigatons. T his number is the scariest of all #x2013; one that, for study definition the first time, meshes the political and scientific dimensions of cigarette should our dilemma. Definition. It was highlighted last summer by the Carbon Tracker Initiative, a team of London financial analysts and cigarette smoking should not be banned, environmentalists who published a report in an effort to educate investors about the possible risks that climate change poses to their stock portfolios. The number describes the amount of study method definition carbon already contained in the proven coal and oil and sales and marketing, gas reserves of the fossil-fuel companies, and the countries (think Venezuela or Kuwait) that act like fossil-fuel companies. In short, it's the fossil fuel we're currently planning to burn. And the key point is that this new number #x2013; 2,795 #x2013; is higher than 565. Five times higher.
The Carbon Tracker Initiative #x2013; led by James Leaton, an case study method environmentalist who served as an adviser at the accounting giant PricewaterhouseCoopers #x2013; combed through proprietary databases to figure out rebecca, how much oil, gas and coal the world's major energy companies hold in reserve. The numbers aren't perfect #x2013; they don't fully reflect the recent surge in unconventional energy sources like shale gas, and study method, they don't accurately reflect coal reserves, which are subject to less stringent reporting requirements than oil and gas. But for analysis sparknotes the biggest companies, the figures are quite exact: If you burned everything in the inventories of Russia's Lukoil and America's ExxonMobil, for instance, which lead the list of oil and gas companies, each would release more than 40 gigatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Which is exactly why this new number, 2,795 gigatons, is such a big deal. Think of two degrees Celsius as the legal drinking limit #x2013; equivalent to the 0.08 blood-alcohol level below which you might get away with driving home. The 565 gigatons is how many drinks you could have and still stay below that limit #x2013; the six beers, say, you might consume in an evening. Definition. And the 2,795 gigatons? That's the three 12-packs the fossil-fuel industry has on the table, already opened and deforestation, ready to pour.
We have five times as much oil and coal and gas on case study method definition the books as climate scientists think is safe to essay on criticism analysis sparknotes, burn. We'd have to method, keep 80 percent of and marketing those reserves locked away underground to avoid that fate. Before we knew those numbers, our fate had been likely. Now, barring some massive intervention, it seems certain. Yes, this coal and gas and oil is still technically in the soil. But it's already economically aboveground #x2013; it's figured into share prices, companies are borrowing money against method definition it, nations are basing their budgets on the presumed returns from their patrimony. It explains why the big fossil-fuel companies have fought so hard to prevent the regulation of cigarette smoking banned carbon dioxide #x2013; those reserves are their primary asset, the holding that gives their companies their value. It's why they've worked so hard these past years to case definition, figure out how to unlock the oil in grounded theory Canada's tar sands, or how to drill miles beneath the sea, or how to frack the Appalachians. If you told Exxon or Lukoil that, in order to avoid wrecking the case study method definition, climate, they couldn't pump out essays, their reserves, the value of their companies would plummet. John Fullerton, a former managing director at JP Morgan who now runs the Capital Institute, calculates that at today's market value, those 2,795 gigatons of carbon emissions are worth about $27 trillion. Which is to say, if you paid attention to the scientists and kept 80 percent of it underground, you'd be writing off $20 trillion in assets.
The numbers aren't exact, of course, but that carbon bubble makes the housing bubble look small by comparison. It won't necessarily burst #x2013; we might well burn all that carbon, in which case investors will do fine. But if we do, the case, planet will crater. You can have a healthy fossil-fuel balance sheet, or a relatively healthy planet #x2013; but now that we know the numbers, it looks like you can't have both. Rainforest Deforestation. Do the math: 2,795 is five times 565. Case. That's how the story ends. S o far, as I said at rebecca essays the start, environmental efforts to tackle global warming have failed. The planet's emissions of case study carbon dioxide continue to soar, especially as developing countries emulate (and supplant) the industries of the smoking, West. Study Definition. Even in rich countries, small reductions in cigarette smoking should banned emissions offer no sign of the real break with the status quo we'd need to upend the iron logic of these three numbers. Germany is one of the only big countries that has actually tried hard to change its energy mix; on case method one sunny Saturday in late May, that northern-latitude nation generated nearly half its power from solar panels within its borders.
That's a small miracle #x2013; and it demonstrates that we have the technology to speech, solve our problems. But we lack the will. So far, Germany's the exception; the study method, rule is daphne ever more carbon. This record of failure means we know a lot about case study definition what strategies don't work. Bachelor Thesis Grounded Theory. Green groups, for instance, have spent a lot of time trying to change individual lifestyles: the case method definition, iconic twisty light bulb has been installed by the millions, but so have a new generation of energy-sucking flatscreen TVs. Most of us are fundamentally ambivalent about going green: We like cheap flights to rainforest speech, warm places, and study definition, we're certainly not going to give them up if everyone else is still taking them. Since all of us are in some way the beneficiaries of cheap fossil fuel, tackling climate change has been like trying to build a movement against yourself #x2013; it's as if the gay-rights movement had to rainforest, be constructed entirely from evangelical preachers, or the abolition movement from slaveholders. People perceive #x2013; correctly #x2013; that their individual actions will not make a decisive difference in the atmospheric concentration of study method definition CO2; by 2010, a poll found that while recycling is widespread in America and 73 percent of those polled are paying bills online in order to rebecca du maurier, save paper, only four percent had reduced their utility use and only three percent had purchased hybrid cars. Given a hundred years, you could conceivably change lifestyles enough to matter #x2013; but time is precisely what we lack.
A more efficient method, of course, would be to work through the political system, and environmentalists have tried that, too, with the same limited success. They've patiently lobbied leaders, trying to convince them of our peril and case study definition, assuming that politicians would heed the warnings. Sometimes it has seemed to rebecca, work. Barack Obama, for instance, campaigned more aggressively about climate change than any president before him #x2013; the night he won the nomination, he told supporters that his election would mark the moment the rise of the oceans began to study method, slow and the planet began to heal. And he has achieved one significant change: a steady increase in the fuel efficiency mandated for automobiles. It's the kind of measure, adopted a quarter-century ago, that would have helped enormously. Definition Answers. But in light of the numbers I've just described, it's obviously a very small start indeed. At this point, effective action would require actually keeping most of the carbon the fossil-fuel industry wants to burn safely in the soil, not just changing slightly the speed at which it's burned. And there the case study method definition, president, apparently haunted by grounded theory, the still-echoing cry of study definition Drill, baby, drill, has gone out of his way to business plan, frack and mine. His secretary of interior, for instance, opened up a huge swath of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming for coal extraction: The total basin contains some 67.5 gigatons worth of carbon (or more than 10 percent of the available atmospheric space).
He's doing the study method definition, same thing with Arctic and offshore drilling; in cigarette smoking should not be banned fact, as he explained on the stump in case study March, You have my word that we will keep drilling everywhere we can. That's a commitment that I make. The next day, in a yard full of oil pipe in rainforest Cushing, Oklahoma, the president promised to study definition, work on wind and solar energy but, at the same time, to bachelor grounded theory, speed up fossil-fuel development: Producing more oil and gas here at home has been, and case study method definition, will continue to be, a critical part of an all-of-the-above energy strategy. That is, he's committed to finding even more stock to add to essay on criticism analysis, the 2,795-gigaton inventory of unburned carbon. Sometimes the irony is almost Borat-scale obvious: In early June, Secretary of method State Hillary Clinton traveled on a Norwegian research trawler to cigarette should essay, see firsthand the growing damage from climate change. Many of the study method, predictions about speech warming in the Arctic are being surpassed by the actual data, she said, describing the case method, sight as sobering. Rainforest Deforestation. But the discussions she traveled to Scandinavia to have with other foreign ministers were mostly about how to make sure Western nations get their share of the estimated $9 trillion in oil (that's more than 90 billion barrels, or 37 gigatons of carbon) that will become accessible as the case study method, Arctic ice melts. Last month, the Obama administration indicated that it would give Shell permission to start drilling in sections of the Arctic.
Almost every government with deposits of hydrocarbons straddles the same divide. Canada, for instance, is a liberal democracy renowned for bachelor its internationalism #x2013; no wonder, then, that it signed on to the Kyoto treaty, promising to cut its carbon emissions substantially by 2012. But the study definition, rising price of oil suddenly made the deforestation speech, tar sands of Alberta economically attractive #x2013; and since, as NASA climatologist James Hansen pointed out in May, they contain as much as 240 gigatons of case method carbon (or almost half of the on criticism, available space if we take the 565 limit seriously), that meant Canada's commitment to Kyoto was nonsense. In December, the Canadian government withdrew from the treaty before it faced fines for failing to meet its commitments. The same kind of hypocrisy applies across the ideological board: In his speech to the Copenhagen conference, Venezuela's Hugo Chavez quoted Rosa Luxemburg, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Christ the Redeemer, insisting that climate change is undoubtedly the most devastating environmental problem of this century. But the next spring, in the Simon Bolivar Hall of the state-run oil company, he signed an agreement with a consortium of international players to develop the vast Orinoco tar sands as the most significant engine for a comprehensive development of the entire territory and Venezuelan population.
The Orinoco deposits are larger than Alberta's #x2013; taken together, they'd fill up the whole available atmospheric space. S o: the paths we have tried to study method, tackle global warming have so far produced only gradual, halting shifts. A rapid, transformative change would require building a movement, and movements require enemies. As John F. Kennedy put it, The civil rights movement should thank God for rainforest deforestation speech Bull Connor. Study Method. He's helped it as much as Abraham Lincoln.
And enemies are what climate change has lacked. But what all these climate numbers make painfully, usefully clear is that the planet does indeed have an enemy #x2013; one far more committed to action than governments or individuals. Given this hard math, we need to sparknotes, view the fossil-fuel industry in a new light. It has become a rogue industry, reckless like no other force on Earth. It is Public Enemy Number One to the survival of study our planetary civilization. Lots of companies do rotten things in du maurier the course of their business #x2013; pay terrible wages, make people work in sweatshops #x2013; and we pressure them to change those practices, says veteran anti-corporate leader Naomi Klein, who is at case study method work on a book about the climate crisis. Cigarette Smoking Not Be Essay. But these numbers make clear that with the fossil-fuel industry, wrecking the planet is their business model. It's what they do. According to the Carbon Tracker report, if Exxon burns its current reserves, it would use up more than seven percent of the available atmospheric space between us and the risk of two degrees. BP is just behind, followed by the Russian firm Gazprom, then Chevron, ConocoPhillips and Shell, each of case which would fill between three and essay analysis, four percent. Taken together, just these six firms, of the 200 listed in the Carbon Tracker report, would use up more than a quarter of the remaining two-degree budget.
Severstal, the Russian mining giant, leads the list of method coal companies, followed by rainforest deforestation speech, firms like BHP Billiton and Peabody. The numbers are simply staggering #x2013; this industry, and case study, this industry alone, holds the power to change the physics and chemistry of our planet, and they're planning to use it. They're clearly cognizant of bachelor grounded theory global warming #x2013; they employ some of the world's best scientists, after all, and they're bidding on all those oil leases made possible by the staggering melt of Arctic ice. And yet they relentlessly search for more hydrocarbons #x2013; in early March, Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson told Wall Street analysts that the study method definition, company plans to spend $37 billion a year through 2016 (about $100 million a day) searching for yet more oil and gas. There's not a more reckless man on the planet than Tillerson. Late last month, on the same day the sales plan, Colorado fires reached their height, he told a New York audience that global warming is real, but dismissed it as an engineering problem that has engineering solutions. Such as? Changes to weather patterns that move crop-production areas around #x2013; we'll adapt to case study method definition, that. Essay Analysis. This in a week when Kentucky farmers were reporting that corn kernels were aborting in record heat, threatening a spike in global food prices. The fear factor that people want to throw out there to say, 'We just have to stop this,' I do not accept, Tillerson said.
Of course not #x2013; if he did accept it, he'd have to keep his reserves in the ground. Which would cost him money. It's not an engineering problem, in other words #x2013; it's a greed problem. You could argue that this is simply in the nature of these companies #x2013; that having found a profitable vein, they're compelled to keep mining it, more like efficient automatons than people with free will. But as the Supreme Court has made clear, they are people of a sort. In fact, thanks to the size of its bankroll, the fossil-fuel industry has far more free will than the rest of us.
These companies don't simply exist in a world whose hungers they fulfill #x2013; they help create the boundaries of case study method that world. Left to smoking should banned essay, our own devices, citizens might decide to study method definition, regulate carbon and stop short of the brink; according to a recent poll, nearly two-thirds of Americans would back an international agreement that cut carbon emissions 90 percent by 2050. Plan. But we aren't left to method, our own devices. The Koch brothers, for cigarette should not be essay instance, have a combined wealth of $50 billion, meaning they trail only Bill Gates on case the list of richest Americans. They've made most of their money in hydrocarbons, they know any system to regulate carbon would cut those profits, and they reportedly plan to lavish as much as $200 million on bachelor thesis theory this year's elections. Case Study Definition. In 2009, for the first time, the U.S. Sparknotes. Chamber of Commerce surpassed both the Republican and Democratic National Committees on case definition political spending; the following year, more than 90 percent of the speech, Chamber's cash went to GOP candidates, many of whom deny the existence of global warming.
Not long ago, the Chamber even filed a brief with the EPA urging the agency not to regulate carbon #x2013; should the world's scientists turn out to be right and the planet heats up, the Chamber advised, populations can acclimatize to case, warmer climates via a range of analysis behavioral, physiological and case, technological adaptations. As radical goes, demanding that we change our physiology seems right up there. Environmentalists, understandably, have been loath to thesis theory, make the fossil-fuel industry their enemy, respecting its political power and hoping instead to convince these giants that they should turn away from coal, oil and gas and transform themselves more broadly into case study energy companies. Bachelor Grounded Theory. Sometimes that strategy appeared to be working #x2013; emphasis on case study appeared. Around the rebecca essays du maurier, turn of the century, for instance, BP made a brief attempt to restyle itself as Beyond Petroleum, adapting a logo that looked like the sun and sticking solar panels on some of its gas stations. But its investments in alternative energy were never more than a tiny fraction of its budget for hydrocarbon exploration, and method, after a few years, many of those were wound down as new CEOs insisted on returning to thesis grounded, the company's core business. In December, BP finally closed its solar division. Study Method Definition. Shell shut down its solar and wind efforts in definition answers 2009. The five biggest oil companies have made more than $1 trillion in profits since the millennium #x2013; there's simply too much money to study, be made on oil and gas and coal to essay on criticism analysis sparknotes, go chasing after zephyrs and sunbeams. Much of that profit stems from a single historical accident: Alone among businesses, the fossil-fuel industry is study definition allowed to dump its main waste, carbon dioxide, for free. Nobody else gets that break #x2013; if you own a restaurant, you have to pay someone to cart away your trash, since piling it in the street would breed rats.
But the fossil-fuel industry is different, and for essay on criticism sparknotes sound historical reasons: Until a quarter-century ago, almost no one knew that CO2 was dangerous. But now that we understand that carbon is heating the planet and acidifying the oceans, its price becomes the central issue. If you put a price on carbon, through a direct tax or other methods, it would enlist markets in the fight against global warming. Once Exxon has to pay for the damage its carbon is study definition doing to the atmosphere, the price of its products would rise. Consumers would get a strong signal to use less fossil fuel #x2013; every time they stopped at grounded theory the pump, they'd be reminded that you don't need a semimilitary vehicle to case, go to the grocery store. The economic playing field would now be a level one for nonpolluting energy sources. And you could do it all without bankrupting citizens #x2013; a so-called fee-and-dividend scheme would put a hefty tax on coal and gas and oil, then simply divide up the proceeds, sending everyone in the country a check each month for thesis their share of the added costs of carbon.
By switching to cleaner energy sources, most people would actually come out ahead. There's only one problem: Putting a price on carbon would reduce the profitability of the fossil-fuel industry. After all, the answer to the question How high should the price of carbon be? is High enough to keep those carbon reserves that would take us past two degrees safely in the ground. The higher the price on carbon, the more of those reserves would be worthless. The fight, in the end, is method definition about whether the industry will succeed in its fight to keep its special pollution break alive past the point of climate catastrophe, or whether, in the economists' parlance, we'll make them internalize those externalities. I t's not clear, of course, that the critical thinking yahoo, power of the case definition, fossil-fuel industry can be broken. On Criticism Sparknotes. The U.K. analysts who wrote the Carbon Tracker report and drew attention to these numbers had a relatively modest goal #x2013; they simply wanted to remind investors that climate change poses a very real risk to the stock prices of energy companies. Say something so big finally happens (a giant hurricane swamps Manhattan, a megadrought wipes out Midwest agriculture) that even the political power of the industry is study definition inadequate to bachelor theory, restrain legislators, who manage to regulate carbon. Suddenly those Chevron reserves would be a lot less valuable, and the stock would tank. Given that risk, the Carbon Tracker report warned investors to lessen their exposure, hedge it with some big plays in alternative energy. The regular process of study economic evolution is critical thinking definition yahoo answers that businesses are left with stranded assets all the time, says Nick Robins, who runs HSBC's Climate Change Centre.
Think of film cameras, or typewriters. The question is not whether this will happen. It will. Pension systems have been hit by the dot-com and credit crunch. They'll be hit by this. Still, it hasn't been easy to convince investors, who have shared in the oil industry's record profits. The reason you get bubbles, sighs Leaton, is that everyone thinks they're the best analyst #x2013; that they'll go to the edge of the cliff and then jump back when everyone else goes over. So pure self-interest probably won't spark a transformative challenge to fossil fuel.
But moral outrage just might #x2013; and that's the real meaning of this new math. Method. It could, plausibly, give rise to a real movement. Once, in sales business recent corporate history, anger forced an case method industry to make basic changes. Should Not Be Banned. That was the campaign in the 1980s demanding divestment from companies doing business in South Africa. It rose first on college campuses and then spread to study, municipal and state governments; 155 campuses eventually divested, and by the end of the decade, more than 80 cities, 25 states and on criticism analysis, 19 counties had taken some form of binding economic action against case companies connected to the apartheid regime. The end of apartheid stands as one of the essays, crowning accomplishments of the past century, as Archbishop Desmond Tutu put it, but we would not have succeeded without the study method, help of banned essay international pressure, especially from the study definition, divestment movement of the 1980s. The fossil-fuel industry is obviously a tougher opponent, and even if you could force the hand of particular companies, you'd still have to figure out a strategy for dealing with all the essay sparknotes, sovereign nations that, in effect, act as fossil-fuel companies.
But the link for college students is even more obvious in case this case. If their college's endowment portfolio has fossil-fuel stock, then their educations are being subsidized by investments that guarantee they won't have much of a planet on thinking definition answers which to make use of their degree. (The same logic applies to the world's largest investors, pension funds, which are also theoretically interested in the future #x2013; that's when their members will enjoy their retirement.) Given the severity of the climate crisis, a comparable demand that our institutions dump stock from companies that are destroying the planet would not only be appropriate but effective, says Bob Massie, a former anti-apartheid activist who helped found the Investor Network on Climate Risk. The message is simple: We have had enough. We must sever the ties with those who profit from case method climate change #x2013; now. Movements rarely have predictable outcomes. Not Be Essay. But any campaign that weakens the fossil-fuel industry's political standing clearly increases the chances of case study method retiring its special breaks. Consider President Obama's signal achievement in the climate fight, the large increase he won in mileage requirements for cars. Scientists, environmentalists and engineers had advocated such policies for decades, but until Detroit came under severe financial pressure, it was politically powerful enough to fend them off. If people come to understand the cigarette smoking not be, cold, mathematical truth #x2013; that the fossil-fuel industry is systematically undermining the planet's physical systems #x2013; it might weaken it enough to matter politically. Exxon and their ilk might drop their opposition to a fee-and-dividend solution; they might even decide to become true energy companies, this time for study method definition real.
Even if such a campaign is possible, however, we may have waited too long to start it. To make a real difference #x2013; to keep us under a temperature increase of two degrees #x2013; you'd need to change carbon pricing in cigarette smoking Washington, and then use that victory to leverage similar shifts around the world. At this point, what happens in the U.S. is most important for how it will influence China and India, where emissions are growing fastest. (In early June, researchers concluded that China has probably under-reported its emissions by up to 20 percent.) The three numbers I've described are daunting #x2013; they may define an essentially impossible future. But at least they provide intellectual clarity about the greatest challenge humans have ever faced. We know how much we can burn, and we know who's planning to method definition, burn more. Sparknotes. Climate change operates on study a geological scale and time frame, but it's not an impersonal force of nature; the more carefully you do the math, the rainforest speech, more thoroughly you realize that this is, at bottom, a moral issue; we have met the enemy and they is method Shell. Meanwhile the not be essay, tide of case definition numbers continues. The week after the Rio conference limped to its conclusion, Arctic sea ice hit the lowest level ever recorded for on criticism analysis that date. Last month, on a single weekend, Tropical Storm Debby dumped more than 20 inches of rain on Florida #x2013; the earliest the season's fourth-named cyclone has ever arrived. At the same time, the largest fire in New Mexico history burned on, and the most destructive fire in Colorado's annals claimed 346 homes in Colorado Springs #x2013; breaking a record set the week before in Fort Collins. This month, scientists issued a new study concluding that global warming has dramatically increased the likelihood of severe heat and study method definition, drought #x2013; days after a heat wave across the Plains and Midwest broke records that had stood since the cigarette should banned essay, Dust Bowl, threatening this year's harvest.
You want a big number? In the course of case this month, a quadrillion kernels of corn need to pollinate across the grain belt, something they can't do if temperatures remain off the charts. Rebecca Essays Du Maurier. Just like us, our crops are adapted to the Holocene, the 11,000-year period of case study definition climatic stability we're now leaving. in the dust. This story is from the August 2nd, 2012 issue of cigarette smoking not be banned Rolling Stone. Sign up for our newsletter to receive breaking news directly in your inbox.
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conclusion chapter The Origin of Species. Chapter 14: Recapitulation and Conclusion. by Charles Darwin. Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection - Recapitulation of the general and case method definition, special circumstances in its favour - Causes of the definition yahoo answers general belief in the immutability of species - How far the theory of natural selection may be extended - Effects of its adoption on case study method definition, the study of Natural history - Concluding remarks. s this whole volume is yahoo one long argument, it may be convenient to the reader to have the case study method definition leading facts and inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor. Nevertheless, this difficulty, though appearing to our imagination insuperably great, cannot be considered real if we admit the following propositions, namely, -- that gradations in the perfection of any organ or instinct, which we may consider, either do now exist or could have existed, each good of its kind, -- that all organs and instincts are, in ever so slight a degree, variable, -- and, lastly, that there is a struggle for critical answers, existence leading to the preservation of each profitable deviation of case study method definition structure or instinct.
The truth of sales these propositions cannot, I think, be disputed. It is, no doubt, extremely difficult even to conjecture by what gradations many structures have been perfected, more especially amongst broken and failing groups of case method definition organic beings; but we see so many strange gradations in nature, as is essay analysis sparknotes proclaimed by the canon, `Natura non facit saltum,' that we ought to be extremely cautious in saying that any organ or instinct, or any whole being, could not have arrived at its present state by many graduated steps. There are, it must be admitted, cases of special difficulty on the theory of natural selection; and case method, one of the most curious of these is the existence of two or three defined castes of and marketing workers or sterile females in the same community of case method definition ants but I have attempted to show how this difficulty can be mastered. With respect to the almost universal sterility of species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to the recapitulation of the facts given at the end of the eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is rebecca essays no more a special endowment than is the case method definition incapacity of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is incidental on constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species. We see the truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in critical definition the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the case study method definition father and then as the mother. The fertility of essays varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified. Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to case eliminate sterility, we ought not to expect it also to produce sterility. The sterility of hybrids is thinking answers a very different case from that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in first crosses the study organs on both sides are in a perfect condition. As we continually see that organisms of all kinds are rendered in cigarette smoking should not be banned some degree sterile from their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at hybrids being in some degree sterile, for study method definition, their constitutions can hardly fail to should not be essay have been disturbed from being compounded of two distinct organisations.
This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in their conditions of life, and that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and fertility. So that, on case study definition, the one hand, considerable changes in cigarette not be essay the conditions of life and study method, crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of descent with modification are grave enough. All the individuals of the rainforest deforestation same species, and all the species of the same genus, or even higher group, must have descended from common parents; and therefore, in however distant and isolated parts of the world they are now found, they must in the course of successive generations have passed from some one part to the others. We are often wholly unable even to conjecture how this could have been effected. Yet, as we have reason to believe that some species have retained the same specific form for very long periods, enormously long as measured by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the occasional wide diffusion of the same species; for during very long periods of time there will always be a good chance for wide migration by many means. A broken or interrupted range may often be accounted for study, by the rainforest speech extinction of the species in the intermediate regions. Study Method Definition! It cannot be denied that we are as yet very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of the same genus inhabiting very distant and isolated regions, as the and marketing business plan process of modification has necessarily been slow, all the means of migration will have been possible during a very long period; and consequently the difficulty of the wide diffusion of case definition species of the same genus is in some degree lessened.
As on the theory of natural selection an interminable number of intermediate forms must have existed, linking together all the species in each group by gradations as fine as our present varieties, it may be asked, Why do we not see these linking forms all around us? Why are not all organic beings blended together in an inextricable chaos? With respect to existing forms, we should remember that we have no right to expect (excepting in bachelor thesis grounded theory rare cases) to discover directly connecting links between them, but only between each and some extinct and supplanted form. Even on a wide area, which has during a long period remained continuous, and of which the climate and other conditions of life change insensibly in going from a district occupied by study method, one species into another district occupied by a closely allied species, we have no just right to expect often to find intermediate varieties in the intermediate zone. For we have reason to believe that only a few species are undergoing change at any one period; and sales and marketing, all changes are slowly effected.
I have also shown that the intermediate varieties which will at first probably exist in the intermediate zones, will be liable to be supplanted by the allied forms on either hand; and the latter, from existing in greater numbers, will generally be modified and improved at a quicker rate than the intermediate varieties, which exist in case study definition lesser numbers; so that the intermediate varieties will, in the long run, be supplanted and exterminated. On this doctrine of the extermination of an bachelor theory infinitude of connecting links, between the living and extinct inhabitants of the world, and at each successive period between the study method definition extinct and still older species, why is not every geological formation charged with such links? Why does not every collection of thesis fossil remains afford plain evidence of the case study gradation and sales and marketing business, mutation of the forms of life? We meet with no such evidence, and this is the most obvious and forcible of the many objections which may be urged against case study method definition my theory. Why, again, do whole groups of allied species appear, though certainly they often falsely appear, to have come in suddenly on the several geological stages? Why do we not find great piles of strata beneath the Silurian system, stored with the remains of the progenitors of the sales and marketing business Silurian groups of fossils? For certainly on my theory such strata must somewhere have been deposited at these ancient and utterly unknown epochs in the world's history.
I can answer these questions and grave objections only on the supposition that the study geological record is far more imperfect than most geologists believe. It cannot be objected that there has not been time sufficient for any amount of organic change; for the lapse of time has been so great as to be utterly inappreciable by the human intellect. The number of specimens in all our museums is absolutely as nothing compared with the countless generations of countless species which certainly have existed. We should not be able to recognise a species as the parent of any one or more species if we were to examine them ever so closely, unless we likewise possessed many of the yahoo answers intermediate links between their past or parent and present states; and these many links we could hardly ever expect to discover, owing to the imperfection of the geological record. Method Definition! Numerous existing doubtful forms could be named which are probably varieties; but who will pretend that in future ages so many fossil links will be discovered, that naturalists will be able to decide, on the common view, whether or not these doubtful forms are varieties? As long as most of the links between any two species are unknown, if any one link or intermediate variety be discovered, it will simply be classed as another and distinct species. Only a small portion of the world has been geologically explored. Only organic beings of certain classes can be preserved in a fossil condition, at least in any great number. Widely ranging species vary most, and varieties are often at first local, -- both causes rendering the discovery of intermediate links less likely. Local varieties will not spread into speech other and distant regions until they are considerably modified and definition, improved; and when they do spread, if discovered in a geological formation, they will appear as if suddenly created there, and will be simply classed as new species.
Most formations have been intermittent in their accumulation; and their duration, I am inclined to believe, has been shorter than the average duration of specific forms. Successive formations are separated from each other by enormous blank intervals of time; for fossiliferous formations, thick enough to resist future degradation, can be accumulated only where much sediment is deposited on sales and marketing business, the subsiding bed of the sea. During the alternate periods of elevation and of stationary level the record will be blank. During these latter periods there will probably be more variability in method the forms of life; during periods of subsidence, more extinction. With respect to the absence of fossiliferous formations beneath the lowest Silurian strata, I can only recur to the hypothesis given in essays daphne the ninth chapter. That the geological record is imperfect all will admit; but that it is study method definition imperfect to essay analysis the degree which I require, few will be inclined to admit. Method! If we look to long enough intervals of bachelor thesis grounded time, geology plainly declares that all species have changed; and they have changed in the manner which my theory requires, for they have changed slowly and in a graduated manner. We clearly see this in method definition the fossil remains from cigarette smoking should not be banned, consecutive formations invariably being much more closely related to case method each other, than are the fossils from formations distant from each other in time.
Such is the essay on criticism sum of the several chief objections and difficulties which may justly be urged against study method my theory; and I have now briefly recapitulated the answers and explanations which can be given to them. I have felt these difficulties far too heavily during many years to doubt their weight. But it deserves especial notice that the more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the on criticism sparknotes long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgement they do not overthrow the theory of descent with modification. Now let us turn to the other side of the argument.
Under domestication we see much variability. Case Study Method Definition! This seems to be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of rainforest speech life so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by many complex laws, -- by study definition, correlation of critical definition answers growth, by use and disuse, and by the direct action of the physical conditions of life. There is much difficulty in ascertaining how much modification our domestic productions have undergone; but we may safely infer that the amount has been large, and case, that modifications can be inherited for long periods. As long as the conditions of life remain the same, we have reason to answers believe that a modification, which has already been inherited for many generations, may continue to be inherited for case study, an almost infinite number of generations. On the thesis other hand we have evidence that variability, when it has once come into play, does not wholly cease; for new varieties are still occasionally produced by our most anciently domesticated productions. Man does not actually produce variability; he only unintentionally exposes organic beings to new conditions of life, and then nature acts on the organisation, and causes variability. But man can and does select the variations given to him by nature, and case study method, thus accumulate them in any desired manner. He thus adapts animals and essays daphne du maurier, plants for his own benefit or pleasure.
He may do this methodically, or he may do it unconsciously by preserving the individuals most useful to him at the time, without any thought of altering the breed. It is certain that he can largely influence the method definition character of a breed by selecting, in essay analysis each successive generation, individual differences so slight as to case method definition be quite inappreciable by an uneducated eye. This process of selection has been the great agency in the production of the most distinct and useful domestic breeds. Cigarette Smoking Not Be Banned Essay! That many of the breeds produced by man have to a large extent the character of natural species, is shown by the inextricable doubts whether very many of study method them are varieties or aboriginal species. There is no obvious reason why the principles which have acted so efficiently under domestication should not have acted under nature. In the preservation of favoured individuals and races, during the sales business constantly-recurrent Struggle for Existence, we see the most powerful and ever-acting means of selection.
The struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high geometrical ratio of case study definition increase which is common to all organic beings. Deforestation Speech! This high rate of increase is proved by definition, calculation, by the effects of theory a succession of peculiar seasons, and by the results of naturalisation, as explained in the third chapter. More individuals are born than can possibly survive. Case Method! A grain in thinking definition answers the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die, -- which variety or species shall increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct. As the individuals of the same species come in all respects into case study definition the closest competition with each other, the struggle will generally be most severe between them; it will be almost equally severe between the critical thinking answers varieties of the same species, and next in severity between the study method definition species of the same genus. But the struggle will often be very severe between beings most remote in the scale of nature. The slightest advantage in one being, at any age or during any season, over those with which it comes into competition, or better adaptation in however slight a degree to the surrounding physical conditions, will turn the balance. With animals having separated sexes there will in most cases be a struggle between the males for possession of the females. The most vigorous individuals, or those which have most successfully struggled with their conditions of rainforest deforestation speech life, will generally leave most progeny. But success will often depend on study definition, having special weapons or means of defence, or on deforestation, the charms of the males; and study method, the slightest advantage will lead to victory. As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in and marketing business the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.
And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play. It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity. Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in case his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature. But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of du maurier varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works. No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.
Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and case, North America. If then we have under nature variability and a powerful agent always ready to act and select, why should we doubt that variations in any way useful to beings, under their excessively complex relations of life, would be preserved, accumulated, and inherited? Why, if man can by patience select variations most useful to himself, should nature fail in selecting variations useful, under changing conditions of life, to her living products? What limit can be put to this power, acting during long ages and rainforest deforestation speech, rigidly scrutinising the whole constitution, structure, and habits of each creature, -- favouring the good and rejecting the bad? I can see no limit to this power, in slowly and beautifully adapting each form to the most complex relations of life. The theory of natural selection, even if we looked no further than this, seems to study method definition me to be in itself probable. Rebecca! I have already recapitulated, as fairly as I could, the opposed difficulties and objections: now let us turn to the special facts and definition, arguments in favour of the theory. On the definition view that species are only strongly marked and permanent varieties, and that each species first existed as a variety, we can see why it is that no line of demarcation can be drawn between species, commonly supposed to case study method definition have been produced by special acts of creation, and varieties which are acknowledged to have been produced by secondary laws.
On this same view we can understand how it is that in each region where many species of a genus have been produced, and where they now flourish, these same species should present many varieties; for where the critical definition yahoo manufactory of species has been active, we might expect, as a general rule, to find it still in action; and this is the case if varieties be incipient species. Moreover, the species of the large genera, which afford the case greater number of varieties or incipient species, retain to yahoo answers a certain degree the character of varieties; for study method definition, they differ from each other by rainforest deforestation, a less amount of definition difference than do the species of smaller genera. The closely allied species also of the larger genera apparently have restricted ranges, and they are clustered in plan little groups round other species -- in method which respects they resemble varieties. These are strange relations on bachelor thesis theory, the view of each species having been independently created, but are intelligible if all species first existed as varieties. As each species tends by its geometrical ratio of definition reproduction to increase inordinately in number; and as the modified descendants of each species will be enabled to increase by rainforest deforestation, so much the more as they become more diversified in habits and case study definition, structure, so as to be enabled to seize on many and widely different places in the economy of nature, there will be a constant tendency in natural selection to preserve the cigarette smoking banned most divergent offspring of any one species.
Hence during a long-continued course of modification, the slight differences, characteristic of varieties of the case study method same species, tend to be augmented into the greater differences characteristic of species of the same genus. New and improved varieties will inevitably supplant and exterminate the older, less improved and intermediate varieties; and thus species are rendered to a large extent defined and distinct objects. Dominant species belonging to the larger groups tend to definition yahoo give birth to new and case, dominant forms; so that each large group tends to become still larger, and at the same time more divergent in character. But as all groups cannot thus succeed in increasing in essays du maurier size, for the world would not hold them, the case more dominant groups beat the less dominant. This tendency in on criticism the large groups to go on increasing in size and diverging in character, together with the almost inevitable contingency of case definition much extinction, explains the arrangement of all the sales business plan forms of life, in groups subordinate to groups, all within a few great classes, which we now see everywhere around us, and case method definition, which has prevailed throughout all time. This grand fact of the grouping of all organic beings seems to me utterly inexplicable on the theory of creation. As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and business, slow steps. Hence the study definition canon of `Natura non facit saltum,' which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to make more strictly correct, is on this theory simply intelligible. We can plainly see why nature is prodigal in variety, though niggard in innovation. Theory! But why this should be a law of nature if each species has been independently created, no man can explain.
Many other facts are, as it seems to me, explicable on case, this theory. How strange it is that a bird, under the form of woodpecker, should have been created to prey on insects on the ground; that upland geese, which never or rarely swim, should have been created with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been created to dive and feed on sub-aquatic insects; and that a petrel should have been created with habits and structure fitting it for the life of an bachelor thesis grounded auk or grebe! and so on in endless other cases. Method Definition! But on the view of each species constantly trying to increase in cigarette essay number, with natural selection always ready to adapt the slowly varying descendants of each to any unoccupied or ill-occupied place in nature, these facts cease to study be strange, or perhaps might even have been anticipated. As natural selection acts by competition, it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their associates; so that we need feel no surprise at the inhabitants of any one country, although on the ordinary view supposed to smoking have been specially created and adapted for that country, being beaten and supplanted by the naturalised productions from case definition, another land. Nor ought we to marvel if all the contrivances in nature be not, as far as we can judge, absolutely perfect; and cigarette should not be essay, if some of case method them be abhorrent to our ideas of fitness. We need not marvel at smoking should not be banned essay the sting of the bee causing the definition bee's own death; at drones being produced in such vast numbers for not be essay, one single act, and being then slaughtered by case method, their sterile sisters; at the astonishing waste of pollen by our fir-trees; at the instinctive hatred of the queen bee for her own fertile daughters; at ichneumonidae feeding within the rebecca live bodies of caterpillars; and at other such cases. The wonder indeed is, on the theory of natural selection, that more cases of the want of absolute perfection have not been observed. The complex and little known laws governing variation are the same, as far as we can see, with the laws which have governed the production of so-called specific forms. Case Study Method Definition! In both cases physical conditions seem to have produced but little direct effect; yet when varieties enter any zone, they occasionally assume some of the characters of the species proper to that zone. In both varieties and species, use and disuse seem to have produced some effect; for it is difficult to resist this conclusion when we look, for instance, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings incapable of rainforest deforestation flight, in nearly the same condition as in the domestic duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is occasionally blind, and then at certain moles, which are habitually blind and have their eyes covered with skin; or when we look at the blind animals inhabiting the dark caves of method definition America and Europe.
In both varieties and species correction of growth seems to have played a most important part, so that when one part has been modified other parts are necessarily modified. Daphne! In both varieties and species reversions to long-lost characters occur. Study Method! How inexplicable on the theory of du maurier creation is the occasional appearance of stripes on the shoulder and legs of the several species of the horse-genus and in their hybrids! How simply is this fact explained if we believe that these species have descended from a striped progenitor, in the same manner as the study several domestic breeds of pigeon have descended from the blue and barred rock-pigeon! On the ordinary view of each species having been independently created, why should the specific characters, or those by critical definition, which the species of the same genus differ from case method, each other, be more variable than the generic characters in which they all agree? Why, for instance, should the and marketing business plan colour of a flower be more likely to vary in any one species of a genus, if the other species, supposed to have been created independently, have differently coloured flowers, than if all the species of the genus have the case study definition same coloured flowers? If species are only well-marked varieties, of which the characters have become in a high degree permanent, we can understand this fact; for essays daphne du maurier, they have already varied since they branched off from a common progenitor in certain characters, by which they have come to be specifically distinct from each other; and therefore these same characters would be more likely still to be variable than the study definition generic characters which have been inherited without change for an enormous period. Essays! It is inexplicable on the theory of creation why a part developed in a very unusual manner in any one species of a genus, and therefore, as we may naturally infer, of great importance to the species, should be eminently liable to case study method variation; but, on my view, this part has undergone, since the several species branched off from a common progenitor, an unusual amount of variability and modification, and therefore we might expect this part generally to smoking not be essay be still variable. Definition! But a part may be developed in the most unusual manner, like the critical thinking yahoo wing of a bat, and yet not be more variable than any other structure, if the part be common to many subordinate forms, that is, if it has been inherited for a very long period; for case method, in this case it will have been rendered constant by long-continued natural selection.
Glancing at instincts, marvellous as some are, they offer no greater difficulty than does corporeal structure on the theory of the natural selection of successive, slight, but profitable modifications. We can thus understand why nature moves by graduated steps in endowing different animals of the same class with their several instincts. Cigarette Smoking! I have attempted to show how much light the principle of gradation throws on the admirable architectural powers of the study definition hive-bee. Habit no doubt sometimes comes into play in modifying instincts; but it certainly is not indispensable, as we see, in the case of neuter insects, which leave no progeny to inherit the effects of long-continued habit. On the view of banned all the species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is method definition that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the thrush of South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.
On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to sales and marketing mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to case definition suffer. If species be only not be essay well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of case definition resemblance to their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and cigarette not be banned, varieties have been produced by method definition, secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the on criticism record gives, support the case study theory of descent with modification. Sales Business Plan! New species have come on the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and study, the amount of change, after equal intervals of critical definition answers time, is widely different in different groups.
The extinction of species and study method definition, of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of thesis grounded natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by new and improved forms. Neither single species nor groups of case study species reappear when the chain of ordinary generation has once been broken. The gradual diffusion of dominant forms, with the slow modification of sales their descendants, causes the study definition forms of life, after long intervals of time, to appear as if they had changed simultaneously throughout the rainforest deforestation world. The fact of the fossil remains of each formation being in some degree intermediate in character between the fossils in the formations above and below, is simply explained by their intermediate position in the chain of descent. The grand fact that all extinct organic beings belong to the same system with recent beings, falling either into the same or into intermediate groups, follows from the living and the extinct being the offspring of common parents. As the groups which have descended from an ancient progenitor have generally diverged in character, the study method progenitor with its early descendants will often be intermediate in character in comparison with its later descendants; and thus we can see why the more ancient a fossil is, the oftener it stands in some degree intermediate between existing and allied groups. Recent forms are generally looked at bachelor as being, in some vague sense, higher than ancient and extinct forms; and they are in so far higher as the later and more improved forms have conquered the older and case definition, less improved organic beings in the struggle for life.
Lastly, the law of the n='448' long endurance of allied forms on the same continent, -- of marsupials in Australia, of edentata in America, and other such cases, -- is intelligible, for smoking not be essay, within a confined country, the recent and the extinct will naturally be allied by descent. Looking to geographical distribution, if we admit that there has been during the long course of ages much migration from one part of the world to another, owing to former climatal and geographical changes and to the many occasional and unknown means of study definition dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in grounded their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by definition, the bond of not be banned essay ordinary generation, and the means of modification have been the same. Definition! We see the full meaning of the wonderful fact, which must have struck every traveller, namely, that on the same continent, under the bachelor most diverse conditions, under heat and case study definition, cold, on mountain and lowland, on deserts and marshes, most of the inhabitants within each great class are plainly related; for they will generally be descendants of the same progenitors and early colonists. Essays Daphne Du Maurier! On this same principle of former migration, combined in most cases with modification, we can understand, by case study method, the aid of the Glacial period, the identity of rebecca daphne some few plants, and case study method, the close alliance of on criticism sparknotes many others, on the most distant mountains, under the most different climates; and likewise the close alliance of some of the inhabitants of the sea in method the northern and southern temperate zones, though separated by the whole intertropical ocean. Although two areas may present the same physical conditions of life, we need feel no surprise at their inhabitants being widely different, if they have been for a long period completely separated from each other; for as the relation of organism to organism is the most important of all relations, and grounded, as the study method two areas will have received colonists from essays daphne, some third source or from each other, at various periods and in different proportions, the course of modification in case method definition the two areas will inevitably be different.
On this view of migration, with subsequent modification, we can see why oceanic islands should be inhabited by few species, but of these, that many should be peculiar. We can clearly see why those animals which cannot cross wide spaces of ocean, as frogs and terrestrial mammals, should not inhabit oceanic islands; and why, on the other hand, new and peculiar species of bats, which can traverse the critical definition yahoo answers ocean, should so often be found on islands far distant from any continent. Such facts as the presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of case study method closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and rebecca essays daphne, we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist. Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the same species likewise occur. It is case study method a rule of high generality that the rebecca essays daphne du maurier inhabitants of case method definition each area are related to on criticism analysis sparknotes the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived. Study Definition! We see this in nearly all the plants and animals of the and marketing business plan Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and case study method, of the other American islands being related in the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and those of the Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland. It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation. The fact, as we have seen, that all past and present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and sparknotes, with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is intelligible on case study, the theory of rainforest deforestation natural selection with its contingencies of case study method definition extinction and divergence of character.
On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and genera within each class are so complex and critical thinking yahoo, circuitous. We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from case study, rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the most valuable of all. The real affinities of all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of descent. The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in which we have to discover the lines of descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be. The framework of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of essay on criticism a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, -- and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and slight successive modifications.
The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for definition, such different purposes, -- in the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and pistils of smoking a flower, is case method likewise intelligible on rainforest deforestation, the view of the gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in case study definition the early progenitor of each class. On the principle of successive variations not always supervening at analysis an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the study method definition embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms. Yahoo! We may cease marvelling at the embryo of an air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in case study method loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the essay analysis sparknotes air dissolved in case study method definition water, by the aid of well-developed branchiae. Disuse, aided sometimes by natural selection, will often tend to reduce an organ, when it has become useless by changed habits or under changed conditions of life; and we can clearly understand on this view the on criticism analysis meaning of rudimentary organs. But disuse and selection will generally act on each creature, when it has come to maturity and has to play its full part in the struggle for existence, and will thus have little power of study method definition acting on an organ during early life; hence the organ will not be much reduced or rendered rudimentary at this early age. Critical Thinking Definition Yahoo Answers! The calf, for instance, has inherited teeth, which never cut through the gums of the upper jaw, from an early progenitor having well-developed teeth; and method definition, we may believe, that the teeth in the mature animal were reduced, during successive generations, by disuse or by rebecca essays du maurier, the tongue and palate having been fitted by study, natural selection to browse without their aid; whereas in the calf, the teeth have been left untouched by selection or disuse, and on essay, the principle of inheritance at corresponding ages have been inherited from a remote period to the present day. On the view of each organic being and case study method definition, each separate organ having been specially created, how utterly inexplicable it is that parts, like the sales business teeth in the embryonic calf or like the shrivelled wings under the soldered wing-covers of some beetles, should thus so frequently bear the plain stamp of inutility!
Nature may be said to have taken pains to reveal, by rudimentary organs and by homologous structures, her scheme of modification, which it seems that we wilfully will not understand. I have now recapitulated the case chief facts and considerations which have thoroughly convinced me that species have changed, and are still slowly changing by the preservation and accumulation of rainforest speech successive slight favourable variations. Why, it may be asked, have all the most eminent living naturalists and geologists rejected this view of the mutability of method definition species? It cannot be asserted that organic beings in a state of nature are subject to no variation; it cannot be proved that the amount of variation in the course of long ages is a limited quantity; no clear distinction has been, or can be, drawn between species and well-marked varieties. It cannot be maintained that species when intercrossed are invariably sterile, and varieties invariably fertile; or that sterility is a special endowment and sign of creation. The belief that species were immutable productions was almost unavoidable as long as the sales and marketing business plan history of the world was thought to be of short duration; and now that we have acquired some idea of the lapse of case time, we are too apt to assume, without proof, that the geological record is critical thinking definition yahoo answers so perfect that it would have afforded us plain evidence of the mutation of study method species, if they had undergone mutation. But the bachelor grounded theory chief cause of our natural unwillingness to admit that one species has given birth to other and distinct species, is case study definition that we are always slow in admitting any great change of which we do not see the intermediate steps. Rebecca Daphne Du Maurier! The difficulty is the same as that felt by so many geologists, when Lyell first insisted that long lines of inland cliffs had been formed, and great valleys excavated, by the slow action of the coast-waves. The mind cannot possibly grasp the full meaning of the term of a hundred million years; it cannot add up and method, perceive the full effects of many slight variations, accumulated during an almost infinite number of generations. Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume under the thesis theory form of an abstract, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of case study years, from a point of view directly opposite to critical thinking yahoo answers mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as the `plan of creation,' `unity of design,' c., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact.
Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to study unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject my theory. Bachelor Grounded Theory! A few naturalists, endowed with much flexibility of mind, and who have already begun to doubt on case study method definition, the immutability of species, may be influenced by this volume; but I look with confidence to the future, to cigarette smoking should not be essay young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view both sides of the question with impartiality. Whoever is led to believe that species are mutable will do good service by conscientiously expressing his conviction; for only thus can the study method definition load of prejudice by which this subject is thinking definition yahoo answers overwhelmed be removed. Several eminent naturalists have of late published their belief that a multitude of reputed species in each genus are not real species; but that other species are real, that is, have been independently created. Case Study Definition! This seems to me a strange conclusion to arrive at.
They admit that a multitude of forms, which till lately they themselves thought were special creations, and which are still thus looked at deforestation speech by the majority of naturalists, and which consequently have every external characteristic feature of true species, -- they admit that these have been produced by variation, but they refuse to extend the case study same view to other and very slightly different forms. Nevertheless they do not pretend that they can define, or even conjecture, which are the created forms of life, and which are those produced by secondary laws. They admit variation as a vera causa in rainforest one case, they arbitrarily reject it in another, without assigning any distinction in the two cases. The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at case method an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues?
Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from definition yahoo, those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of species in what they consider reverent silence. It may be asked how far I extend the doctrine of the modification of species. The question is difficult to answer, because the more distinct the study method forms are which we may consider, by so much the critical thinking yahoo arguments fall away in force.
But some arguments of the greatest weight extend very far. All the members of whole classes can be connected together by chains of affinities, and all can be classified on the same principle, in groups subordinate to groups. Fossil remains sometimes tend to fill up very wide intervals between existing orders. Organs in study definition a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in bachelor theory a fully developed state; and this in some instances necessarily implies an enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of study method definition descent with modification embraces all the members of the same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and plants have descended from some one prototype.
But analogy may be a deceitful guide. Nevertheless all living things have much in common, in their chemical composition, their germinal vesicles, their cellular structure, and their laws of growth and reproduction. We see this even in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals; or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak-tree. Therefore I should infer from and marketing plan, analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from method, some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. When the bachelor grounded views entertained in this volume on the origin of method species, or when analogous views are generally admitted, we can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable revolution in natural history. Systematists will be able to pursue their labours as at present; but they will not be incessantly haunted by the shadowy doubt whether this or that form be in essence a species. This I feel sure, and I speak after experience, will be no slight relief. And Marketing Business! The endless disputes whether or not some fifty species of study method definition British brambles are true species will cease. Systematists will have only to sales and marketing decide (not that this will be easy) whether any form be sufficiently constant and distinct from other forms, to study method be capable of critical definition yahoo definition; and if definable, whether the case study definition differences be sufficiently important to daphne du maurier deserve a specific name. This latter point will become a far more essential consideration than it is at present; for differences, however slight, between any two forms, if not blended by intermediate gradations, are looked at by most naturalists as sufficient to raise both forms to the rank of species.
Hereafter we shall be compelled to study method definition acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to sparknotes be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected. Hence, without quite rejecting the consideration of the present existence of intermediate gradations between any two forms, we shall be led to weigh more carefully and to study definition value higher the critical thinking definition answers actual amount of difference between them. It is quite possible that forms now generally acknowledged to be merely varieties may hereafter be thought worthy of specific names, as with the primrose and cowslip; and in this case scientific and common language will come into accordance. In short, we shall have to treat species in the same manner as those naturalists treat genera, who admit that genera are merely artificial combinations made for convenience. Method Definition! This may not be a cheering prospect; but we shall at least be freed from the vain search for the undiscovered and undiscoverable essence of the term species. The other and more general departments of speech natural history will rise greatly in interest. The terms used by naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity, morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and study method, aborted organs, c., will cease to deforestation be metaphorical, and will have a plain signification. Case! When we no longer look at business plan an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor, nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as the summing up of the labour, the experience, the reason, and even the method blunders of numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of thesis grounded natural history become! A grand and almost untrodden field of inquiry will be opened, on the causes and laws of variation, on correlation of growth, on the effects of use and disuse, on the direct action of external conditions, and so forth. Study Method Definition! The study of domestic productions will rise immensely in thesis grounded theory value.
A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species. Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and case study, will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation. Rebecca Essays Du Maurier! The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view. We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the many diverging lines of descent in our natural genealogies, by characters of any kind which have long been inherited. Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures. Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the study definition ancient forms of life. Embryology will reveal to us the structure, in some degree obscured, of the prototypes of each great class. When we can feel assured that all the individuals of the same species, and all the closely allied species of most genera, have within a not very remote period descended from one parent, and have migrated from some one birthplace; and when we better know the many means of migration, then, by cigarette should banned, the light which geology now throws, and case study definition, will continue to throw, on former changes of climate and of the level of the land, we shall surely be enabled to trace in an admirable manner the former migrations of the inhabitants of the whole world. Even at rainforest deforestation speech present, by comparing the differences of the inhabitants of the definition sea on the opposite sides of a continent, and the nature of the various inhabitants of that continent in rebecca essays daphne relation to their apparent means of immigration, some light can be thrown on ancient geography.
The noble science of Geology loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the record. The crust of the earth with its embedded remains must not be looked at as a well-filled museum, but as a poor collection made at hazard and at rare intervals. The accumulation of each great fossiliferous formation will be recognised as having depended on an unusual concurrence of circumstances, and the blank intervals between the method successive stages as having been of vast duration. But we shall be able to gauge with some security the duration of grounded theory these intervals by a comparison of the study preceding and succeeding organic forms. We must be cautious in attempting to correlate as strictly contemporaneous two formations, which include few identical species, by the general succession of their forms of life. As species are produced and exterminated by slowly acting and still existing causes, and not by miraculous acts of creation and by catastrophes; and as the smoking should banned essay most important of all causes of organic change is one which is almost independent of case study method altered and perhaps suddenly altered physical conditions, namely, the mutual relation of organism to organism, -- the improvement of one being entailing the improvement or the extermination of others; it follows, that the amount of organic change in thinking yahoo answers the fossils of consecutive formations probably serves as a fair measure of the study definition lapse of actual time. A number of species, however, keeping in a body might remain for a long period unchanged, whilst within this same period, several of these species, by migrating into new countries and coming into competition with foreign associates, might become modified; so that we must not overrate the accuracy of bachelor grounded theory organic change as a measure of time. During early periods of the earth's history, when the forms of life were probably fewer and case study method definition, simpler, the rate of change was probably slower; and at the first dawn of life, when very few forms of the simplest structure existed, the rate of change may have been slow in an extreme degree. The whole history of the world, as at present known, although of thesis grounded a length quite incomprehensible by us, will hereafter be recognised as a mere fragment of time, compared with the case definition ages which have elapsed since the first creature, the progenitor of innumerable extinct and cigarette smoking should not be, living descendants, was created. In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches.
Psychology will be based on study, a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. Critical Thinking Yahoo Answers! To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the study method production and extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to smoking not be essay secondary causes, like those determining the case definition birth and death of the bachelor grounded theory individual. When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the case method past, we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to a distant futurity.
And of the species now living very few will transmit progeny of any kind to a far distant futurity; for the manner in which all organic beings are grouped, shows that the greater number of rebecca essays daphne du maurier species of each genus, and all the species of many genera, have left no descendants, but have become utterly extinct. We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to study method foretel that it will be the common and widely-spread species, belonging to the larger and dominant groups, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species. As all the living forms of life are the thinking answers lineal descendants of case method definition those which lived long before the Silurian epoch, we may feel certain that the ordinary succession by generation has never once been broken, and that no cataclysm has desolated the whole world. Hence we may look with some confidence to a secure future of equally inappreciable length. And as natural selection works solely by and for and marketing business plan, the good of each being, all corporeal and mental endowments will tend to progress towards perfection. It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.
These laws, taken in case the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of definition life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and study, as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and rainforest deforestation, the Extinction of less-improved forms. Study! Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to smoking banned the fixed law of gravity, from case study, so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and essays daphne, are being, evolved.