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Arthur Miller Drama Analysis - Essay. A back injury prevented Arthur Miller from serving in resume los angeles the armed forces during World War II, but in oxford university repository characteristic fashion, he became involved in services the war effort by gathering material for a screenplay, “The Story of GI Joe,” which was never filmed but instead became the basis of his book Situation Normal , in which he reported on army camps in the United States and on soldiers’ attitudes toward the war in & pre written essays which they were preparing to resume writing fight. For the most part, the oxford university repository soldiers had no great interest in the democratic principles for which Miller believed the war was fought, but he elevated one war hero, Watson, to services ca a representative position as a figure whose intensely avowed loyalty to college essay his company represents the resume writing los angeles ca democratic solidarity many others cannot articulate. Miller admitted candidly the skepticism of Watson’s company commander, who doubted Watson’s wholehearted commitment to rejoin his fellow soldiers in one of the most dangerous theaters of the war: “The company pride that made him do the great things he did do is gone now and he is left unattached, an individual,” who yearns for—yet probably fears—returning to men he knows he will never see again. Thus, Situation Normal was transformed into the drama of how Miller’s innocent convictions about the war were challenged by psychological and custom essays, social complexities; indeed, the book is resume writing services los angeles, informed by college, a crisis of conviction that Miller did not fully recognize until the writing of After the Fall and Incident at resume ca, Vichy . The Man Who Had All the Luck. Even in an early play, The Man Who Had All the Luck —Miller’s first Broadway production—there is oxford university repository, some awareness of the dangers inherent in the innocent attitude of characters such as David Frieber, who insists that the world conform to resume writing services what his employer, Shory, calls “the awards of some cloudy court of procedure essay, justice.” At twenty, Frieber is still a child, Shory suggests, and Frieber admits that he does not know what he is supposed to be. Resume Services Los Angeles Ca? He believes that he must somehow earn everything that comes to him.

That good fortune and the complex interplay of societal forces he cannot control also contribute significantly to his success is an idea that disturbs him. In his quest to become self-made, he withdraws from society, from obama w his family, and ultimately from himself. In the midst of his guilty obsession with the fact that others have aided him, he is resume los angeles, unable to see that he has already demonstrated his resourcefulness. In his delusion that he can measure himself, he gives up everything he owns and written essays, starts a new business. Frieber’s lunacy seems somewhat forced—much too strident, making it all too obvious that Miller has a point to prove. Writing Services Los Angeles Ca? Moreover, Frieber’s quasi-philosophical declamations disturb what is otherwise rather well-executed midwestern dialogue.

Miller comes even closer to fluent dialogue and carefully crafted dramatic structure in All My Sons , his first Broadway success and the first play he deemed mature enough to include in obama w his Collected Plays of 1957. Critics have long admired the playwright’s suspenseful handling of the Keller family’s burden: the father’s permitting defective parts to resume services los angeles ca remain in pink eye essays warplanes that subsequently crash. Writing Services Los Angeles? Not only does Joe Keller fail to recognize his social responsibility, but also he allows his business partner to take the blame and custom & pre written, serve the prison term for the crime. Gradually, events combine to strip Keller of his rationalizations. Los Angeles Ca? He argues that he never believed that the pink eye essays cracked engine heads would be installed and that he never admitted his mistake because it would have driven him out of services los angeles, business at the age of sixty-one, when he would not have another chance to “make something” for his family, his highest priority. “If there’s something bigger than that I’ll put a bullet in my head!” he exclaims. He also claims that other businessmen behaved no differently during the war and that Larry, his son who died flying a warplane, would have approved of his actions: “He understood the way the civil world is resume writing services los angeles ca, made.

He listened to me,” Keller contends. He maintains these arguments, however, as a man who has clearly been challenged by his surviving son, Chris, who questions his father’s very humanity when the full truth of Joe’s irresponsibility is exposed: “What the obama w hell are you? You’re not even an resume services los angeles animal, no animal kills his own, what are you?” Joe Keller’s tough, resilient character crumbles quickly after Larry’s former fiancee, Ann, discloses Larry’s last letter, in obama w which he expresses his intention to crash his plane in shame over his father’s culpability. The play turns somewhat melodramatic with Joe’s reversal of viewpoint, his discovery of his social responsibility, and his human loss in the deaths of the young fliers. Resume Writing Services Los Angeles Ca? His statement, “They were all my sons,” depends heavily on Larry’s self-abnegating idealism and on other contrived plot devices, as Leonard Moss instructively points out. Miller resorts to obama w the theatrical trick of the last-minute revelation rather than relying on resume writing services los angeles ca character development. Oxford University? Nevertheless, the writing services los angeles ca logic of destroying Joe’s innocent disregard of the world at large—he is obama w, not so much deeply cynical as he is profoundly unaware of the ties that must hold society together—is compelling, especially because he cries for moral direction. “What do I do? he asks his wife, Kate, thus strengthening Chris’s imperative that his father reckon the consequences of his terrible moral oversight.

If audiences are still gripped by the final events of All My Sons , it is because the play’s early scenes convincingly dramatize familiar aspects of family and community, with characters who know one another very well, who are quick to respond to the nuances of conversation and to what is services, unspoken but clearly implied. What disables Miller’s plays before Death of a Salesman is not so much an inadequate understanding of dramatic form; rather, both his dramatic and nondramatic prose lack artistic tact. He tends to overstate social problems, to give otherwise inarticulate characters such as Lawrence Newman in the novel Focus an inappropriately self-conscious language that is custom & pre written, meant to identify their cumulative awareness of societal sickness—in Newman’s case, of anti-Semitism. Like so much of Miller’s writing, however, Focus transcends its faults because of its author’s incisive portrayal of events that relentlessly push Newman to the brink of services, self-knowledge. Death of a Salesman. In Death of a Salesman —originally entitled “The Inside of His Head”—Miller brilliantly solves the problem of of montana faculty, revealing his main character’s inner discord, rendering Willy Loman as solid as the society in which he tries to sell himself. Indeed, many critics believe that Miller has never surpassed his achievement in this play, which stands as his breakthrough work, distinguished by an extremely long Broadway run, by many revivals, and by many theater awards, including the Pulitzer Prize in 1949. Death of a Salesman seems destined to remain an American classic and a standard text in American classrooms. Willy Loman desperately wants to believe that he has succeeded, that he is “well liked” as a great salesman, a fine father, and a devoted husband.

That he has not really attracted the admiration and popularity at which he has aimed is evident, however, in the weariness that belabors him from the beginning of the play. At the age of sixty-three, nearing retirement, Willy dreads confronting the conclusion that his life has gone offtrack, just like the services los angeles automobile he cannot keep from driving off the road. His mind wanders because he has lost control: He has trouble keeping up with the bills; he feels hemmed in at home by huge, towering apartment buildings; his sales are slipping drastically; and his sons have thwarted his hope for their success. University Thesis Repository? Earlier in his career, Miller might have made a good but unremarkable play out of Willy’s dilemma, a drama about how American society has misled him and stuffed him with unrealizable dreams until a conflict between social structures and individual desires becomes inevitable. Instead, Miller learned from the mistakes in his earlier plays not to resume writing divide individual and social realities too neatly or too simply, so that in Death of a Salesman , he created a great play that is not merely about a victim of society. Willy is not easily categorized; he is both simple and complex. On the & pre written essays one hand, he has all the resume services modern conveniences that stamp him as a product of society; on the other hand, he is not content to be simply another social component. As he tells Linda, his wife, who tries to soothe his sense of failure, “some people accomplish something.” “A man has got to add up to custom & pre written something,” he assures his brother, Uncle Ben. Willy resists the idea that his life has been processed for him—like the processed American cheese he angrily rejects for Swiss, his favorite.

Still, he wonders, “How can they whip cheese?” and writing los angeles, thus he can be diverted from self-scrutiny to the trivialities of postwar consumer society. Willy worries that he talks too much, that he is fat and unattractive, but he also brags about his persuasive abilities, his knack for knowing how to university of montana writing please people. Similarly, he alternately regards his son Biff as a bum and as having “greatness”; Willy’s automobile is los angeles ca, alternately the finest of its kind and a piece of junk. Willy is custom written, a mass of contradictions who asks why he is resume writing, “always being contradicted.” He has never been able to sort himself out, to be certain of his course in life. He is insulted when his friend Charley offers him a job, because the job offer and Charley’s self-assured demeanor—he keeps asking Willy when will he grow up—remind Willy of obama w, Uncle Ben, a man who is “utterly certain of ca, his destiny,” who once extended to Willy a tremendous opportunity in obama w Alaska, an resume los angeles opportunity Willy rejected with regret in favor of civil procedure model answers, a salesperson’s career. He lives with the might-have-been of the past as though it were his present and even confuses Charley with Ben. As a result, scenes from resume writing services los angeles ca Willy’s past and present follow—and indeed pursue—one another successively in a fuguelike fashion that shows his awareness of a good, his failure to progress. There is a grandeur in Willy’s dreams of success; his self-deceptions are derived from his genuine perceptions of life’s great possibilities, which are like the resume writing services ca big sales he has always hoped to make. This is why Linda abets his penchant for self-aggrandizement. She knows that he has not been a successful salesperson, but she tempers his faults: “You don’t talk too much, you’re just lively.” At the same time, she is utterly believable as a housewife who has to university thesis know how much money her husband has brought home from work. Resume Ca? After Willy exaggerates his sales from one trip, Linda quietly but firmly brings him back to reality by simply asking, “How much did you do?”—a question that becomes more pointed if the essays actress playing the role delicately emphasizes the word “did.”

When the writing services play is essay, read aloud, there is an uncanny power in some of its simplest and seemingly pedestrian lines, lines that capture the nuances and innuendos of colloquial language. This subtly effective dialogue is enhanced by los angeles, a powerful use of human gesture that distinguishes Death of a Salesman as a completely realizable stage drama. Written Essays? Toward the resume writing ca end of the play, for example, after Biff, “at the peak of his fury,” bluntly tells Willy, “Pop, I’m nothing!” Biff relents, breaks down, sobs, and obama w, holds on to Willy, “who dumbly fumbles for Biff’s face.” This brief intimate encounter encapsulates everything that can be learned about Willy and Biff and about the play’s import, for the son renounces the services ca father’s ridiculous belief in the son’s superiority even as the son clings to the father for support. While Biff rejects Willy, he embraces him and has to explain himself to Willy, who is “astonished” and at first does not know how to interpret his son’s holding on essay to him. Resume Writing Services Los Angeles Ca? Willy does not understand why Biff is crying. Willy has always been blind to university writing faculty Biff’s needs, has always “fumbled” their relationship, yet—as so often—Willy transforms Biff’s words of rejection into an affirmation. The Biff who leans on him is the son who “likes me!” Willy exclaims, after their close but momentary contact. This fleeting instance of services ca, family solidarity, however, cannot overcome the abiding family conflicts and misunderstandings, epitomized by Willy’s delusion that the insurance money accrued from his suicide will finally make him the good provider, the person who furthers his son’s magnificent future. An Enemy of the People. Miller followed Death of a Salesman with his 1951 adaptation of university repository, Henrik Ibsen’s En folkefiende (pb.

1882; An Enemy of the People , 1890). Miller transforms Ibsen’s language into American idioms and shortens the play to emphasize the impact of Dr. Stockmann’s confrontation with his community, which will not acknowledge its polluted water, its own moral and political corruption. Los Angeles? Stockmann’s battle against public opinion clearly foreshadows John Proctor’s struggle with his society’s self-inflicted evil in civil procedure model The Crucible . The Crucible is resume ca, far more complex than Miller’s adaptation of Ibsen’s play, however, because Proctor is much more complicated than Stockmann, and the motivations of the Puritans are not as easily fathomed as those of & pre written, Stockmann’s townspeople, who are primarily worried about their economic welfare. Even so, An Enemy of the People prefigures the fundamental questions raised in The Crucible about the value of human dignity and individuality and the kind of resume services, justice one can expect from a majority culture, especially when that culture begins to doubt its own coherence. With incisive historical summaries, Miller, in The Crucible , characterizes the community of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, which has been beset by property disputes, by a slackening in model religious fervor, and by resume writing ca, an increasing lack of trust among its citizens. Rather than face their inner turmoil, some of Salem’s citizens search for scapegoats, for people who can take on college the society’s sense of defeat and frustration, who can be punished, and who can carry away by means of their execution the society’s burden of guilt. In short, the Puritans seek signs of the devil and devil-worship in their midst in order to dissolve their own dissension.

Although John Proctor, like Stockmann, speaks against his community’s blindness to the true causes of its corruption, he does not share to the same degree Stockmann’s naivete, youthful outrage at injustice, and virtually pure innocence as a dissident. On the contrary, Proctor eventually opposes the witch-hunt, because he accepts his own part in having made that hysterical clamor for scapegoats possible. He knows that he has not acted quickly enough to expose Abigail, the chief instigator of the witch-hunt, because he has feared his own exposure as an adulterer. What finally exercises his conscience is not simply that he had previously given way to his lust for Abigail but that he had deluded himself into thinking he no longer cared for her and los angeles ca, had even reprimanded his wife, Elizabeth, for failing to forgive him. Elizabeth is unbending but not without cause, for pink eye essays she intuits her husband’s tender feelings toward Abigail and suspects that he refuses to know his own mind. Proctor almost relinquishes his good name by confessing to witchery, until he realizes that however deep his guilt and responsibility may be for the community’s corruption, he cannot surrender his integrity, his cherished individuality. Like Willy Loman, Proctor reaffirms his own name—“I am John Proctor!”—and prefers his own crucible to his society’s severe test of him for its redemption. The Crucible is not only Proctor’s play, however, and as important as its moral and political implications are—it was first received as a parable on McCarthyism and the 1950’s hysteria over communism in resume ca the United States—it deserves analysis as a dramatic whole in the same way that Death of a Salesman does.

In Miller’s superb creation of scenes that require a company of pink eye essays, carefully choreographed actors and actresses, he is able to dramatize an entire society and to services show the obama w interplay of los angeles, individual and group psychology. Proctor would not be regarded as such a powerful personality were it not for the full panoply of of montana creative faculty, personalities out of which he emerges. In this respect, The Crucible has a finer equilibrium as a social play than does Death of a Salesman , which is inescapably dominated by Willy Loman’s consciousness. Miller’s accomplished use of the Puritans’ formal idioms suggests their rigid judgments of one another. Perhaps he even exaggerates the archaisms of their language in services ca order to obama w stress the gravity of their worldview, although at the same time, he dramatizes a childishness in their readiness to credit the workings of witchcraft. There is a great deal of humor, for example, in one of the play’s early scenes, in which Mrs. Putnam’s energetic entrance explodes the seriousness of reports that the Reverend Parris’s child, Betty, has been bewitched. Mrs. Putnam, every bit as excited as a child, immediately glances at Betty and writing ca, wonders, “How high did she fly, how high?” The simple, naive directness of these words catches the audience up in a kind of enthusiasm for the marvelous that will soon infect Abigail and her female followers as well as the whole society of Salem.

By varying his speakers’ styles to conform to the precise demands of each dramatic situation, Miller wins the audience’s absolute confidence in the psychological reality of his characters. A Memory of Two Mondays. Miller’s excursion into the Puritan past was followed by the writing of two one-act plays, A Memory of Two Mondays and A View from the Bridge (later revised as a two-act play), both of which he regarded as having arisen from his personal experience, although it took him some time to oxford university thesis discover the autobiographical elements of the latter play. A Memory of Two Mondays covers the Depression period before Miller’s admission to the University of Michigan, and the play centers on the discrepancy between human needs and work requirements. Kenneth, the resume writing services ca most melancholy character in the play, also has the greatest feeling for life and for its poetry. In the end, however, he has forgotten the poems he recites to Bert, the only character who escapes the tedium of the automobile parts warehouse, who will read the great books and save enough money to go to college. The other characters remain very much imprisoned in civil procedure model essay their everyday lives.

Bert’s leavetaking is hardly noticed, even though he lingers in obvious need of writing services, making more out of his friendships at the warehouse than others are willing to acknowledge. & Pre Essays? Earlier, he and services los angeles, Kenneth had washed the windows of the oxford university warehouse to get a clear look at the world in which they were situated; now Kenneth is a drunk and Bert must stand apart, like his author, remembering the meaning of what others have already forgotten because of the demands of their jobs. Although A Memory of resume writing ca, Two Mondays is one of Miller’s minor achievements, it is also one of his most perfectly executed dramas in that the impulse to rescue significance from Bert’s departure is sensitively qualified by obama w, the consciousness of services los angeles ca, human loss. A View from the a good college essay Bridge. Miller’s one-act version of A View from the Bridge is also a memory play—in this case based on resume ca a story he had heard and pondered for college essay several years. Services Los Angeles? Eddie Carbone, a longshoreman, is driven to violate the most sacred ties of trust that bind his community by his compulsion to possess his niece, Catherine—a compulsion that he denies and displaces by conceiving an unreasoning dislike for his wife’s young relative, Rodolpho, an illegal immigrant whom Eddie has agreed to harbor.

Eddie implies that Rodolpho is a homosexual, an unnatural man who will marry Catherine merely to essays make his stay in the country legal. Eddie’s desperate need to have Catherine becomes so uncontrollable that, when she and Rodolpho make plans to marry, he informs on Rodolpho and his brother, Marco, who are apprehended in circumstances that expose Eddie to his neighborhood as an resume writing services informer. In Marco’s view, Eddie must be confronted with his subhuman behavior. In words reminiscent of obama w, Chris’s charge in All My Sons that his father is not human, Marco calls Eddie an animal who must abase himself. “You go on your knees to me!” Marco commands Eddie, while Eddie expects Marco to give him back his “good name.” They fight, and Eddie dies, stabbed by Marco with the resume services los angeles former’s own knife. University Thesis Repository? In a sense, Eddie has stabbed himself; the resume los angeles play has shown all along that Eddie’s mortal wound has been self-inflicted. Eddie’s cry for self-respect recalls similar pleas by Willy Loman and John Proctor, and oxford university, the concern in A View from the Bridge with informing and services los angeles, betrayal of friendships and blood ties echoes themes from model Miller’s student plays through The Crucible , foreshadowing not only his own refusal to “name names” in his testimony before the resume writing services los angeles ca House Committee on Un-American Activities but also Quentin’s fundamental exploration of many different kinds of betrayal in After the Fall . Yet Miller first wrote A View from the Bridge as if he were aloof from its central story, as if it were a parable that he did not understand. He even provides a narrator, Alfieri, an attorney who ruminates over the significance of the custom written essays story as Miller admits he had done in writing the play.

The one-act version of los angeles ca, A View from the Bridge seems aloof from the audience as well. There is very little attempt to probe the characters’ psychology, so that what Miller gains in dramatic force by presenting events swiftly and starkly, he loses in the audience’s inability to empathize with circumscribed characters. Miller acknowledges these faults and notes that the two-act version more fully develops his characters’ psychology, particularly that of Eddie’s wife, Beatrice. Catherine, too, is a much-improved character in the two-act version. She tentatively expresses her divided feelings about Eddie, whereas in the one-act version, she is far less self-searching, almost woodenly immune to his passion. A Good? In the two-act, she desires to appease Eddie’s growing fears of her approaching adulthood. She loves him for his devotion to resume ca her, but her childlike behavior, as Beatrice points out to her, only writing faculty, encourages his possessiveness. Thus, Catherine tries gradually to separate herself from Eddie so that she can attain full maturity. As a result, Eddie’s rigid refusal to admit his perverse passion for Catherine, even when Beatrice confronts him with it, makes him singularly willful and more particularly responsible for his tragedy than is the case in the one-act version, in which all the resume los angeles ca characters, except Alfieri, are rather helplessly impelled by events.

In this respect, Rodolpho is a more credible suitor for Catherine in custom the two-act version because he is somewhat more commanding (she pleads with him, “I don’t know anything, teach me, Rodolpho, hold me”) in capturing her love and therefore a stronger counterweight to Eddie’s authority. A View from the Bridge in writing services los angeles two acts still does not overcome all the obama w play’s weaknesses. For example, Alfieri, like many narrators in drama, seems somewhat intrusive in his use of elevated language to wrest an ca overarching meaning from characters and events, even though he is an active participant in some fine scenes. Nevertheless, the play is as beautifully written and college essay, moving as any of Miller’s major works, and its main character is almost as powerfully drawn as Willy Loman and John Proctor, who, like Eddie Carbone, will not “settle for half”—will not be content with less than their lives’ joy. Because of an ample sense of self, they allow themselves, in Alfieri’s words, “to be wholly known.” Miller arrived at resume services los angeles, an impasse upon his completion of the two-act version of A View from the Bridge , which was successfully produced in England in civil essay 1956, and he did not have another new work staged until 1964.

Various explanations have been offered for this long gap in his dramatic production—including his marriage to writing los angeles Marilyn Monroe, the attendant publicity that interfered with his working life, and the trying and time-consuming process of defending his political activities. Of crucial importance, however, seems to have been his feeling that what he had been working for in his plays had not been sufficiently understood by procedure model answers, his public. At any rate, he wrote several plays that did not satisfy him, a number of short stories, and a screenplay, The Misfits , that was subsequently revised as a novel. He may have turned to other literary forms from a belief that he had temporarily exhausted what had been an evolving sense of dramatic structure. Nondramatic prose seems to have permitted him to explore certain themes and resume writing los angeles ca, narrative viewpoints that he had not been able to incorporate fully in A View from the oxford university thesis Bridge , for his next produced play, After the Fall , successfully fuses narrative and dramatic discourse in services the figure of its central character, Quentin, who constantly forces the audience into the explicit position of auditors rather than into the intermittent role of eavesdroppers addressed by a narrator as in obama w A View from the Bridge . Resume Writing Los Angeles Ca? How does one live in a world beset by death?

This question is relentlessly probed in After the Fall , with its concentration-camp tower serving as one of the written central metaphors for the human betrayal of life. As was so often true in the camps, the characters in After the Fall are divided against writing los angeles ca themselves. Not only can kind men kill, but also intelligent men can act like idiots, and Maggie—innocent in so many ways—is horribly transformed into obama w a hater of life. Quentin, who is Maggie’s momentary stay against confusion, witnesses “things falling apart” and wonders, “Were they ever whole?” He proves to be incapable of protecting Maggie, so concerned is services los angeles, he with his own survival. In the very act of custom & pre, saving her from los angeles her pills—from her death—he defends himself by strangling her, suffocating her just as surely as the pills would have done. Custom Written Essays? He discovers the limits of his own love for her, and services ca, Maggie sees his human incapacity for unconditional love as a betrayal, just as Quentin interprets the limitations of his mother’s love as a betrayal of him. Thus, for Maggie, Quentin comes at “the end of a long, long line” of university of montana, men who have degraded her, betrayed her, killed her. Ca? He is, in other words, an accomplice in the general evil of the world, and therefore his presence as an a good “accomplice” in the ultimate evil that is the concentration camp is not altogether unfitting. He has been his mother’s accomplice in the degradation of his father and an accomplice in the death of his friend, Lou, who sensed that Quentin could not wholeheartedly defend his reputation and that he was not, in fact, a true friend. Quentin craves his own safety, and he feels the guilt of the survivor as the concentration-camp tower “blazes into life.” Maggie has no identity to hold back, no reserves of self to compensate for her disappointment in Quentin. She thinks of herself as “nothing” and hopes to services ca please everyone by becoming “all love.” (The metaphor’s abstractness virtually ensures her inability to develop a defined self.) Ironically, her generosity eats her up—people eat her up—because she does not possess the normal defenses of civil essay answers, a separate ego.

Maggie requires from ca Quentin the same selflessness she represents. She wants him to look at her “out of [his] self .” Quentin has abetted her by acting more like a child than an adult. Like William Faulkner’s Quentin Compson in university faculty The Sound and the Fury (1929), Miller’s Quentin is an idealist and something of a Puritan; he romanticizes Maggie’s innocence and believes that she must be saved from herself and resume, from a corrupt world. In some ways, he seems as thoroughly innocent as Quentin Compson’s brother Benjy, an idiot—the word itself is applied to Miller’s protagonist more than once, and writing faculty, it recurs obsessively as he recalls how others have employed the term to deny and attack one another. Resume Writing Ca? No more than Benjy or Maggie can Quentin accept the separateness of the university of montana creative writing adult world of his mother, his friends, and his wives.

These failures of love, of human connection, force Quentin to reexamine the moments of hopefulness that recur, one might say, idiotically—for no apparently sensible reason—throughout the play. From the concentration-camp tower and on services ca “the mountain of skulls” where no one can be “innocent again,” Quentin observes the “fallen Maggie,” who once seemed like a proof of victory, and he realizes that his brothers both died in and built the camp, that Maggie’s fall is his fall, and that without that fall he would have no hope, for hope in the real world is “not in some garden of obama w, wax fruit and resume los angeles ca, painted trees, that lie of Eden,” but in the knowledge of human destructiveness, of human idiocy, which will not go away and so must be taken to heart. In the full knowledge of university repository, his failures, Quentin embraces his life at the end of the play, whereas Maggie is seen rising from the floor “webbed in with her demons, trying to resume los angeles awake.” Her partial consciousness reflects her inability to take full responsibility for of montana writing her life, to see that she was not simply a victim but in charge of resume writing los angeles ca, her emotions. The hardest thing Quentin must do is reverse the obama w force of the play’s dominant metaphor, making the idiot serve not as a rejection of the broken, fragmented facts of life but as an services ca acceptance of the flawed face of all people. That reversal of oxford university, rejection is accomplished by saying hello to Holga, his third partner in life, who has provided the dream—the metaphor, in truth—of how lives such as Quentin’s (“Why do I make such stupid statements!”) and Maggie’s (“I’m a joke that brings in resume money”) can tentatively approach redemption. Obama W? After the Fall sometimes suffers from a vagueness of rhetoric and from overstatement, so that Quentin’s confessions overwhelm the dramatic action and diminish the substantiality of other characters. Miller restrains Quentin’s verbosity in the revised stage version quoted here (printed in 1964, the same year as the production of the original stage version, available in Collected Plays, Volume II ). A television adaptation (1974) removes nearly all of Quentin’s verbiage, but in none of these versions is Miller entirely successful in balancing Quentin’s subjective and objective realities. Edward Murray argues, for example, that not all scenes are consistently staged “in the resume los angeles mind, thought, and college essay, memory of Quentin,” as the play would have it.

Hence it is difficult to find a “warrant,” a certifiable viewpoint, for some of the play’s action. In Death of a Salesman , on the contrary, the audience is compelled to move in and out of Willy’s mind and is thereby able to comprehend his reality both subjectively and objectively. In part, Murray’s objection may be met by carefully following Quentin’s struggle to know his past, not simply to repossess it as Willy does. How does one achieve a viewpoint, Quentin asks, when there is no objective basis on which to recreate one’s past? In the services los angeles disagreements over Quentin’s motives (some critics emphasize his self-criticism, others his self-exculpation), Miller adumbrates an ambiguity of viewpoint explored more successfully in pink eye essays The Price . Writing Los Angeles Ca? Incident at written essays, Vichy.

Some reviewers of the first production of resume services los angeles, Incident at Vichy mistook it as a message play and university writing faculty, faulted Miller not only for his didacticism but also for teaching a lesson already learned about Nazism and people’s inhumanity toward others. It is a very talky drama, and given the various arguments advanced, it is los angeles, easy to regard the characters as representative figures rather than as whole personalities. That this is not the case, however, is evident in the play’s refusal to locate a winning argument, a resolution of the crisis of conviction besetting each character as his most cherished opinions are found wanting, are exposed as contradictory and self-serving. Even Leduc, who does a large amount of the debunking, discovers that he is not free of self-aggrandizing illusions. The Major reveals Leduc’s privileged sense of himself, and Von Berg forces on him a pass to freedom, which he must take at the cost of another’s imprisonment. Von Berg’s self-abnegating act of love for another man—although a moving statement of his belief that there are people in the world who would sacrifice themselves rather than permit evil to be done to others—is not dramatized as a final answer to the self-interested pleas of the other characters, however, and it does not cause the reversal of obama w, belief Miller coerced from Joe Keller after his son Larry’s suicide in All My Sons . Resume Services Ca? On the civil procedure contrary, Von Berg is faced at the end of the play with an ca uncomprehending Major, a man who scorns gestures of self-sacrifice, except insofar as he is “an idealist” who ironically sacrifices himself for the perpetuation of the obama w totalitarian system he serves. For all the characters, then, Vichy France during World War II is a place of detention where their self-justifications are demolished as they await their turns in the examination room, in which their release or their final fate in the concentration camps will be determined. Like Quentin, they are all vulnerable to the suspicion that they have not lived in “good faith.” In other words, it is resume, their questionable integrity, not their shaky ideas, that is ultimately at civil model essay, stake. Incident at Vichy is Miller’s most existential play, in the sense that there is writing los angeles ca, no exit from the dilemmas it portrays, no consoling truths to which characters can cling permanently; instead, there are only approximations of the truth, certain accurate perceptions, but there is nothing like the requiem, the coda, the summing up to be found in Death of custom essays, a Salesman , The Crucible , and A View from the Bridge . In The Price , Miller combines the best features of After the Fall and Incident at Vichy . Once again, the issue of coming to resume los angeles others in “good faith” is paramount, as Esther realizes in & pre written essays characterizing the services surprise appearance of her husband Victor’s brother, Walter. Walter returns to university thesis repository their boyhood apartment, where Victor is selling the family possessions because the building has been condemned.

Walter has not seen his brother in sixteen years and wants to explain to him why he chose such an independent course, why he failed to writing los angeles support their father as Victor had done, to the detriment of his career. The immensely successful Walter feels stymied by the past and suggests that he and Victor took “seemingly different roads out of the same trap” created by their father’s pose of oxford university repository, helplessness after the failure of his business in the Crash of 1929. While Victor chose to “invent” a life of self-sacrifice, Walter chose to adopt a career of self-advancement. “We’re like two halves of the same guy,” Walter insists. His point is well taken in terms of Miller’s dramatic development, for Victor and writing los angeles ca, Walter are also opposite sides of civil, Quentin, whose family background is somewhat similar to theirs and who engages in resume similar debates with himself concerning the a good college calls of self-denial and self-preferment; indeed, like Quentin, Victor and Walter are having what is essentially an argument with themselves in front of auditors (Esther and the furniture dealer, Gregory Solomon). Because Walter and Victor can go over the same ground of the past, their recollections are both arguable and los angeles ca, utterly convincing as parallel but divergent interpretations. Thus, the audience responds to college one character’s point of view in the context of the other’s and follows precisely the process by which these characters form their histories. Los Angeles? Walter excuses himself by showing that in objective terms his father was not helpless; he had four thousand dollars he asked Walter to invest for him. Walter rejects the vision of family harmony that Victor worked so steadily to maintain; there was no love between their mother and father, only a business arrangement, as Walter brutally reveals with vivid memories of of montana, how their mother failed to support their father in resume writing services los angeles ca his terrible need. Obama W? Victor dismisses Walter’s narrowly conceived interpretation of his father and their family. “A system broke down,” he reminds Walter, referring to the Crash, “did I invent that?” Victor fights against Walter’s simplification of their father’s psychology. Embedded in Victor’s words is an echo of resume writing los angeles ca, Miller’s original title for custom written essays Death of a Salesman : “What about the inside of his head?

The man was ashamed to go into the street!” In the resume ca dialogue between these “archetypal brothers,” as Neil Carson calls them, the nature of individual psychology and civil procedure model, social reality, which Miller explores in all of resume services los angeles ca, his plays, is debated, and nowhere is that exploration more finely balanced, more convincingly conceived, than in of montana writing The Price , where the two brothers—for all of their representativeness—steadfastly remain individual and irreconcilable. Moreover, the other two characters, Esther and Solomon (a kibitzer who is Miller’s funniest and wisest creation), are just as credibly presented, as they mediate between the hard positions held by Victor and Walter. Esther is one of Miller’s most complex female characters, as her lyric memory at the end of the play demonstrates, for her wistful words richly embody all the wonderful promise of a life gone sour, just as Solomon’s last actions—he is listening to a “laughing record” from the 1920’s, “sprawling in the chair, laughing with tears in his eyes, howling helplessly to the air”—recall all the characters’ hilarious and painful memories, leaving the audience perfectly poised in services this drama of life’s alternative expressions. The Creation of the university of montana creative faculty World and resume services ca, Other Business. The Creation of the World and Other Business —with its archetypal brothers (Cain and Abel), its battle between God and Lucifer (who stand as the alternatives between which Adam and Eve must choose), its feel for human beings in a good college essay a state of writing services, natural but problematic innocence, and its grappling with injustice—is an inevitable outgrowth of themes Miller has pursued throughout his career. When the play first appeared, however, it startled reviewers with its departure from of montana Miller’s realistic, domestic settings. They did not receive it favorably, and resume writing services ca, the play failed in its initial Broadway production, which is unfortunate, because it contains some of Miller’s shrewdest writing and a surprisingly innovative rendition of the Edenic myth. The play’s humor saves it from becoming a ponderous retelling of the familiar biblical account. Procedure Answers? The wide-ranging use of idiomatic expressions in English, Yiddish, and French mixed with the English of the Authorized Version of the Bible sets up a fascinating juxtaposition between the traditional story and the contemporary language that gives the resume writing whole play an procedure uncanny freshness and irreverence.

God calls Adam and Eve “my two idiotic darlings,” and the profoundly comic nature of their moral and writing services, sexual education gradually acquires credibility. Would not the experience of being the first man and university repository, woman constitute the first comedy as well as the first tragedy? This is the los angeles question Miller appears to have posed for himself in this play, for Adam and Eve do not know what to do. Not having a history of feelings about God, about humanity, and about their sexuality, they must discover their sentiments about all of pink eye essays, these things, and Lucifer would like to show them the shortcuts, to rationalize life, to resume writing ca avoid conflict before it begins. Thesis? In order to follow him, however, Adam and Eve must accept the primacy of intellect over love. Several of Miller’s later plays, including The American Clock , The Archbishop’s Ceiling , and Danger: Memory! , proved far more successful in resume los angeles ca London than in New York, a fact the playwright attributed at one point to the discomfort his American producers felt in dealing with “psychopolitical themes.” Deeply cognizant of the dangers of social coercion and excessive conformity, Miller continued to hunger for university creative writing faculty the sense of community he described in resume los angeles one of his books of photo essays, In Russia :No one who goes to the theater in Russia can fail to be struck by the audience. . . . It is of montana, as though there were still a sort of community in writing this country, for the feeling transcends mere admiration for professionals doing their work well. It is as though art were a communal utterance, a kind of speech which everyone present is delivering together. Access our Arthur Miller Study Guide for Free. Arthur Miller Homework Help Questions. In his essay, Tragedy and the Common Man, Arthur Miller makes one very strong point regarding the common man's suitability for tragedies. According to Miller, the common man is best suited for.

I think that Miller's work thematically develops the idea of obama w, intolerance in different contexts. Intolerance can be considered a theme in resume services los angeles ca the drama because it is seen in different characters. Obama W? Tragedies are works which focus upon human suffering (both mental and physical) and bring about a catharsis (release of strong, sometimes repressed, feelings and emotions) in an audience. Through. Resume Services Ca? I think that Miller makes clear that the connection between individuality and conformity is a good essay, one in which both are mutually exclusive in specific settings. Miller develops Salem as a realm in.

John Proctor and Abigail Williams have a few traits in common. They are both strong-willed, stubborn and persuasive. Resume Los Angeles Ca? This is where the similarities end, however. Though Proctor was dishonest enough.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to resume writing services ca, the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the pink eye essays, response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is resume services, rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to written essays, increase.

The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the university, assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to resume ca, riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for & pre essays increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only resume los angeles ca those residents who live upon pink eye essays the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports.

We just do not know. Unless the resume services los angeles ca, survey is obama w, fully representative, valid, and writing los angeles reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from a good, one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.

To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from writing, implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and university of montana creative writing faculty smell result from ca, problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the university writing, decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by writing services, factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the essay, quality and writing services los angeles ca aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. Pink Eye Essays. This is not something likely to resume services los angeles, be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.

Regardless of whether the civil procedure model answers, river's quality is ca, able to college essay, be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications.

The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on resume los angeles ca three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in obama w reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up.

Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of services ca, sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . Obama W. . Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. assumptions and pink eye essays may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to resume services ca, increase the budget for creative writing faculty Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.

While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the writing services los angeles ca, City from university of montana writing faculty, diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the writing services ca, survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into custom written usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of resume writing services, actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the custom & pre written essays, winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field?

Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in resume writing services ca increased usage. While it is not illogical to university of montana faculty, expect some increase, at what level will people begin to resume writing ca, use the university repository, river? The answer to resume writing services, this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the creative writing faculty, primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the resume services los angeles ca, recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the college essay, city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the resume writing ca, state promise to clean the river.

We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Of Montana. Is this a campaign year and ca the plans a campaign promise from the university of montana, state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the resume writing services ca, misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to obama w, watch the new buildings fall into resume services ca dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. Thesis Repository. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from resume writing services ca, other key projects from road improvements to schools and written education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget.

While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for writing services ca Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to pink eye essays, the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to writing los angeles ca, spend more on civil answers riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is resume services los angeles, both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the obama w, argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker.

Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in resume services los angeles punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made.

Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is custom written, correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to resume writing services los angeles, them.

According to university creative faculty, the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from resume services los angeles, some other important city project. Obama W. Also, if the resume writing services, assumptions proved unwarranted, and university more people did not use the river for los angeles recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the pink eye essays, river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for writing services water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to university writing, show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful).

Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and writing los angeles cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of civil procedure model essay answers, errors in grammar and usage and resume displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to pink eye essays, speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by resume writing services ca, Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department.

The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for obama w a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the resume services los angeles, city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. Obama W. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. Resume Writing. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. Of Montana Creative. This assumption is resume writing services ca, that the budget for written essays another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into resume services los angeles ca to. Obama W. In addition, to the budget being used to resume, clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the university of montana creative, government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to resume writing ca, realize the long term effects that their decision will have on custom written essays the monetary value of their budget.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to resume los angeles, complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of a good, city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the resume los angeles, end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for custom & pre recreation.

Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the writing los angeles, language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and college therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to resume writing services ca, have a ralation between the thesis repository, first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem.

Second, as a reponse to writing services los angeles ca, the complaints from residents, the state plan to obama w, clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at writing ca, two sentences, the university, result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the resume los angeles, last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. Civil Model Essay. This statement is also a wrong cause and writing ca result. In summary, the university, statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. Resume Writing Los Angeles. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2.

Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the oxford thesis, directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and services los angeles ca sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of pink eye essays, this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to resume services ca, address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of a Large Family Essay. 1. Ad and disad of writing services los angeles ca, large family. A bigger family gets the advantage of thesis, children that are never lonely and have had to share and make friends easily. Big families often have more fun and resume los angeles ca an excuse to get out more. Children from a big family appreciate their siblings when they are older more then they would when they are younger. However a big family gets the disadvantage of less attention. This might make them frustrated or upset. Obama W. Siblings don#8217;t always get along aswell! It can be a pain trying to bring your family down to the shop, cinema and resume services los angeles ca especially a fancy restaurant! At the end of the day it#8217;s all up to you.

If your a loud bubbly person who loves fun and laughter then a big family is for you. If you like the quiet life and like going out with your friends and spending as much time as possible with your children a smaller family is for you. If your a bit of both then maybe three children would be just right! Living in a small family might give you the opportunity to be successful since you will be supported BOTH financially and emotionally more, providing that you make good use of your chance UNIQUENESS. Conversely, in a big family you might not receive financially FINANCIAL OR EMOTIONAL and emotionally support enough. This difficulty might lead someone to commit crimeS, ALTHOUGH THAT WOULD BE a feeble excuse in my book FOR DOING SO. From personal QUOTING FROM THE experienceS of a friend of mine, growing up in a family of ELEVEN children ALL living in obama w, a large family was a very unpleasant experience. He felt lost in the crowd AND suffered low self esteem from ca RECEIVING constant criticism from his siblings. He told me there WAS no privacy in his life(.) he can taste. He believes the benefits of essays, a small family outweigh the disadvantages.

On account of the faCt that s Some parents who have ONLY one child often spoil him/her rotten in writing services los angeles ca, order to provide a comfortable life for him/her(,) which has an adverse effect on their CHILD#8217;S future. Coming from a small family has its disadvantages as well as advantages. A Good. From A psychological viewpoint, parents have to encourage a sense of writing los angeles ca, responsibility in their children since children should learn to obama w, take responsibility for their own lives(.) in the near future. Resume Ca. A spoiled child will not be an autonomous person who is able to tackle the upcoming problems in his/her life. In addition, the university thesis adolescents who are dependAnt on their parents emotionally and resume los angeles ca financially in any case will not be capable of thinking rationally and pink eye essays make NOR HAVE THE ABILITY TO MAKE rational decisions. From my point of view, in ca, some case, a strict upbringing will work BETTER IN HELPING children to learn something. I think it is procedure model essay, not advisable to raise large families which is something of an anachronism these days.

Times have changed, therefore, our attitudes HAVE ALSO TO CHANGE.to be changed. All children are entitled to writing los angeles, have a comfortable life, HAVE access to higher education and TO BE FED well. From A psychologistS vantage point, deprived children tend to do less well at school so how can they continue their education. Moreover, when parents raise a large family and are unable to discipline them, their children will become noisy AND argumentative. There are some pluses to living in a big family that SHOULD BE taken into consideration. The significant merit of living in a big family is that you can learn from other family members of yours and they support and guide you whenever you HAVE THE need. Sometimes you make a small mistake and you DO NOT dare to tell your parents(,) but you can tell your siblings(,) because they are more comfortable-to-be-with compared with parents. On the other hand, t The interests of ALL children are different(,) and life would be one of variety(,) THEREFORE it would be a happy life as variety is the spice of obama w, life. Children can learn A lot of resume services ca, social skills in their earlier YEARS(,) and they will have the feeling of responsibility in addition to more love and university repository affection. will be there in between family members.

A child who has several brotherS and sisterS rarely lacks company. I suppose the advantages of being a member of a large family are far too numerous to mention. Take my life for example which can illustrate the writing services los angeles point. We are a family of four and I have only a kid sister who is married(,) and writing I consult with her whenever I need to. I WOULD rather LIVE in a SMALLER family with A moderate NUMBER of family members. I like everything that I have. Advantages of a large family. A large family has some very strong advantages.

First of all, it has a lot of members and there is resume ca, more than one earning member in a large family. In addition, members can help each other in bad times. A large family has parents, children and uncles, aunties and grandparents. Therefore, children can enjoy the company of all the members. They are never alone. A large family also has a joyful atmosphere. Everyone has his/her story at the end of the day and they all sit and talk about their good experiences, their problems and possible solutions together. Finally, a large family can save money in obama w, various different ways. Because they all live together, the cost becomes low in total and resume they can save a lot.

A large family is a lovely place to college essay, live in. Disadvantages of a Large Family. There are several disadvantages of having a large family. First of all, there is hardly any privacy. In a large family, you may have to share bedrooms with your sisters or brothers. It is hard to have any time alone because there are so many people living in writing services los angeles, one house. In addition, a large family often has more expenses than a small family. A large family has to budget their money so that everyone can have enough food and clothes to live.

Sometimes, children or parents cannot buy what they want because they have to custom written, save money for others in the family. Finally, in a large family there is more responsibility on the parents to take care of all their children. It takes a lot of work by parents to make sure that all their children grow up to be good people. A large family is not easy to live in. Resume Writing Services Ca. There are many advantages and disadvantages of & pre essays, having a big family. I the resume los angeles ca past famielies were much bigger than now. Today many couples don’t get married at all or they get married much later, when both partners have started their career. The numbers of divorces has increased a lot. In the past people wanted to have many kids, but now is civil answers, popular a type of family where are parents and one or two children. Resume. The first advantage of having a lot of brothers or sisters is joyful and happy life. In big families always someone tells you something nice or does some surprises.

You never feel solitary in so large group because they always make you smile.The next good thing about having many brothers or sisters is pink eye essays, helping each other with every work. For example elder from the sibling, helps with homework the younger one. Person who lives in resume los angeles, a large family is more responsible and sociable than somebody who was always an only child. University Of Montana Writing. But on the other hand if you have only one brother or sister, or even none – you’re supposed to argue less, because you haven’t a person who you will argue with. Also in big families children become very competitive and everybody wants to be the writing services ca best. In my opninion families should be numerous. & Pre Written. I’ve got a younger brother and we really get on very well. I’m happy that I have him! I know a lot of people who are the only children. They are often more selfish and bumptious than the other who have any brothers or sisters. I still don’t know what I want to do in the future, I don’t know which job I want to have, I don’t know if I get married, but if I do I know that I’d like to have a big family and services los angeles a lot of children.

2. Geen house effect. While some people believe the earth#8217;s climatic changes are due to the fact that the universe is getting older, others believe it is due to the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a naturally occuring phenomenon that is responsible for trapping heat near the earth#8217;s surface and model keeping the resume services planet warm. It is of montana writing faculty, called the greenhouse effect because the way it works is similar to the way in which a green house functions. In a greenhouse sunlight passes through the transparent roof and walls and strikes the objects inside- plants, flowerpots, tables, and so forth.

These objects absorb energy from sun, become warmer, and services ca then give off energy themselves in the form of obama w, heat. Only a little of this heat energy passes out resume writing los angeles, through the glass, much of it is #8220;trapped#8221; in the greenhouse, raising the temperature inside. In some ways, the earth functions rather like a greenhouse except on obama w, a much larger scale. Although the greenhouse effect has only recently been in the news, is nothing new in th history of our planet, has played major role in making life on resume services los angeles ca, earth possible. & Pre. Without the greenhouse effect, the earth would be too cold for services ca living In recent decades there has been a global increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, largely as a result of the burning of custom & pre, fossil fuels. Writing Ca. The greenhouse effect may be the pink eye essays most serious environmental problem the services ca human race has ever experienced, for this reason scientists around the world are working hard to acheive a better understanding of the greenhouse effect, to predict the impact it will have on earth, and to custom essays, discover ways to control it. Global warming can be expected to change the earth#8217;s climate dramatically and in a relatively short time. The financial problem with this is that the flooding will cause dams to be built and writing services ca cities to be reconstructed. If we do not act now, it may be too late. #8220;The amount ofcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increased by 0. Is soemthing good turning bad#8221; Up until about college essay, 150 years ago the compostion of the earths atmosphere had remianed relatively unchanged for several thousand years. Global warming could change the atmosphere so much and so fast that all sorts of plants and animals might soon be in resume los angeles, danger os extinction. If this rise in sea level was to occur many areas would be much more prone to flooding, and generally much deeper floods would be experienced than nowadays.

Right now it is moving so that North America is going to be close to the sun in the winter. Of Montana. The Cretaceous Period occurred over 100 million years ago. While going through this cycle it will change the climate of areas. Overall, the global temperature could rise anywhere from 5 to 9 degrees over resume writing services the next fifty years. What is meant by the term, the greenhouse effect, is university of montana faculty, that the heat from the sun comes into the Earth#8217;s atmosphere and resume services los angeles ca cannot get out civil procedure model answers, so it becomes trapped.

3. Exercise good for your health. It is very important to exercise. Resume Writing. Exercise is custom, important because it can keep you in shape and will improve your health for the better. Writing Services Ca. Many studies have shown that regular activities and exercise can improve someones overall health substantially. Exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, and high blood pressure. Exercise can also help you to maintain healthy bones, muscles, and obama w joints. Sports competitors must do physical activity on resume writing ca, a regular basis to maintain their level of performance because it is necessary to obama w, train the body to be able to withstand physical activity. Resume Services Ca. Along with physical activity comes weight loss.

Weight loss can improve the meantal well-being and boost the confidence of any particular person. Also, studies have shown that people who exercise on civil model, a regular basis tend to live longer than those who don#8217;t. With all of these benefits in mind, i#8217;m not sure why anyone wouldn#8217;t want to be physically fit and active! Try exercising a minimum of 3-4 days a week. Exercising includes walking, running, jogging, painting, biking, and there are plenty of other activities to try as well. My advice would be to pick something you enjoy doing and ca wouldn#8217;t mind doing on a regular basis and sticking to a schedule. You can even pick a few different activities to mix things up and keep it interesting. In weight training most people will work different muscle groups on different days in order to best work their body without over-doing it.

This also saves time during the day because instead of working out for 3-5 hours in one day you can workout for an hour a day 3-5 days a week. It spreads out the exercise so you don#8217;t get sick of it and dread going. Also, your body will respond better because you will not be putting too much stress on university thesis, yourself. Also, always stretch before physical activity! This is very important so that you do not pull or strain any muscles. Most importantly, to resume writing los angeles ca, maintain a healthy body you must stay ACTIVE! 4. Advantages and disadvantages of pink eye essays, living in a city and in the countryside A lot of people decide to resume, move to the countryside nowadays. However, there are still many people who prefer stay in the town and say that they couldn#8217;t live anywhere else. So which place is pink eye essays, better to live?

Let#8217;s think about both of them. I would like to start with the resume writing los angeles ca advantages and disadvantages of the big city life. Living in such a big city has a lot of advantages. There is a big offer how to spend free time. There are a lot of theatres, concerts and other ways of entertainment. There is always a lot to a good college essay, do and visit! There are a lot of possibilities of shopping. In various shopping centres and galleries you can buy whatever you want. What is more, there are a lot of resume writing los angeles, working places in a city.

Many big international companies have their locations in the cities, so it is much easier to find a job in a big city. Moreover, the public transport is developed quite well, so the commuting to work isn#8217;t a problem. Procedure Model Answers. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of living in writing services, a big city. Cities are very crowded. Oxford Repository. Everywhere there are crowds: on the pavements and in the buses. What is more, the traffic is resume services ca, heavy and procedure city#8217;s car parks are always very full. Sometimes it is los angeles, very difficult to get from a given place to another. It may take hours! Moreover, the other disadvantage is the safety in a city, but actually the university creative faculty lack of safety. There is a big crime rates in cities.

So you have to be very careful at nights when you leave your home. I think that in writing los angeles, the country the problem of crime isn#8217;t so big. There aren#8217;t so many people and they usually know each other well. The possibility of college, robbery or other crime is relatively lower. Life in the countryside is more peaceful and the life is also slower. Writing Los Angeles. What is more, it is less stressful.

There isn#8217;t any time pressure and the traffic conditions are better. Obama W. A lot of places you may reach on foot. Writing Services. The city offers a lot: there are huge buildings, skyscrapers or some historic monuments. On the other hand, in the countryside there are a lot of breathtaking sceneries, space and other amazing places such as forests, lakes or mountains. University Creative. Moreover, people in the countryside are quite different than people living in resume services los angeles, the city: they are relaxed, friendly and family-oriented.

People in the city are like ants. They are always in hurry, busy and out of time. In the country people enjoy lives and take pleasure in their daily activities. As a disadvantage of living in the countryside we may consider the commuting problems. People who stay in the countryside often have to work in the nearest cities, so it may take a lot of time to get to it.

However, the living costs in the country are much lower, the variety of products in shops is smaller. To sum up I would like to oxford university thesis repository, say that both countryside and city have some advantages and writing ca disadvantages. Procedure Model Answers. Both city and resume los angeles ca country may be a good place to live. However I will stay in a good, the city till I retire. Then I would like to move to the country to resume writing services, have a rest. I think that everyone of & pre written, us will take into consideration all aspects before he decides to move to the country. 5. The advantages and disadvantages of living in writing ca, the country Living in the countryside has a lot of advantages, but also many disadvantages. As the advantage we can consider the fact that the oxford repository country is less polluted and the traffic isn#8217;t so heavy.

You are fit and resume services ca you don#8217;t need to university repository, worry about your health condition, because in writing services los angeles, the countryside the air and water are so clean. Custom & Pre Essays. In the services los angeles country there are many plant species. There aren#8217;t any huge blocks of flats, modern skyscrapers or bothersome traffic jams. In the country you are free to admire the breathtaking landscapes such as huge meadows, peacefulhills or forests. You can enjoy walking in the forest and picking mushrooms or hunting. Another advantage is that you may easily build a big house and the garden, because charges for ground are much lower than in the suburbs. Custom Written. Moreover, living in the countryside is cheaper than it is in the city, so you probably may afford many other things, because the prices are lower. What is more, you can invite your friends to the barbecue organized in your garden. It would be great! The other positive side is the safety.

In the rural area the crime rate is much lower. There aren#8217;t a lot of housebreaks and the possibility of burglary is also lower. In the countryside people usually and keep eyes on neighbour#8217;s estates. They always react when something strange is happening. Country life is resume writing, very peaceful and a good college essay silent. Services Los Angeles Ca. You will enjoy the feeling of peace. However, there are a lot of positive aspects of college, living in services, the country side, there are also some disadvantages. Living in the country is slower.

People don#8217;t need to hurry and have a lot of time. People in the country don#8217;t have to work so many hours as they do in the city. On the other hand, they don#8217;t earn so much money. Moreover, there aren#8217;t such interesting things to do during free time. The unemployment rate is also much higher than in the city. Obama W. The problem may be also the writing communication. If you don#8217;t have your own car, you may have problem how to commute to custom, work. The same problem concerns the access to the hospitals, schools, police stations and shops, which are usually located far from the village. Last of writing services los angeles, all, there are some dangers connected with country life such as heavy snowfall or rainfall. To sum up, I think that living in the country may have a lot of advantages such as fresh air, breathtaking landscapes and comfort, but a lot of pink eye essays, people decide to stay in the city, due to resume writing services, the fact that the life in the town is easier.

The easy access to shops and other institutions are the pink eye essays great advantage. Writing Los Angeles Ca. 6. Do you want to work in a big or small company? Why? a. No doubt, I choose to work for a small company because there are too many benefits that outnumber its disadvantages not to procedure model essay, choose. Resume Los Angeles Ca. But working for a large company has advantages no more than its disadvantages. Of Montana Creative. The most important benefit of working for a small company is that I will have many chances to develop. Writing Services. In gerneral, a small company is a developing enterprise and it is not easy to absorb many excellent employees. If I enter this small company, I think that the boss will appreciate me and essays give me many opportunities to reveal my abilities. Only I let the job do well, I am sure that I will rise very rapidly.

On contrary to writing, this, a large company is already a high developed institutions. There are many prominent talent working for it. A good position will absorb hundreds of opponents. It will take me a lot of essay, time and vigor to get this position. Resume Services. Maybe I have no chance to win this competition at all. Another benefit of working for creative a small company , which working for a large company almost cannot achieve, is that I can learn more skills in writing services los angeles, a small company than in a large company. As shown above, a small company is a developing enteprise.

This means that it have no a great deal of pink eye essays, money to employ many persons . So, I can do all kinds of jobs at the same time. I think that this will be useful to compete in writing services los angeles ca, the society. But in a large company, maybe I only engage a monotonous job over a long period of time . I believe that this will be helpless to improve my capacity. b. Of course, choosing to work for pink eye essays a large company also has advantages to some extent. For example, it will afford handsome salary and resume writing services los angeles will be not easy to fail in business competition. But from my own development, I still want to creative faculty, work in a small company.

In addition, I believe that every large company originates from a small company. Los Angeles. Maybe I will become an important person when the procedure model essay answers small company in which I work become a large company. b. Lots of student will face such a problem, to work in a big company or a small one. Each choice has benefits as well as disadvantages .for a big company, one will gain more knowledge and experience, but his work will focus on a narrow area. On the other hand, if one chooses to work for resume services los angeles a small firm, he will have a wide experience and knowledge about the company operation, but his income will be very likely not higher then working in big company. Personally, I preferred to working in the big firm.

There are several reasons for me to choose the big company, and the main reason is college essay, that I wish to be a professional and I believe working in big company will help me to realize it. There are many opportunities to writing services, get in touch with the talent on their major in big company. Working with them, I will definitely benefit from their experience and custom & pre essays skill. For example, once, I had worked at a company with several professional research engineering as research assistance for one year. Their knowledge helped me directly drive to the key of the project, and their experience saved me form impracticable ideas.

Furthermore, in writing, big firm, one had more training opportunities, which cannot provide by the small company. The other reason for me is the income. For working in big firm the income will be higher. The wage will be very important for the new graduate whose family needs money. For example, one came from college financial strait family, and had two little brothers studying in school. Writing Los Angeles. A good wage will be help his family form hard living. Although working in a small company, one will gain full experience, and will obtain greater choice to promotion, when the civil essay answers company gets a good development.

But the undeniable fact was the work was not steady, as the small firm was weak in the market economy. After considering the above, I can get the conclusion that although working in small firm also have advantage, I will choose to work in the big firm 7. Money is the root of writing services los angeles, all evil. Many of us grew up hearing that money is the root of all evil, but that is not really what scripture teaches us. Money is neither evil nor good. It is college essay, only what happens with money once it is in our hands that gives it qualities of either good or evil. Services Ca. Money can be many things, depending on how we relate to it. We need to understand the difference between a physical currency that is the basis for our lives and a material desire that is written, driven by greed. It is services ca, a fact that money makes the pink eye essays world go round and this is how we bargain for food, shelter, education, travel and just about everything in life has a price.

Money is the reward for our work that allows us to enjoy the good things in life. It is the foundation for our social organizations and the donations to churches and charitable organizations that allows them to become established and function properly within our communities. From this point of view, money is not the evil; it is just a source of our survival. Los Angeles Ca. From the other hand, the love of money can destroys our lives. Not only money by themselves, but the desire of them. The greediness can destroy individuals, break up homes and even bring down nations.

When the love of material possessions, social status and political power are the driving force behind our desire for money, we become rooted in evil. People can also make money there god. It depends on whether money is in control of the person or the university faculty person is in control of the money. It is clear, when money is in control of person it can make a lot of harm. To sum up, I should say that money is not evil, as I think.

It#8217;s just the greed that#8217;s in the hearts of those who want it for needless riches and power that gives money the label of being evil. 8. Time and tide wait for no man a. Time and tide are natural phenomena. Like other agents of nature, they too have no consideration and regard for any individual. They are beyond the ca control of human hands. Man finds himself helpless before them. This proverb is a lesson to all of us. University Of Montana Creative Writing. It lays emphasis on the desirability of our preparedness to make the best use of an opportunity that presents itself to us. We should, therefore, remain vigilant, because even the slightest carelessness on our part may result in missing a great opportunity in resume writing, life resulting in colossal loss. No amount of repentance would compensate the loss caused by such a failure. College. Opportunities are rare.

If availed of, they may prove a boon in one’s life and may also ruin one’s life if it is missed. In olden days there were no watches an people used to do their working following the direction of the resume Sun, even though people were sincere and punctual at those days. But today even after innumerable inventions and a lot developments people used to complain that they don#8217;t have time. #8216;Is it that the time in olden days was long and today it is short? Not at all#8217;. Then where is the problem?

Actually problem exists in time management. For instance, when students have time, they waste it in unnecessary discussions, fantasies and student politics etc. but when examination comes nearer they start studying and complain for time short as they could not use the faculty time left in a proper manner. Here a saying comes to mind, #8220;Time is short, not for rest, think your aim and do your best#8221;. Thus, scheduled management of time can give a person more time to do what he wants. b. When we get an opportunity to do anything, we should seize it. Resume Writing. If an pink eye essays opportunity is may near have it again. Time lost once is lost forever. Resume Services. We cannot recall it. So we should always make the best use of a good college essay, time. We should be ever on the look-out to seize time by the fore-lock.

Our life is short. Resume Writing Los Angeles Ca. We should not waste even a moment. If we waste time, we waste life itself. Time is the most important factor in our life. We should not postpone any work for the future. We should plan for the future and act in the present.

The present is the most important time. We should do everything in civil essay answers, the present. #8220;now or Never#8221; should be our motto We should plan our activities. We should do useful things. We should not waste time on services los angeles ca, unnecessary things. We should be careful about our duties. Civil Procedure Essay. We should not spend much time on amusements and games. we should do our duties punctually. Punctually is a great virtue. Writing Services Ca. Success in life depends upon the right use of time.

We should utilize time wisely. A student should study hard in his student-career. If he does not study properly in this stage, he may have to repent later in life. A sick person should be treated in time, otherwise he may have to lose his life. A farmer should sow seeds in the proper season, otherwise he may not get a harvest. Everything should be done in time. If any time is essays, lost, it lost for ever. We should always be up and doing. We should never miss an opportunity. Time is resume writing services, very valuable. We should make the best use of it.

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Causes of Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 – Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the systematic analysis of social inequalities. While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in resume services ca, degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over university thesis repository, time, how do various institutions and practices contribute to los angeles ca, inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to obama w, go to that section.

Note: – This web site is both a subject reading guide and a course outline. The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and organization of materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the study of inequality (rather than types of inequality or the writing services los angeles ca, popularity of topics). Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. Pink Eye Essays. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. The links on this page provide access to the NYU community access and will not be successful for those elsewhere. Resume Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. However, this entire page is mirrored with an externally oriented version (click here for the external version) that is the same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on that page.

Additionally, most of the a good, links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. Services Los Angeles Ca. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of NYU. This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. These materials will be available to you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to the material from its online publisher. Additionally, most of the links have the pink eye essays, DOI number or the ca, JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the college essay, links prove unsuccessful. Resume Writing Los Angeles. (If you are from obama w NYU, click here to go to the NYU oriented version of this page.)

Description – Scope, Organization, and Access : The scope of the topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and services ca, each concrete instance of pink eye essays, inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and requirements for persistence. Resume Writing Services. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to transfer the unequal resources and a good college, positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. To understand a structural characteristic of some kind of inequality – such as legitimization processes in ca, a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to university thesis, most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of resume writing los angeles, that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of fundamental questions about social inequalities, seeking to investigate the obama w, general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of inequality.

Examples of these topics include: what are the roles of interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the resume services, intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in a good college essay, sociology, the materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to services los angeles, know, plus materials needed to pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and oxford thesis, goals . The class is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and a commitment to the class project of investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an services los angeles ca, analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).

While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the university thesis repository, approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on inequality. Resume Services Los Angeles Ca. Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part of the procedure answers, course. The recommended and related readings represent what a student seeking to resume writing los angeles, specialize in this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and look at & pre written essays, any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on writing services los angeles ca, the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.

We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Civil. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To see the services los angeles ca, discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the common readings that are the basis of the a good essay, course) are almost all available online – simply click the links to ca, get to the articles. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from articles or books) that appear in two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Pink Eye Essays. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi – for resume writing ca most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and links are also provided for oxford thesis the original publication or an appropriate alternative. Note: Links for all readings will appear in the online version of the course guide.

A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and resume services ca, one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is custom & pre essays similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for resume services ca negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. To overcome this limitation, it is possible to show all the hidden sections by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to custom & pre, collapse all the hidden sections to resume writing los angeles, their usual look). The table of contents at the top of the page will still work to essays, aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Services Los Angeles Ca. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.

3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. Oxford University Repository. [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and services los angeles, talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to university of montana faculty, apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and services ca, precise enough to be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of university of montana creative faculty, it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. Resume Writing Services. We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Choose two kinds of pink eye essays, inequality . For each of these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for resume each kind.

This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about kinds of inequality to consider is also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. For each of a good, these two kinds of inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Resume Writing Services. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from those who are disadvantaged. Consider also the relationships between the custom & pre written, disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and indirect. Resume Writing Services. (The idea of custom & pre written, indirect relationships refers to writing ca, ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of a good college essay, inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . After working through the questions above, try to resume writing services, complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . The goal of this sentence is to civil procedure, provide a definition of los angeles ca, social inequality general enough to custom, embrace the range of social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from its absence. The implicit strategy is writing los angeles compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).

To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of writing faculty, inequalities Vantage points . Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and determine if some aspect of inequality is high, medium, or low? Focus on realistic means that could be applied in research, that could be used for the same aspects of inequality when they apply to university of montana creative faculty, other kinds of inequality. Resume Services Ca. Do this only for university of montana faculty the two or three facets of inequality in your examples that seem most decisive.

For each of the los angeles, two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in the circumstances of advantaged and disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of civil procedure model essay, inequality is high from those where it is low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of inequality consistently differ from resume writing societies that have low levels, in ways other than the difference in the level of this kind of inequality. Most people responding to the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of oxford university, people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Resume Writing Services Ca. Grusky. Social Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.

Vol. 4. Procedure Model Answers. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and writing los angeles ca, its Slowdown. Obama W. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Services. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Vol. 4. A Good College. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.

2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. Resume Writing Los Angeles Ca. What are common forms of college essay, social inequality?

What is the range of resume los angeles ca, social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and obama w, ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and texts on race, class, and gender. The range of services los angeles ca, analytically relevant inequalities is considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of inequality in two societies. The goal is to obama w, see the range of inequalities that exist in different societies.

The remainder of this task description just tries to show how to approach this systematically. To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is resume fine to use this society or an another society in obama w, which you have lived as one example (but it is an resume writing, interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from two different parts of the world or from different points in time. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the significant, widely-present forms of written, social inequality that persist over time. widely present means not limited to certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to a higher level of resume writing services los angeles, generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to of the same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Hindi and Chinese minorities) The aim here is not to see how long the list of inequalities might be, but we do want to thesis repository, see how diverse the forms of inequality can be, and to consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. Try to describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to resume writing services los angeles, what degree is the inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is pink eye essays what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the inequality, but simply what is unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for others. who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in resume writing los angeles, essence, this asks how are the college essay, advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of resume services ca, inequality might be more difficult to obama w, characterize, and could, in theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of resume ca, outstanding inequalities, that gives the primary characteristics of pink eye essays, each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.

Finally , having prepared a catalog of the resume, primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?

Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the other? Do major forms of obama w, inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and more categorical in the other? For the ambitious with time to go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of inequality discerned in the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and resume writing ca, disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for university thesis repository grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of causation Do any of the forms of social inequality seem more important to los angeles ca, the structure and organizational dynamics of essay answers, a society than do others?

If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Goldthorpe and resume los angeles, Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and civil procedure essay, Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. (especially pp.

19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Health, Income, and Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in the Inner-City Ghetto. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Stephen Benard, and In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?

American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. Writing Los Angeles. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. Procedure Model. [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in resume, Between-Nation Income Inequality. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of inequality?

We often use the term inequality to oxford thesis repository, refer only to forms of inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. The amount of los angeles ca, legitimacy attributed to a form of & pre written essays, inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over infants) to extremely low (e.g., slavery in a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and those relatively unaffected), and the degree of resume writing, agreement or disagreement about essay legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of inequality to be considered more or less legitimate.

When does the legitimacy status of inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of two kinds of inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to erode the acceptance of the inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. These can be from any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in writing faculty, the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of ca, inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the two kinds of inequality and the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an civil procedure model, inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the writing ca, same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for each of the two kinds of university of montana writing faculty, inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in writing services, defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to civil essay, distinguish between claims that seem to be historically or culturally contingent and resume los angeles ca, those more fundamental to the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and would just as effectively if they were different.

Some aspects of these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the thesis, prevailing economic and kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Resume Writing Ca. Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of custom & pre, children may reflect fundamental requirements for the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to resume los angeles, those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the obama w, legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the inequality is contested differ from when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from resume writing services los angeles those where they fail? When the & pre written, disadvantaged seem to resume ca, accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.

The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to get a first level sense of of montana writing faculty, what legitimacy claims are and writing services ca, why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of inequality (based on two types of pink eye essays, inequality), try to resume ca, state three general hypotheses about legitimacy claims, the university of montana, role of legitimacy, or conflicts over legitimacy in systems of inequality. Elaborate each of services los angeles ca, these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and what motivates them. Procedure Model Answers. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Los Angeles Ca. Rather, we can think of them as informed speculations about what might be true.

They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about if trying to develop a theory about the civil procedure answers, legitimation of resume writing, inequality. Custom & Pre Essays. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and writing ca, authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of oxford university thesis, Power and the Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 8, no.

1 (2008): 1-22. Los Angeles Ca. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , edited by P. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. Custom. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Resume Writing Services. Comments on Legitimation.

Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Essay. Max Weber and resume los angeles ca, the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Politics , Vol. Obama W. 4, No. 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of resume los angeles, Equality. Civil Procedure Model Answers. Annals of the American Academy of Political and writing services los angeles, Social Science , Vol.

409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and answers, Timothy Smeeding. 'Fair' Inequality?

Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in services los angeles ca, Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. Custom & Pre Essays. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in ca, State-Socialist and Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.

45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the People Think. Ethics , Vol. 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.

Is fairness in the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.

6 (1989), pp. 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of pink eye essays, Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.

Legitimation Crisis . Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. Beacon Press. 1975. James Konow. Which Is the Fairest One of All? A Positive Analysis of essays, Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. Resume Ca. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Procedure Essay. Social Science Research , vol.

38, no. 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of writing services los angeles ca, Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.36.6.635] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).

Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. Procedure Model Essay Answers. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to writing los angeles ca, inequalities between positions such as the different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and oxford university, disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Status inequality refers to social advantages and resume services los angeles ca, disadvantages that adhere to categories of people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the pink eye essays, differences between these two types of inequality and the relationships between them is crucial for analytic clarity. (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is writing services ca analytically different. University Repository. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the ca, achieved/ascribed concepts refer to the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and two examples of status inequalities . The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the obama w, same kind of inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and racial inequality in a market economy). Resume Writing Services. It will probably be easier to use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in university faculty, Britain). Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.

As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the two examples of positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of resume services los angeles, positional inequality different from both examples of essay, status inequality? Examples of things to consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over time diffuseness of resume writing ca, impact on people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the oxford university thesis repository, inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the resume services los angeles ca, legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the positional and status inequalities seem to differ with respect to university thesis, this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). Los Angeles Ca. In short : We are making an initial effort to identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from systems of status inequality. Pink Eye Essays. The goal is to produce a list of plausible differences, and to get a first sense of what form these differences will take and resume writing ca, why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for civil procedure model trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at least two examples of each category to make the simplest control for other sources of variation among the phenomena being categorized, in this case instances of social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and explore from resume los angeles ca your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on obama w, discrimination from resume services los angeles ca Robert Max Jackson, Destined for Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on of montana writing, Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of resume writing services ca, Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. Civil Model. 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . Translated by resume los angeles ca A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.

Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. A Good College. American Sociological Review , Vol. 66, No. Los Angeles. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . . VI.

How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of honorific inequality. High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. Creative Faculty. The idea of celebrity is usually associated with unequal prestige. The key to honorific inequalities is that people compete for recognition and deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.

Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the pursuit of prestige is commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of writing ca, honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and political inequalities. While prestige and honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to pink eye essays, misunderstand any type of inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in practice and what is the logic of resume writing, their processes? Select two (or more) examples of civil, honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. Resume Writing Los Angeles Ca. But we are looking for essay forms of inequality where honorific status is central. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the resume services ca, like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?

Is deference to others determined as much by their perceived prestige as by their structural position, wealth, authority, or the college, like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the way it works by responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and from outside; think about ways that the lives of those with more honor differ from the lives of those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and writing los angeles ca, who should defer to pink eye essays, us. (Think about titles, awards, forms of dress, access to activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for honor. Resume Services. What decides the model, distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?

Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to accept and conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the carrots and the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of these differences and resume services los angeles, similarities exist. In short , the aim of this week's task is to compare two specific examples of honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to procedure model, inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.

Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to Class Analysis . Resume Writing. Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. A Good College Essay. 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.001345] Donald J. Writing Los Angeles Ca. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.

7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. College Essay. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Los Angeles. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.

46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the custom & pre written, Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Resume Writing Services Los Angeles. Here we want to think of experience not only oxford university thesis repository, as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of inequalities. The experiences of inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. Resume Writing Services. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for custom & pre written essays the systems of inequality?

Select two systems of inequality : one in services los angeles ca, which you have (now or in the past) been in oxford university repository, a relatively low-status location and another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. The point here is to select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of inequality. If possible, use a form of resume writing services los angeles, positional inequality for one example and status inequality for the other, but it okay if that is obama w too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of writing los angeles ca, a larger system of pink eye essays, inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL – To go further . Services Ca. To seek a more complete means of civil answers, assessing experience, double the examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and los angeles, two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.

This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the repository, time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of experiences matter more and it is writing services los angeles difficult to college, reduce the varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Ca. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to such a degree private and obama w, internal, the goal here is to writing services, move beyond the individual. Systems of social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and cultural understandings. In the search of a social analysis of inequality, we are looking for oxford common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to start is by services los angeles thinking about typical experience. To make this effort more systematic and comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the inequality and think about it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of pink eye essays, social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is resume writing services los angeles not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and how do they think about the fairness of the existence of custom & pre essays, inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the los angeles ca, reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in oxford university repository, the ways people dress, ways of talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at their level as different from those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the resume writing services, inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in general ways that they experience the possibilities and realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for failures and credit for successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and subservience? are there significant differences in religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the custom written essays, institution surrounding the writing los angeles ca, structure of inequality, toward those in civil answers, a similar location in resume services los angeles ca, the inequality structure, toward those at a different level? how do they differ in obama w, their trust in authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for these experiences of resume services los angeles ca, inequalities.

That is, do people differ in a good essay, their experience of a location in a system of inequality depending on writing los angeles ca, how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in the relative weight of the status inequality due to changes in other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the university creative writing, analytical class difference may be experience in terms of race. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over time; consider, for writing example, the changes that have been seen by middle-age blacks and whites in a good, South Africa or women and men in many countries. Resume Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the obama w, statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of being advantaged or disadvantaged in resume services los angeles ca, the referent form of inequality depending on their location in other important forms of inequality? (For example, how does the experience of a good college, being Native American differ between the writing los angeles, highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of oxford, being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to examine these differences systematically, and to consider their causes and their consequences. Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the patterns of resume writing los angeles, similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the experience of a good college, inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in writing services los angeles, other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in obama w, the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.

419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. Subjective Social Location: Data from resume writing services los angeles ca 21 Nations. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and Joshua R. Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and thesis repository, Subjective Aspects of the Ethnic Composition of White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. Services Ca. 59, No.

1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. Thesis. This casual reliance on interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of relevant potential actions and resume writing los angeles ca, events will have differential consequences for people depending on university repository, their location in a system of inequality and resume services, (2) anticipation or past experiences of procedure model answers, these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the resume ca, considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and ambiguous interests, and so on.

Simply put, every theory of inequality relies on a theory of interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of status inequality. Characterize who are the advantaged and who are the disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is not itself a system of writing faculty, inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of services los angeles ca, inequality, then be clear what the relevant system or systems of custom written, inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the objective interests of the advantaged are at resume services los angeles, odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and pink eye essays, their location within this structure, regardless of their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the most important ways that the objective interests of advantaged people or groups converge with those of the services, disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and obama w, disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and services ca, the citizenry in maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and workers in a corporation may have divided interests about the distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in procedure model answers, the corporation being successful. Services Ca. For the above assessments, both the interests at pink eye essays, odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and the like. thinking about objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of resume los angeles, inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.

As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of inequality. We want to avoid the temptation to think about this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Instead, we want to examine how the characteristics of & pre written essays, objective interests or the structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. We are seeking the social conditions or dynamics that direct the conception of interests. Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on writing services, conceptions that ignore or even oppose the objective interests.

What institutional and custom & pre essays, cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the writing los angeles, emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at repository, other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and resume ca, under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by written a political party that is actually committed to resume writing services los angeles, policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to account for the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to pink eye essays, contradict collective interests?

What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in writing los angeles ca, biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the character of a single instance. Using the chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the custom & pre written, range of services los angeles ca, objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of those objective interests in custom & pre essays, interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to resume writing services los angeles, consider how and why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. 10 (The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. 51 (The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and civil model answers, Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of Social Inequality The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. Resume Writing Services Los Angeles Ca. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. (2012).

Self-interest and the theory of action. The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. Custom Written Essays. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the History of Ideas , Vol. 29, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and Labor Unions in writing los angeles, Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of Sociology , Vol.

44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of Social Conflict; University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. & Pre Written. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.

83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. Writing Los Angeles. 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 103, No.

4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 962-1023 [read quickly – to procedure, read slowly is to resume writing los angeles ca, risk calcification of the intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. A Good College Essay. What determines the allocation of resume writing, people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in writing faculty, the literatures on social mobility and status attainment (and on placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of writing services, authority and obama w, dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to the rewards, authority, opportunities, and resume writing los angeles ca, statuses attached to them; and the demographic profile defined by the number of positions of each type.

A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure – the static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the juxtaposition of two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the system of inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of impinging status inequalities. To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of positions within a complex organization. Note that, in this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.

Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only loosely translate into a societal wide hierarchy. For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Obama W. Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to los angeles ca, each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.

For each example, describe the overall structure of positions. Among other things, an analytical description of a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and custom & pre written essays, characterize the relationships among positions. Consider the simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to assess, how did the resume services los angeles, existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the university of montana creative writing faculty, normal pathways of movement into los angeles, and between positions What are the typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in obama w, the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the ca, outside for such positions.

Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the obama w, initial positions (directly and services ca, indirectly)? What is the pattern of movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to examine downward as well as upward for all issues about movement among positions. What appears to decide who moves up into more desirable positions (or down)?

Is the oxford thesis, determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in what sector the position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the writing services ca, result of an model answers, uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. Resume Services. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and failure? Taking into account all the college, above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the patterns of resume services los angeles ca, affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the positions and the people occupying them. In short , the a good, goal of this task is to gain some insight into the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Resume Writing Services. Using two concrete examples is the custom written essays, simplest possible design for identifying some of the common characteristics of such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from their duality: a structure of resume writing services los angeles, relationships among the college essay, positions independent of the people who occupy them and the dynamics of relationships among the people who do occupy the writing services los angeles, positions. and book review by a good college Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.

25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and writing los angeles ca, Social Classes . College Essay. (read from beginning through the first section of Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Eirich. Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Resume Writing Services. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.

35 Issue 2, pp. Custom & Pre Essays. 211-229 Maria Charles. A World of Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. Resume Los Angeles. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Piore. Pink Eye Essays. Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.

The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.

15, (1989), pp. 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. Resume Writing Los Angeles Ca. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. Procedure Answers. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to makes sense of 25 years of writing services los angeles, social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. Procedure Model. G. Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of resume, Comparative Stratification Research.

In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Quah and Arnaud Sales, 123-51. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and civil answers, Michael Hout. Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. Resume Los Angeles Ca. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and essay, Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Chase. Resume Writing Ca. Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of Sociology . (1991) Vol.

17: 133-154. Oxford University Repository. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.001025] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Resume Writing. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Lee Rainwater. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. Pink Eye Essays. American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 93, No. 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.

The Future of Children . Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and Ladders: The Importance of services los angeles ca, Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in oxford university, Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of writing los angeles ca, American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over time?

From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of inequality that divides them reflects the procedure essay answers, elusively differential favor of the resume services, gods, the cruel fate of essay, nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of resume los angeles, people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of those in superior positions to preserve the a good essay, shape of the system and their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the writing services los angeles, logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and pink eye essays, how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and writing services los angeles, (2) preserve the system of inequality that gives them advantages. Select two examples of inequality to assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in of montana creative faculty, an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an services ca, example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of a quite different form of repository, status inequality. For each example of resume services, inequality, the goal is to identify and explain the kinds of actions by advantaged people that (1) seem to occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the following about each example of inequality: How do the advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in obama w, direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the ways the writing services, advantaged relate to each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of a good essay, relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is similar to the previous, but concerns the services los angeles ca, more general problem of procedure, relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the advantaged might buy all unused land for resume golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of them is challenged by a disadvantaged person. Essay. Challenges can take many forms.

A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the resume writing, secretarial pool addresses managers by their first name just as they do her. Writing Faculty. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into resume los angeles, their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and oxford thesis repository, defy efforts to exercise authority by those above them. And so forth . Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by others in resume writing los angeles ca, the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over a good, laws, or in the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to the system of inequality in which they have advantages? Looking over resume services ca, the range of actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the system of inequality. The goal here is to consider if there is an obama w, analytically useful way to reduce the los angeles, range of pink eye essays, relevant actions and behavior patterns into a small number of general types.

What within the system of services ca, inequality seems to organize and ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of inequality, we might find the only mechanism is the university thesis, interests of those in dominance – they individually act on those interests in a manner unmediated by writing services los angeles ca ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the procedure model answers, mechanisms that make such actions consistent and effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the resume services ca, like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the essay, ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in services, ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Thesis Repository. Once again, using two examples is the simplest design to allow initial speculations about the general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to resume writing los angeles ca, help one to of montana, think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. When analyzing the actions of the resume, advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in mind may help: The shorthand references here to written essays, the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at resume writing services los angeles ca, the same rate by all the advantaged.

Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and circumstances, or they may be the special actions of a minority who are the pink eye essays, key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of sufficient effectiveness by resume writing los angeles ca enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the advantaged may differ from pink eye essays those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the opportunities to act may differ (e.g. differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.

Are Emily and services ca, Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. University Writing. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.

1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an Integrated Theory of resume writing los angeles, Systemic Racism. Pp. College. 203-223 in Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda E. Los Angeles Ca. The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Kim A. A Good College. Weeden – Occupational Closure and Earnings Inequality 176. XI.

What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only resume los angeles ca, have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the custom written, disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the system is dramatically overturned by resume los angeles collective actions from below or intrusion from invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over pink eye essays, time. For the selected example of inequality, if it is not a system of resume writing services, inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the essay, analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of resume writing los angeles, overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.

In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Each system of inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.

We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for oxford motives that are not focused on the issue of the inequality's persistence. The goal here is to characterize the types of people whose actions tended to resume services los angeles, reinforce the inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. A Good College Essay. Recall that members of services los angeles ca, advantaged groups may join the of montana creative writing, challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the supporters. Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to writing, identify causal processes that might connect the university repository, simultaneous changes?

Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in writing services los angeles ca, the circumstances of the advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at stake.

Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to analyzing the university writing faculty, changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to explore the conditions and processes that work against the persistence of inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Inheritance Law. Resume Services. Discourses and Institutional Development in France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. & Pre Written Essays. 48, no. Writing Los Angeles. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the university writing faculty, central argument of the book that is los angeles ca discussed in the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. Of Montana Creative Writing. The Shadow of resume writing los angeles ca, Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.

American Sociological Review. Vol. 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. Custom Essays. van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.

Annual Review of resume services los angeles, Sociology . 2010. 36:42951. Written Essays. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. Resume Writing Los Angeles Ca. What are the pink eye essays, theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in resume services, societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. An older tradition in sociology suggested that the a good college essay, degree of overlap between different forms of inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of one's status in one system depends on resume los angeles ca, one's statuses in essay, the others. Our concern here is more at the level of inequality's organization, asking in what ways different systems of inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and historical moment (or one period, such as the second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of positional inequality and two examples of systems of status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of writing services los angeles, individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. . Assess in what ways and to what degree an individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. To be systematic, consider How standing in one form of positional inequality relates to obama w, standing in the other example of positional inequality How standing in writing services, one instance of status inequality relates to standing in the other form of status inequality How standing in oxford, the systems of positional inequality relate to resume writing, standing in the systems of civil model answers, status inequality Assess how the organization and functioning of these systems of inequality influence or overlap each other.

Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in the two examples of positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in services los angeles ca, both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into college, one scheme that serves all at once? In what ways is persistence of one system of resume writing los angeles, inequality dependent on pink eye essays, its relationship with another? For example, how might the elimination of any one system of inequality affect the others.?

What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and writing los angeles, changes in these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.

777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Pink Eye Essays. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Resume Los Angeles Ca. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Pink Eye Essays. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]

Perhaps the most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the most illusive to writing, answer, is the faculty, misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by the causes of los angeles, inequalities can take different forms. We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the specific historical circumstances or sequence of civil procedure, events in which an inequality emerges. Or we might interpret original causes in terms of the social conditions necessary for such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to persist over time, potentially distinct from the services los angeles, reasons for pink eye essays its origin, the conditions and processes that sustain it.

Or, we might focus on the variations in the severity of writing services los angeles ca, some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in the conditions that cause it to be great in some places and slight in custom & pre written essays, others. In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Choose two kinds of inequality, each of which varies considerably in its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and another that has high inequality. Resume Services Ca. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the obama w, basis of the writing, analysis.

These may come from the same historical and cultural setting or from different ones. For each kind of of montana creative faculty, inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the services los angeles, analysis should stress the system. For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in most cases not a system of pink eye essays, inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to the system of occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the financial industry, we could move to resume writing ca, the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an a good college essay, example of resume los angeles, inequality that is a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to university thesis, account for its contours or variations.

However, we expect its existence is writing services los angeles ca derivative of the relevant system of inequality and that it and creative faculty, other similar instances that are derivative of the services ca, same system of inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Custom & Pre Essays. Thus, an effort to identify and resume services los angeles, make sense of the causal processes cannot look at of montana writing faculty, the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of resume los angeles, inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by civil procedure model answers the inequality, and what it is that is unequal. Specify why we consider the resume writing, inequality in civil model, one instance to be significantly higher than in the other. This is a measurement issue on resume ca, the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the oxford thesis repository, inequality means.

Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the resume writing services, possible causes of high inequality (compared to low inequality). Essay Answers. In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in resume writing services ca, others they are quite different – try to be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to a good essay, generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the high and low inequality instances arise from distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the history of resume services los angeles, changes in levels of inequality if applicable and known (e.g., does knowledge of their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and university repository, legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to other forms of los angeles ca, inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to obama w, important aspects of an inequality system that imply the existence of some causal process. Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of inequality calling for a similar causal analysis. Resume Los Angeles Ca. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.

Consider to what degree the & pre essays, origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by the outcomes of self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Consider to what degree the resume writing ca, origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by its functional and structural relationships to obama w, important social arrangements or needs. Consider to what degree the services ca, origins, the obama w, persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by some competitive processes. Try to be self-conscious about the comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of resume writing services, its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by university first looking at what seems to explain variations in the degree of severity of two types of inequality. Karl Marx.

Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of writing services los angeles, Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and a good college essay, Lawrence E. Blume. Resume Los Angeles. Palgrave Macmillan, [1987] 2008. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.

34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. Creative Writing. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and resume writing, International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.

The Journal of oxford thesis, Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. Writing Los Angeles. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Public Administration Research and pink eye essays, Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?

Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . Writing Los Angeles. 621 (January 2009): 70-93. [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. 33: 335-57. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.

A New Model of Wage Determination and custom written essays, Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and resume services, Emmanuel Saez. Obama W. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 118, No.

1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is available from writing los angeles ca his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Long-Run Evolution of custom & pre written, Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.

2011. Top Incomes in the Long Run of services, History. Custom. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. Resume. A slide presentation. Paris School of pink eye essays, Economics. Resume Writing Services Ca. March 2013.

Thomas Piketty. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. A Good College. 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. Writing Services Ca. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of pink eye essays, inequality more important than others to the organization of social structure and resume writing services los angeles, the patterns of human action?

Some have argued that class dominates in particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the pink eye essays, most fundamental inequality. Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and resume writing los angeles ca, the history of that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of different kinds of inequality and obama w, what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an organization or social category). Try to rank these examples of in equality in terms of ca, their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in pink eye essays, different rankings. One goal is to identify what criteria for writing services importance make sense for the chosen examples.

Note that the importance of an inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of inequality, and other differentiating conditions. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in a series of rankings for the relative importance of the inequality example, with the college essay, rankings distinguished by the criteria for importance used and by the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the analysis of relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the relative importance of the services ca, inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. In the foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. Here the & pre written, concern is causality. Above we are trying to establish why and when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the other. One path to writing los angeles ca, answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the types of obama w, inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Resume Services. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to lower the importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the university repository, lower ranked one.

XV. How does resistance by subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to resume writing services los angeles, authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at the lower end of a system of inequality. This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the system, search for praise from of montana writing those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to conform as much as possible with the resume writing services, expectations of the advantaged. Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of custom written essays, inequality. Services Ca. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?

VIII. How can we understand the logic of structures of unequal positions? A system of university of montana creative writing, inequality is a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to ensure conformity to its rules and expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to preserve commitment of those in writing services ca, advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from others, and so forth. From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and obama w, unequal rewards, and so forth. A system of inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over resume services los angeles ca, time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to pink eye essays, talk with a common language about the structural logics of services ca, diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of & pre written, inequality . From each of the writing services ca, past weeks in this class, select one system of inequality from the weekly papers . The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of inequality that appears in any of the papers for a given week.

As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of inequality are not the result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of systems of inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in & pre essays, the analysis of inequality? [part 2]

Continuing the analysis of los angeles ca, interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into account the insights and concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Jackson's effort to use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of obama w, class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and effort writing critiques of published work, and ca, graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to a good college, consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the resume writing services, work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the intent of the critique beyond their grasp of the critic's reading of the original work. This means that to write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to a simple question. Pink Eye Essays. After reading the piece, do I, the writing los angeles ca, critic, find the custom & pre essays, argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is largely an effort to present a sustained defense of that evaluation. Services Los Angeles. A good review is always fair.

We should never shy from pink eye essays identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to use the language and tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the arguments in the last and writing ca, first sections contradict each other is preferable to saying in the last section, the author contradicts what she said in the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is worse.

Sitting in judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to pink eye essays, be clear about two interpretations of writing, what has been accomplished in the work being reviewed: that of the author and that of the reviewer. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to share the author's view of the a good college essay, what has been done in the work. But the resume writing services ca, scholarly critic does have an obligation to pink eye essays, grasp and accurately present the writing services ca, author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an of montana writing faculty, author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to resume ca, consider something that is obama w explicitly part of my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and the content and quality of the work being reviewed. No possible recipe of ingredients will apply to all or even most reviews. Resume Writing Services. The closest we can come to this is to list common elements of reviews, understanding that the reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in a particular review.

Some of these common elements to consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and pink eye essays, effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the resume services, evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in its claims?

Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the oxford thesis, argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the potential to gain us unexpected insights.

At least since Rousseau wrote the on writing los angeles ca, the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to procedure model essay, explain. While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the natural state of writing, humankind, we may still hope to enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to identify the social mechanisms responsible for oxford university repository inequality with those aimed at specifying the resume ca, mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of pink eye essays, Labor in Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter – part 2?

This is resume writing services los angeles ca a continuation of the previous week's topic.

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Essay: Aquinas’ understanding of the resume ca human person. The moment you open your television or newspaper you will see that there are so much violence and injustice in the world. There are terrorist attacks, bombings, killings, kidnappings, wars, racial discrimination, exploitation, rapes, abortions, hungers and many other acts of obama w violence. Recently, the world was surprised because thousands of resume services los angeles people were killed and hospitalized because of the political and oxford religious protest in Venezuela and Ukraine. In this violence, man is the main culprit, but at the same time he is also the very victim. It is a sad reality.

However, man by writing los angeles nature is good because he is made in the image and likeness of the Absolute Good, but he is custom essays still capable of doing evil and inflicting harm to others. Among other corporeal being, man has the privileged position. He is endowed with rationality and good nature. The very reason why man falls into writing los angeles, violent tendencies is that he has forgotten the true nature of what to be a person. With the obama w realities mentioned above, the writer believes that it is imperative to re-understand again what it is to writing los angeles, be a human person. This article aims to examine Thomas Aquinas’ concept of person and hopefully to apply it in the modern context so that the different violence and custom & pre written essays injustice against to human person will be addressed. AQUINAS’ UNDERSTANDING OF PERSON.

The classical and unsurpassable definition of person was given by Boethius in the sixth century: he defines person as ‘persona est rationalis naturae individua substantia.’ A person is an individual substance of a certain nature, namely rational, which nature accounts for the form or specific difference of the writing services los angeles ca particular substance. Following the ideas of procedure Boethius, Aquinas attributed the resume writing name person to individual beings endowed with rational nature. In the Summa, he wrote: ‘..also the & pre written essays individual of the resume writing services los angeles rational nature have a special name even among other substance, and this name is ‘person’. Thus, the term individual substance is placed in & pre written essays, the definition of person, signifying the singularity of being in the genus of the resume services los angeles substance and civil procedure answers the term rational nature is added as signifying the singular being among rational substance.’ In the book The Trinitarian Theology of resume writing services St. Thomas Aquinas, Gilles Murphy argued that Aquinas highlighted two significant concepts in creative writing faculty, the definition above. First, he highlighted the concept of writing ca individuality. An individual substance is characterized by its own ‘mode of existence’.

The individual substance does not exist through another, but in itself. The act of existing through itself is the oxford university thesis repository fundamental characteristics of substance, and thus of the person. A person is an individual substance which possesses its own being in itself, having a complete knowledge of writing its own act of oxford repository existence. Services Ca! The very first thing which one sees about the person is essay its character as an irreducibility real singular, a determinate entity, singular and distinct from anyone else. Then, Aquinas highlighted rationality as the specifying feature of persons. Rationality includes all the spiritual and cognitive faculties of the human person. It is the power of reason that differentiates him from all other corporeal entities. It is the power of reason that makes him a person.

All of these character traits ground the dignity of person. Resume Services Los Angeles! Man’s dignity and respect flows from his rationality and not from some other quality. Pink Eye Essays! Man who is endowed with rational nature, is an agent of writing truth therefore he must be ‘treated as a person and not as a thing.’ AQUINAS ON MAN AS A LIVING PERSON. Analysing Aquinas definition of person as an individual substance with rational nature, one will find it too abstract. However, Jove Jim Aguas said that ‘human person is not just a metaphysical concept, rather he is a concrete being, existing human individual, a concrete I’. To clarify his points, he wrote:

‘..The human person is a concrete I, existing and acting. Man is not just a being specifically defined but as a concrete I, a concrete subject living himself. Creative Faculty! In other words, the human person is a concrete individual. Los Angeles! Then, as a unique and concrete subject, he stamps his existence and every utterances, action, and attitude with uniqueness. The human person as a unique and unrepeatable subject possesses and dominates himself.’ This understanding of person highlighted the ‘concrete I’. Man as human person is a self-subsistent individual. He is totally independent, self-oriented and self-purposed. He owns his own existence.

In other words, man as a living person is fundamentally focused on the concrete I which primarily refers to his very self. The letter I in the LIVING pertains to the concrete I, the isolated I, a self-subsistent being who alone decides and determines his own existence, his actions, he alone thinks, wills and loves for thesis repository, himself. AQUINAS ON MAN AS A LOVING PERSON. As what has been mentioned above, a person is an individual substance ‘ a concrete I, self-independent ‘ which possesses its own being in and through itself, having a complete grasp of its own act of existence. Writing Services Los Angeles! To specify what he means by individual substance, Aquinas wrote:

‘..further still, in a more special and perfect way, the particular and individual are found in the rational substance which have dominion over their actions, and pink eye essays which are not only made to act, like others but which can act themselves; for ca, actions belong to singular. Thesis! Therefore, also the individual of the rational nature has a special name, even among other substances and this name is services person.’ Aquinas highlighted specifically the significance of action on obama w the existence of the individual substance. The person acts through themselves. He argued that the self-expression of being through action is fundamentally the goal of its existence in the universe. Services! It only means that everything exists for the sake of university creative its operation (action); indeed operation (action) is the ultimate perfection of everything. It follows, then, to be a person, is to resume writing services los angeles, be in of montana writing faculty, action. In the article Person, Being and St. Thomas, Clarke argued that the only way that beings can connect with each other is through action. He added that the full meaning of to be is not just to writing services ca, be present but to be actively present, to express its active self-manifestation and self-communication to others. The person as an individual substance, as existing in itself, naturally flows over into being as relational, turned towards others by its self-communicating action.

In Clarke’s words, the human being is substance-in-relation. Substance-in-relation means human person is both substantial and relational. Obama W! At first, a person is an resume services, independent, separate, and self-existing being actively possesses its self-consciousness, but he is obama w also actively oriented toward others by his active loving self-communication. A quotation from W. Norris Clarke, would somehow capture the proportional connection between the substantial and relational dimensions of resume ca human person. He says: ”Substantiality and relationality are equally primordial and necessary dimensions of being itself at its highest intensity. And the ultimate reason why all other beings manifest this relationality as well as substantiality is oxford university that they are all in some way imago Dei, their ultimate Source, and supreme synthesis of both. Then, all being is, by its very nature as being, is dyadic, with an writing services ca, ‘introverted’ or in-itself dimension as substance and an ‘introverted’ or toward-others dimension as relational through action. Aquinas said that it’s natural for man to custom & pre essays, take delight in living with other human beings. Hence, human person is los angeles a social individual in university faculty, which his whole being is directed toward others especially other person through sharing of one’s self. This sharing of one’s self means considering what is truly good to others, which in los angeles ca, itself a definition of love in its broadest meaning, as defined by pink eye essays Aquinas as ”willing good to another for its own sake”.

Clarke argued that the resume los angeles ca only way to become an authentic person is to college, become a lover. One needs to live a life of total self-giving and receiving in which both of them are of equal dignity and perfection. Then, authentic love will not be complete unless it is both actively given and actively-gratefully receive. Moreover, the perfection of person is resume writing services los angeles ca essentially relational, starting from the concrete-I going to concrete-others culminating in communion. Therefore, man as a loving person is university thesis repository fundamentally ‘other-centered.’ From the services discussion and analysis above, we were able to elucidate Aquinas’ understanding of the human person.

Thomistic philosophy has a profound understanding of what it is to be a human person. It explicitly elaborated that human person is a substance-in-relation which essentially has two dimensions ‘ substantial and relational. In the substantial dimension, man as human person is considered as the concrete I, an individual existing being who is self-subsistent, self-oriented and procedure essay answers a self-purposed individual endowed with rationality. This rationality differentiates him from the resume ca whole world of objective entities. This is man’s distinctive character as person. On the other hand, in its relational dimension, the human person cannot be looked on of montana faculty as a primarily isolated, self-sufficient individual, but because of its innate dynamism, he is intrinsically ordered toward others by writing ca its self-communicating action. The ultimate reason why all beings possess this innate dynamism toward action and self-communication is that they are participating in the infinite goodness of the one Source, whose very being is identically a self-communicative LOVE.

Love as defined by Aquinas as ‘willing good to another for its own sake’, pushes man to be with others. In short, Aquinas is telling us that man as a human person is called not just to be a LIVING PERSON whose orientation focuses on the ‘concrete I”, but man is definitely called to become a ‘LOVING PERSON’ whose inclination is always directed to the ‘concrete Others’. In the modern society, the oxford thesis repository human person is used as a means in order to writing los angeles, achieve one’s end or goal. Human persons are not means to be exploited for pink eye essays, more political or economic goals. All human persons are ends to be served; we must uphold the dignity of persons and must not treat them as tools or instruments. The notion of ca person and his dignity transcend ideological, cultural and thesis repository political differences.

Regardless of color, religion, creed and belief, we are all human person and we enjoy the services same dignity. Such essence and dignity are shared and must be enjoyed by all human person, they are what transcend the limits posed by the differences in worldviews, beliefs, convictions and ideologies. Violence arises when man’s shared essence and dignity are overshadowed by their differences. This is what Aquinas wants us to do: we as human person, imago Dei, are not just called to be a living person but fundamentally because of essay our rationality are being called to be a loving person ‘ with innate dynamism toward action and self-communication to services los angeles ca, others because we are participating in the infinite goodness of the one Source, whose very being is identically a self-communicative LOVE. Search our thousands of essays:

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