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Do I have any predictions for 2015 exam questions? I’m a-Freud-not. Make sure to check out my categories to see if any of my essays can help you! If you have any questions, I’ll do my best to help if you contact me: supermarco@hotmail.co.uk. Just wanted to let you know that I took the June 2014 PSYA3 and PSYA4 exams and I think I nailed them, which is partly due to the information I retained in writing up this blog. I’m never going to food spm touch Psychology again because it’s a bitch of a subject to poem essay learn, but by all means feel free to food spm use my material- every essay would at least get an A- and email me if you need any clarification. I also recommend you use this site to type up all your blogs, download ‘Pocket’ onto stopped rome your smartphone so that you can review your essays whilst on the move or make the Google lady read them out to you.

If you’re reading this taking the Psychology A2, best of luck to you! But for me, I just finished my PSYA4 exam and I’m going to treat myself to a nap. (REM restoration, boom. This subject has ruined the way I look at things now). Discuss psychological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss psychological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks)

A major sociocultural explanation of food, schizophrenia is the occurrence of stressful life events. Import Cars Vs. Domestic Essay! Certain stressors, such as the food spm loss of a close relative, may trigger the disorder because high levels of physiological arousal associated with the poem essay neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved. This is supported by Brown and Birley who found that 50% of patients with schizophrenia had experienced at least one major life event in essay, the last 3 weeks prior to their schizophrenic episode, whereas only 12% had experienced a life event in the 9 weeks prior to that; a healthy control sample reported low and unchanging levels of life events over the same period, suggesting that the on benjamin franklin's inventions life events triggered the relapse. However, methodological issues may question the findings of Brown and Birley making it less likely to support life events as a credible explanation because the findings were based on the patients’ retrospective recall which is never truly objective and essay often altered by research paper reconstructed memory or their schizophrenic episode, so it’s possible that the research is low in internal validity because it doesn’t measure what it claims to. In addition, Brown and Birley’s research suggesting a link between life events and the onset of essay food, schizophrenia is only correlational because it doesn’t distinguish between whether the life events preceded schizophrenia or whether they are a consequence of the disorder, making it hard to establish cause and effect between the two variables; as a result prospective research is needed to better understand the cars cars direction of food, effect which would heighten the validity and reinforce the sociocultural explanation of schizophrenia.

To test whether life events are a cause or effect, Hirsch et al (1996) carried out a prospective study checking the life events experienced in a year. They used various scale ratings where independent raters assessed how severe a life event was whilst accounting for the individual’s personal context. They found a 23% risk of patients having a relapse during the 1 year period due to life events, and the risk was 41% for patients who had twice the average number of life events. These findings thus contradict Brown and Birley as they did not find that life events needed to interpretation immediately precede a schizophrenic episode, therefore making the sociocultural explanation an incomplete psychological explanation of schizophrenia. However, life events as an explanation is a more holistic account of schizophrenia because when combined with a biological predisposition it may be more able to explain schizophrenia better. The biological explanation suggests that there may be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only triggers schizophrenia if other stressors (such as stressful life events) are present in a person’s life. For instance, Tienari et al (1994) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and found that 7% had received the same diagnosis as opposed to 2% in a control group. However this only emerged in situations where the adopted family was rated as ‘disturbed’ which counts as the appropriate stressor. Therefore it’s likely that schizophrenia can be explained by the biological approach when coupled with life events to encompass both the nature/nurture side in the debate and be a more complete explanation. Another psychological explanation of schizophrenia is the psychodynamic explanation as proposed by Freud who believed schizophrenia was due to a regression to a pre-ego state as a defence mechanism. Freud argued that if a schizophrenic’s parents were cold and uncaring, then the essay food spm child may regress to a state of development before the ego was formed and career a realistic awareness of the food spm world was realised.

As a result, schizophrenia is seen as an infantile state which is stopped rome essay reflected in its symptoms such as delusions of grandeur which reflects this primitive condition. The main issue of essay food spm, Freud’s psychodynamic explanation is that it’s unfalisifiable, making it impossible to test its credibility as an explanation. The psychodynamic approach is not objective and based on Freud’s subjective opinions; therefore it lacks principal features of science which doesn’t convincingly explain schizophrenia when compared to more scientific explanations, such as the biological neural explanation of schizophrenia. Whilst the essay - how become theory has some face validity in spm, assuming that the schizophrenics experience inner turmoil, this might not be due to the battle that essay the harsh parental environment but may be explained otherwise such as through the essay food cognitive explanation which suggests that schizophrenics become internally troubled when not believing what others have to say (such as denying the reality of voices or hallucinations), therefore leading them to think that others are hiding the truth and they’re on their own against everyone else who is trying to manipulate them. On the stopped other hand, real life applications can be drawn from the psychodynamic explanation of food spm, schizophrenia because understandings of Freud’s theories have led to psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, which helps bring subconscious conflicts to the conscious to establish control over the ego and poem interpretation essay ultimately recover from schizophrenia. Supporting evidence comes from Gottdiener (2000) who in a meta-analysis found that 66% of patients receiving psychotherapy improved after treatment, suggesting that psychoanalysis as a result of the psychodynamic explanation has valuable applications in medicine to treat schizophrenia. Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) The biological approach assumes that schizophrenia has an organic cause, though this doesn’t deny the role of food spm, psychological factors in the onset of the disorder.

There might be a diathesis-stress relationship where a biological predisposition (diathesis) only import vs. domestic cars essay triggers schizophrenia if other significant stressors are present in a person’s life. This essay will cover both genetic and neural explanations of essay food spm, schizophrenia. There is online research a large body of evidence to suggest that schizophrenia runs in families which indicates it’s genetically inherited. Spm! Most evidence comes from research using family studies which indicate that the closer the genetic relationship to someone with schizophrenia the poem essay greater the chance of developing the disorder (Gottesman 1978). Gottesman reported that whilst the rate of schizophrenia is 1% in essay food, the general population, the chances between first degree relatives having the disorder is 12% and if both parents have a disorder it is online papers 40% likely their child will also have it. Compared to this, schizophrenia only occurs 2-3% between nephews.

Overall, Tsuang et al (1990) estimate that if stringent criteria are used, a first degree relative of schizophrenia has 5-20 times higher risk of it developing than those with no relatives. There are however methodological issues with using family studies because they lack population validity. Only small samples can be used because twins are hard to food find, meaning the results can’t be extrapolated to the general public. Furthermore, in family studies it’s hard to distinguish whether schizophrenia is caused by the battle that stopped rome essay nature or nurture because families often share the same environment (nurture), thus making research into essay food spm family studies low in internal validity because it’s not sure what’s being measured. Further evidence to support the genetic explanation comes from twin studies.

In general, it is reasonable to the battle that assume that if identical twins (MZ) have a higher concordance rate than fraternal (DZ) twins, then this indicates a degree of inheritability. A meta-analysis by Gottesman and Shields found a higher concordance rate for MZ twins than DZ twins, being 42% and 9% respectively. Although other studies have shown other rates, all twin studies have shown a significantly higher rate among MZ than DZ twins, therefore suggesting that research into this area is reliable, making the essay spm genetic explanation academically credible to explain schizophrenia. However, there are issues with using twin studies. If schizophrenia were genetically inherited then concordance rates should be closer to 100% which leads to assume that only a biological predisposition is essay passed on.

Joseph would argue that the differences in concordance rates between MZ and DZ twins reflect nothing more than the environmental differences that establish the two types of twins. Taking this argument, twin studies like family studies also fail to essay food distinguish between nature and nurture. To deal with this issue, researchers have conducted adoption studies into schizophrenia. The Battle That Stopped! Tienari et al (2000) used 164 Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. 7% received a diagnosis of schizophrenia as opposed to 2% of the control group adoptees born to essay spm non-schizophrenic mothers. This led Tienari to conclude that the genetic liability has been ‘decisively confirmed’ when explaining schizophrenia. On the other hand, Tienari’s research can be interpreted as ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is online research papers actually etic, therefore being culture biased because living in Finland may have more prevalent stressors to trigger the biological disposition of schizophrenia than in other countries. Overall, all the research into the genetic explanation suggests a genetic element to schizophrenia which makes research into this area reliable. However, despite all the above research 2/3rds of schizophrenics don’t have relatives with the essay food spm illness. This argument thus can’t explain why or how they have it and online papers psychology therefore it’s an incomplete explanation of food, schizophrenia because it’s reductionist by ignoring other influences of biology. The theory is career research also reductionist because it ignores the main role of nurture, however it does state that a predisposition is inherited allowing for the role of nature in essay, the initiation of the illness.

Alternatively, the dopamine hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia occurs from an excess activity of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. It is on benjamin franklin's not the amount of dopamine, but the sensitivity and density of dopamine receptors. Weinbereger (1987) argues that schizophrenia is due to dopamine overactivity in the pathways linking the food midbrain to research papers psychology the limbic system, and underactivity linking the midbrain to the cortex. Supporting evidence for the dopamine hypothesis can be found by research by Wong et al (1986) who conducted PET scans on essay medication free schizophrenics, those taking phenothiazines and poem interpretation essay normal controls matched for age. A greater density of dopamine receptors was found in the brains of untreated patients. The dopamine hypothesis does have practical applications because research by Wong has led to understanding of the brain’s functioning, therefore medication to affect dopamine has been created. Phenothiazines are used to treat schizophrenia by spm decreasing dopamine activity in the brain. The symptoms of schizophrenia reduce slowly over 2/3 weeks, making it an application in medicine. This is supported by Davis et al who carried out a meta-analysis asking the effectiveness of the research paper outline dopamine treatment to a placebo and found that relapse occurred in food spm, 55% of placebo patients as opposed to 19% of those on the drugs, therefore suggesting the dopamine hypothesis does work and import cars essay has applications.

In conclusion, the dopamine hypothesis is not entirely valid when looking at essay, the causes of schizophrenia and is therefore reductionist. This is due to the battle that stopped rome the biological explanation’s main proposal (excessive dopamine activity) cannot be the main cause of schizophrenia by only focusing on food spm the nature side of the nature/nurture debate and ignoring other behavioural and cognitive factors. Outline the clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Outline the that stopped clinical characteristics of schizophrenia (4 marks) Schizophrenia is spm a psychotic disorder characterised by the battle that a loss of touch with reality.

Patients meeting the food criteria for a diagnosis can exhibit a range of symptoms which are categorised as being either positive or negative. Positive symptoms include hallucinations (auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile), inappropriate delusions (of grandeur and import cars cars essay power), thought control and spm disordered thinking. A patient exhibiting positive symptoms may, for example, believe they are God or hear voices commenting on their behaviour. Alternatively, negative symptoms include affective flattening of expressions, alogia and avolition. For instance they may show no emotional expressions or speak slower. There is rarely a pattern in schizophrenia, though the essay onset is either gradual or acute. Early signs include withdrawal, mood changes and general apathy which eventually give away to the psychiatric episode. In order to food be diagnosed with the disorder using DSM 4, 2 or more positive symptoms must persist for at least a month. However, if the delusions are bizarre or a voice is keeping a running commentary on the individual, the import cars essay diagnosis can be made with just one symptom. Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks)

Discuss issues in the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia (24 marks) The main tool of measurement to classify and diagnose schizophrenia is the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). One issue present is the tool’s reliability which refers to the consistency of a measuring instrument, such as DSM-IV. This can be measured in essay spm, terms of whether two independent assessors give similar scores (inter-rater reliability), or whether tests used to deliver the diagnoses are consistent over time (test-retest). Inter-rater reliability has been assessed for diagnoses of schizophrenia and has been criticised as being low. Though Carson (1991) claimed that DSM-III gave psychiatrists a reliable classification system with greater agreement on who had schizophrenia, this isn’t necessarily true and later revisions have continued to produce low inter-rater reliability scores. For example, Whaley (2001) found only a small positive correlation of +0.11 between different raters.

In addition, cultural interpretations also pose a threat to essay - how bills the reliability of the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Copeland (1971) gave a description of a patient showing clinical characteristics associated with schizophrenia to 134US and essay spm 194UK psychiatrists. Of the US psychiatrists, 69% diagnosed schizophrenia, whereas only online 2% of the UK psychiatrists gave the food same diagnosis. This leads to suggest that the diagnostic criteria is ethnocentric because it applies an emic construct when it is actually etic, therefore being culture biased because Copeland found schizophrenia has an imposed etic which reduces the reliability between cultures. In addition, the reliability of diagnosing schizophrenia is challenged through Rosenhan (1973) who claimed that situational factors were more important in determining the interpretation essay ultimate diagnosis of schizophrenia, rather than any specific characteristics of the person. This was demonstrated through Rosenhan’s ‘Being Sane in Insane Places’ where various psuedopatients presented themselves to psychiatric hospitals in the US claiming to spm be hearing voices (a positive symptom of schizophrenia). All were diagnosed with schizophrenia and admitted, despite the fact they showed no further symptoms during their hospitalisation.

Throughout their stay, none of the staff recognised they were normal and interpreted all their behaviour as being symptomatic of schizophrenia- for inventions, instance waiting for dinner before the canteen opened was diagnosed as characteristic of schizophrenia, though there was little else for food spm, them to do. The unreliability of the diagnosis was further demonstrated in a follow-up study by import cars cars Rosenhan. Food! Psychiatrists at online research, several mental hospitals were told to expect psuedopatients over a period of several months. This resulted in a 21% increase detection rate by the psychiatrists, even though none were actually sent. This shows that the diagnostic criteria used by spm psychiatrists couldn’t reliably identify a person with schizophrenia. Alternatively, validity refers to the extent that the classification system such as DSM measures what it claims to measure.

For instance, comorbidity refers to the extent that two (or more) conditions co-occur in research paper outline, disorders such as schizophrenia. Therefore comorbidity is the extent to which the condition is essay ‘real’ and distinct. One way to avoid the issue of import vs. domestic essay, comorbidity is to use first-rank symptoms of essay spm, schizophrenia when diagnosing (e.g. Papers Psychology! delusions and essay spm hallucinations) because Klosterkotter et al (1994) assessed 500 psychiatric admissions to Germany to determine whether positive or negative symptoms are more valid for a diagnosis of schizophrenia and found the essay - how bills become former to be more valid. Food! However, Bentall et al (1988) claimed that many of the first-rank symptoms of essay on benjamin franklin's, schizophrenia are also found in other disorders (such as depression and food spm bipolar). This makes it difficult to separate schizophrenia as a distinct disorder because there is crossover in online research, symptoms; therefore schizophrenia is not a distinct condition. It may be more realistic to suggest that there is no discrete disorder as schizophrenia, but rather it’s an ‘umbrella term’ encompassing a spectrum of psychotic symptoms. Allardyce et al (2001) claimed that the symptoms used to characterise schizophrenia do not define a specific disorder because they can be found in other categories of psychosis described in DSM and therefore there should just be a psychotic spectrum. Another aspect of validity is predictive validity which demonstrates the validity of essay spm, a diagnosis by demonstrating that it can predict scores on the battle that stopped rome some criterion measure.

If a disorder has high predictive validity then it should be clear how the disorder would develop and food how people would respond to the treatment. Though research has found low predictive validity for schizophrenia. Poem Interpretation Essay! Approximately 20% of patients do recover their previous level of essay food spm, functioning but 40% never recover. This much variation in the prognosis suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity, meaning that the diagnosis was not helpful in dealing with the course of schizophrenia. Research has shown that other factors may be more influential on the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia. For example, it may be linked to gender (Malmberg et al) and psychosocial factors, such as social skills, academic achievement and research family tolerance of schizophrenia behaviour (Harrison et al 2001). Discuss the role of exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Discuss the role of exogenous zeitgebers in circadian rhythms (24 marks) Exogenous zeitgebers are external cues or time-givers that help to keep circadian 24 hour rhythms in food spm, tune through entrainment. Career Paper! If organisms were lacking these zeitgebers then the biological rhythms such as the sleep wake cycle would be on a different time frame to the external environment; for instance the essay spm shorter days in winter wouldn’t be detected.

Therefore exogenous zeitgebers are crucial in keeping the cars vs. domestic cars biological rhythms in time with that of the changing external environment. The dominant zeitgeber in essay food, humans is light which enters into the retina and process essay - how bills become a law is transferred through the optical nerve to essay the SCN. Import Cars Cars! This then stimulates the essay food release of hormones such as cortisol and melatonin the pineal gland, thus maintaining our sleep-wake circadian cycle. Online Papers Psychology! This was exemplified by Campbell and Murphy (1998) who found that if you shine light on the back of participants’ knees (which is also sensitive to light due to the CYP protein) their circadian rhythms shifted. The importance of exogenous zeitgebers and the role of artificial light upon food, circadian rhythms was empirically supported by Boivin et al (1996) who found that circadian rhythms can be entrained by interpretation essay ordinary dim lighting. Essay Spm! If dim lighting does reset the biological clock, then the fact that we live in an artificially lit world (with TVs and lampposts) may have some negative consequences. For instance, Stevens (2006) suggests that exposure to the battle that rome artificial lights disrupt the circadian sleep-wake cycle and ultimately explain why women in industrialised well-lit societies are more likely to develop breast cancer. Therefore the role of essay, artificial exogenous zeitgebers may go some way to affect people’s sleep and wellbeing. As a result, research into the role of exogenous zietgebers can have real life applications because the understanding gained from the research implies that by restricting the amount of bright lights (such as LCD screens) before going to bed can prevent the disruption of a person’s sleep wake cycle, thus having applications by preventing ramifications of stress and insomnia, or entrain rhythms that are disrupted (e.g. Stopped! jet lag). Furthermore, the essay food spm existence of the exogenous zeitgeber is supported by Miles et al who presented the career paper case study of a man blind from birth who had a sleep-wake cycle of 24.9hours. This shows the importance of light as an essay, exogenous zeitgeber over other external times cues because by not being able to process light, the essay on benjamin franklin's inventions internal endogenous pacemaker was stuck on the timing of 25 hours, regardless what was going on in the outside world, therefore providing evidence for essay spm, the importance of import cars, light.

On the other hand, there are issues of validity with Miles’ study because a case study reflects one person’s personal individual differences, which cannot be representationally generalised to all people who might react differently to essay food spm light- especially as the man had been blind so he might have developed other ways of picking up zeitgebers. For instance, research by the battle stopped essay Campbell and Murphey showed how endogenous pacemakers could be reset by shining light on people’s knees, therefore light could entrain the man through other ways, making the study low in internal validity, thus not wholly support the essay spm role of light through the optical nerve. Another main exogenous zeitgeber of circadian rhythms are social cues. Meals are eaten at socially determined mealtimes, and go to bed and wake up at times designated for our age, therefore our sleep-wake cycle could be entrained by social conventions. For example, Davidson (2006) found the zeitgeber for cells in poem interpretation, the liver and heart is likely to be mealtimes because these cells are reset by eating. Luce and Segall (1966) showed how social cues as zietgebers have an important role in food, circadian rhythms.

In the bills become Arctic Circle people still maintain a constant sleep pattern of 7 hours a night, despite having 6 months of darkness in essay, the winter and light in papers, the summer. In these conditions, knowing it is essay food spm either day or night time (by looking at online research papers psychology, a clock), even in the absence of proper light conditions, is essay likely to help the rhythm to be maintained and that stopped essay fit in the outside world, supporting the food view that social cues are important in sleep wake cycles also. On the other hand, the role of the exogenous zietgeber on its own can run the the battle that essay circadian rhythm is a reductionist explanation because it fails to consider the influence of endogenous pacemakers. The running of the biological clock is more realistically an endogenous-exogenous exercise. Generally, research into the role of exogenous zeitgebers doesn’t take into account that there are individual differences in sensitivity to external cues, for instance some people have chronotypes which classes them as either owls or larks judging on how well they react to the sleep wake cycle and spm find it easier to wake up at different times, thus being reductionist because people react differently to circadian rhythms. Outline research into institutional aggression. (4 marks) Outline research into research psychology institutional aggression. Essay! (4 marks) Research into the importational model comes from Harer and Steffensmeier who in a study of 58 US prisons found that patterns of misconduct for particular groups tended to parallel differences outside of prison. For example, black inmates showed significantly higher rates of poem interpretation essay, violent behaviour within prison whereas white inmates shower higher rate of essay food spm, drug and alcohol related misconduct, reflecting behaviour outside of prison. These differences reflect the statistical differences found in essay inventions, the US generally, thus suggesting that they were imported into the prison environment. Alternatively, research into the deprivational model of institutional aggression comes from McCorkle et al who found that overcrowding, a lack of privacy and essay spm a lack of meaningful activity all significantly increased interpersonal violence in prisons, supporting the view that aggression is psychology a direct consequence of situational factors that deprive prisoners of normal living standards.

Discuss evolutionary explanations of food preference (24 marks) Discuss evolutionary explanations of food preference (24 marks) To understand the evolution of food preferences passed on by our distant ancestors, we must understand the environment they lived in. Essay Spm! The environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA) refers to the environment in which our ancestors lived and essay bills a law evolved, over 2 million years ago in the African savannah. The adaptive problems faced by our ancestors in the EEA would have shaped our early food preferences; for most of human history, humans lived together in hunter-gatherer societies which would have led to essay food a preference for career research, high calorie and easily available food for energy.

As a result, this preference for food, fatty foods is an adaptive response to early diets because harsh EEA conditions forced humans to interpretation seek high-calorie foods which promote survival, achieved through high energy to keep warm and catch food. These preferences for calorific still persist among humans today, despite the foods not being particularly nutritious, therefore explaining why food preferences exist today. There is supporting evidence for the importance of calories in food spm, early diets through research by career paper Gibson and food spm Wardle (2001) who found that the best way to predict which fruit and vegetables would be preferred by a 4/5 year old was to measure how calorie-rich they were. Bananas and potatoes are rich in calories and import cars vs. domestic cars essay mostly preferred, supporting the food spm claim that humans have an online, evolved preference for essay spm, food-preference which has an adaptive value. On the online papers other hand, methodogical issues raise doubt over the internal validity of the food spm study because it could simply be that children were attracted to certain fruits because such as potatoes and essay franklin's inventions bananas because of their soft and bright texture, as opposed to spm a dull non-calorific food such as a kiwi, therefore making the evolutionary explanation of food preference hard to support. In addition, many food preferences can be traced back to adaptive EEA-pressures but it is not always the case; some modern preferences, (such as low cholesterol foods) could not have evolved during EEA because they would hinder our ancestor’s survival, suggesting it’s a modern adaption. Similarly, many things which were important to our distant ancestors (such as saturated animal fats) are harmful in modern environments, so we are more likely to poem interpretation avoid them today because they are no longer adaptive to live a healthy life, which suggests that although the process is slow there are still changes in our food preferences to match our environment. A common way of essay, testing the evolutionary hypothesis is by studying related species that face similar adaptive problems, such as chimpanzees that face similar adaptive issues to humans. Stanford found that after starving a sample of poem interpretation, chimps for most of the year, they went straight for the fattiest parts of food spm, their kill to take on as much energy and fat as possible, supporting the adaptive principle.

Though there are ethical issues with Stanford’s study by starving and causing extended pain to animals, which doesn’t stand to reason against BPS guidelines, thus making the research unreplicable and unfalsifiable in supporting the evolutionary explanation. In addition, Stanford’s study can be criticised as being an imposed etic as researchers assume findings are relevant to humans as well, though the import cars vs. domestic anatomy between both species are vastly different and findings cannot be representationally extrapolated. Instead, the evolutionary explanation may mask proximate causes of the same behaviour, such as advertising and availability of food- thus a person’s food preference may be explained through behaviourist explanations such as the food social learning theory, because parental modelling of attitudes to food affects their offspring’s own attitudes because parents control what’s being served in the house. For instance, Brown and Ogden found correlations between parents and essay franklin's inventions children in essay spm, terms of snack intake and eating motivation because the offspring have observed their parents’ behaviour and are motivated to reproduce that behaviour. Another evolutionary explanation of food preference is taste aversion, first discovered by farmers trying to get rid of rodents. It was difficult to kill the pests by using poisoned baits because rats would only take a small amount of new food, and if they became ill they would quickly learn to essay avoid it. This is exemplified through Garcia et al who radiated rats after eating saccharin, which made the pests form an spm, association between the research papers psychology illness and essay the food, therefore avoiding it to aid survival. Our ancestors performed similar rituals which explains why modern humans are innately repulsed by rotting or raw food (because it’ll make us ill).

Subsequently, the medicine effect illustrates how animals learn a preference for foods that make them healthier, with any food eaten just before recovery, as seen today such as in salads. This can be seen to have a real life application. The research on the origins of taste aversion has been used to with pest problems to encourage using stronger poisons or chemicals that don’t allow for rodents to online research survive, which is especially helpful for food, farmers who have crops ruined by pests who have averted not potent enough poisons. Further research support for taste aversion involving children and bitter foods was conducted by Minella (2008) who conducted research on 900 people aged 5-50 who were given bitter foods. Children were more sensitive to bitter due to career a variation of the food TAS2R38 gene, concluding that children have an innate evolutionary dislike for bitter foods whereas it’s more prominent in adulthood. Naturally, Minella’s research raises the question of the effect of nurture in the nature/nurture debate.

While evolutionary theories may explain food preferences in childhood, the import vs. domestic behaviourist approach which suggests people re conditioned to like or dislike foods may be a better explanation of food, food preferences in adulthood. Therefore explaining taste aversion through an evolutionary position alone would be a reductionist account of food preference. Discuss explanations for the success/failure of dieting (24 marks) Discuss explanations for the success/failure of dieting (24 marks) One explanation for the failure of dieting is the restraint theory proposed by Herman and Mack (1975). The Battle That Stopped Rome! The theory suggests that a cognitive boundary on attempting not to eat ironically increases the food probability of eating. People often fail because the dieter has periods of restraint followed by periods of disinhibition; a result of eating more than normal through loosening restraints in response to influences such as emotional distress.

In an attempt to explain why dieting might lead to overeating, the ‘boundary model’ illustrates how hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum and satiety prevents us from overeating. Though when dieting, psychological factors influence consumption because the distance between these ranges expand making us feel satiated slower than if we weren’t dieting. Wardle and Beales (1988) validated research into the restraint theory by assigning 27 obese women to three groups; diet, exercise and a control group. Psychology! Results after 7 weeks in spm, lab assessments showed that women in the diet condition ate more than the other women, implying that overeating is caused by on benjamin inventions dieting itself. Research support comes from Ogden (2003) who tested the failure of dieting by giving a group of dieters and non-dieters a high or low calorie preload (such as chocolate or crackers) followed by essay spm a ‘taste preference’ of other foods. Ogden measured how much ‘taste food’ they ate and found that dieters who had a low calorie preload ate more, therefore these results suggest that although dieters eat less on some occasions, restrained eating is also associated with more at papers psychology, other times, supporting the restraint theory explanation of dieting. Furthermore, Ogden’s study can be praised on methodological grounds for being a lab experiment with greater control over the independent variable (food preload) and dependent variable (amount eaten, making it highly controlled and objective when drawing out cause effect conclusions on what causes the failure of dieting. In addition, participants believed they were tested on essay taste though they were actually measured on career paper their biological and unconscious processes; as a result participants can’t exhibit demand characteristics which thus raises the mundane realism of the essay food study to make it more credible. On the other hand participants were being deceived which breaches the BPS’s ethical guidelines, therefore making the study unreplicable and unethical. However it could be argued that for the purposes of scientific understanding to explain dieting, this breach is justified.

However, although Ogden argues that the restraint theory may explain overeating of online papers psychology, people with disordered eating patterns (such as bulimics and dieters), it’s a reductionist explanation by not being able to explain all disorders such as anorexia. If trying not to eat results in essay food spm, overeating as Ogden’s research claims, then how do anorexics starve themselves? It is likely that a number of poem, genetic components exert an influence on eating; suggesting that the restraint theory may be a deterministic explanation, influenced by factors other than an individual’s choice of food spm, lifestyle. For instance the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme produced by fat cells to store calories. LPL also makes it easier to regain lost weight, suggesting a genetic reason may explain the failure of poem interpretation essay, dieting, not solely a cognitive explanation, thus this can be praised when combined for encompassing both the essay spm nature/nurture side of the debate. Another explanation for the failure of dieting is the role of denial which suggests that attempting to suppress thoughts of foods is counterproductive and poem essay has the opposite effect. For example Wegner (1987) asked half a sample of participants to not think about a white bear, but to ring a bell if they did. Those instructed not to essay rung the bell significantly more than those who were not instructed to.

Therefore as soon as a food is denied, it becomes more attractive and likely to be eaten which ruins the diet. Similarly, this theory illustrates the ironic processes of mental control because it represents a paradoxical effect of thought control. Diets often fail because when a restricted food becomes forbidden, the denied food becomes more attractive making attempts to suppress it difficult. Research support for the role of bills, denial comes from Soetens (2006) who used an independent groups design by splitting participants into a restrained and unrestrained group (which was subsequently split into high or low disinhibition) The disinhibited group used more suppression than other groups, but showed a rebound effect through thinking about it more. This suggests that restrained eaters who tend to overeat try to suppress foods more often but end up thinking about it and wanting it. Though, Soetens’s study used data from personal accounts of the essay food participants which suggests limitations on memory. Retrospective recall is never 100%, nor is the that essay assessment of the failure of essay food spm, dieting entirely objective, which creates problems for process essay - how, the study’s internal validity. Generally, research into dieting can be seen as gender biased because participants are mostly women, thus being low in external validity by not being generalisabe to males.

Male eating differs considerably from female consumption (more calories a day requirement). Some dieting behaviour can have negative consequences, like the essay food spm development of anorexia nervosa; although mostly a female complaint, it has a 15% incidence in males, suggesting that more research must be conducted using males to enrich our understanding of dieting in both females and process - how bills become a law males. Overall, as a consequence of research into essay food spm the success/failure of dieting, applications into process bills become a law real life can be made to change dietary customs. Psychological support can be constructed in the form of social support groups, such as Weightwatchers, to essay set achievable goals and a positive mindset towards dieters, therefore being an application in improving people’s wellbeing. This is exemplified in - how become a law, the longitudinal study by Miller-Kovach who compared the essay spm Weightwatchers programme to a self-help programme over a 2 year period, finding the essay become former more successful in essay food, dieting successfully.

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SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014 – day 1. If you walk through the crowds this year, you know the symposium is well attended. We have about 50 less papers this year than last, but about the same number of attendees – on the order of 1,700 technical attendees and another 800 or so who just come to the exhibits. Short course attendance was up about 25% from spm last year. A very healthy and dynamic conference. We began our first day with the awards ceremony, and a very rare “career achievement” award.

Andy Neureuther and Bill Oldham were acknowledged for their “career long contribution to the art and science of lithography” through their lithography modeling efforts at the University of California at Berkeley. Andy was a co-author of research papers psychology some of the original 1975 Dill papers (the most famous papers in lithography, in essay my opinion) and Andy and Bill, along with their students, published the SAMPLE simulator in 1979. Poem. Their SAMPLE group made numerous important contributions to lithography over food, the last 35 years, and of course the many great students they have graduated continue to process essay - how bills a law, multiply their influence. As Symposium Chair Mircea Dusa said, this work was a “defining moment, when lithography went from an art to a science.” The award was made “in deep appreciation for your 40 years of visionary guidance and dedication to SPIE society and lithography community.” Congratulations Andy and Bill! Ralph Dammel, CTO of AZ Electronic Materials, was the recipient of the 12th Frits Zernike award (full disclosure – I nominated him). Spm. I learned a tremendous amount from Ralph’s 1993 book on DNQ/Novolac resists, and learned to on benjamin inventions, appreciate sweetbreads and German coffee when I visited him in Frankfurt about 25 years ago. A well-deserved award (for the lithography, not the sweetbreads).

We have five new Fellows of SPIE in food spm our community as of Monday: Luigi Capodieci, Bernd Geh, Moshe Preil, Masato Shibuya, and process essay - how a law, Obert Wood. GlobalFoundries almost swept the food spm, ranks! Congratulations to all of you. The plenary session was a mixed bag. Alan Willner gave a nice overview of the National Photonics Initiative, an “alliance” of cars vs. domestic industry, academia, and government that includes SPIE and that began in 2012. The goal of the NPI is to drive US investment in photonics (read: get the essay food spm, US government to spend more on photonics). Photonics, like many fields of science that border technology, seems to have a case of Moore’s Law envy. The talk by Tsu-Jae King Liu of UC Berkeley was one of the best plenaries ever.

With power as the outline, current limiter of CMOS performance scaling, she proposed a couple of very innovative solutions. The use of micro-relays was especially intriguing. I’ll be following developments in that field going forward. I have been out of corporate America too long to appreciate Xiaowei Shen’s final plenary talk on essay food, the “internet of things”. It was so full of essay - how bills IBM-speak that I could barely understand it. When the regular conference talks began at 11am I had the familiar problem of wanting to essay spm, be in poem multiple places at the same time. I missed more worthy talks than I attended.

Gerg Yeric of essay spm ARM showed me how little I know about design-manufacturing interactions and how hard scaling is getting independent of process essay - how bills lithography. He noted that when we shrink, some of the SRAM cells in logic designs are moving from 6 transistors to 8, 10, or even 18 transistors to store one bit in order to keep the cells both fast and reliable in the face of variability. It makes you wonder if cost per transistor is essay spm, a useful metric to assess the value of shrinking. Changmoon Lim of SK hynix gave a talk on challenges for interpretation EUV insertion into high-volume manufacturing (HVM), a perennial topic at this conference. Food Spm. The Hynix experience on the NXE:3100 EUV tool from ASML was about slow learning. The tool was installed in the summer of 2011 and over three years the poem interpretation, throughput went from 2 wafers per hour (WPH) to 7 WPH, and tool availability went from 25% to 75%. Learning is picking up with the installation of their NXE:3300, though he gave little data. A 2xnm generation DRAM split lot with one layer printed on EUV produced comparable yield to 193i, but they had to use an exposure dose much higher than the goal of 20 mJ/cm2 to essay food, achieve that yield (when I asked, he wouldn#8217;t tell me the exact dose used).

I missed Tony Yen’s talk about EUV progress at TSMC – I was busy giving a talk of my own. On Benjamin Inventions. I’m told he described the very fast progress that source power has made in the last year, going from 20W to 40W, and more recently to 80W, installed on a TSMC tool. I also missed Todd Younkin of Intel and essay spm, the idea of bottoms-up growth of interpretation essay metal vias next to food, cuts filled with dielectric to improve overlay. He told me later than much work remains on on benjamin franklin's inventions, this idea, but it sounds very promising. Essay Food. Toshiaki Ikoma, CTO of Canon, gave an overview of research their new nanoimprint lithography (NIL) tool, claiming the tool was “now available” and that Canon “will be back to the leading lithography company again.” We’ll have to wait and see. And we’ll have to wait to see the essay food, data that support these claims during other NIL talks this week. The day ended with a panel discussion on the metrology challenges of 3D devices. I was on the panel, but since I know nothing about the metrology challenges of 3D devices, I gave a speech on a different topic.

You can find my speech here: http://www.lithoguru.com/scientist/essays/Metrology.html. A general complaint about poem, panel discussions: the standard format that we almost always use doesn’t work. We should abandon it. This format involves posing a number of momentous and difficult questions, and telling each panelist to prepare a 5 minute talk on those questions. Of course, the panelists use powerpoints (most of us are barely able to talk without powerpoint, and I suspect the essay food, audience is essay on benjamin inventions, barely able to listen without powerpoint as well), and essay spm, each one averages 10 minutes. Our scheduled 90 minute panel had only 30 minutes of audience questions at the end, but that was only because we went 20 minutes over the allotted time. Through no fault of the fine panelists on stage with me, it was a truly boring experience.

How can we make panels better? Give the panelists at most one minute (and no slides) to make an introductory statement, or better yet no introductory statement. Then go right into questions, alternating between moderator and audience questions. Poem Essay. Make sure it is fun, and food, not a mini conference session. Also, beer helps. Career Outline. My favorite quote of the day: “Double patterning was thought to be a bridge between immersion and EUV, we just didn’t realize how long the bridge would be.” – Changmoon Lim, SK hynix. 2 thoughts on “SPIE Advanced Lithography 2014 – day 1” I made a suggestion to Will Conley on a fun panel discussion. Style it like Family Feud.

Really like your comment on food, our dependence on the PowerPoint. Unfortunately, in our industry especially, it is hard to find a public speaker with charming charisma. Relying on PowerPoint is certainly not sexy.

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Yolen whose. Fairy tale , Family , Fiction 952 Words | 3 Pages. 12 percent said it was good, while 41 percent said it “doesn’t make much difference.” How to interpret that? Growing acceptance? Technically. Career Paper! But 43 percent . is a lot of dirty looks when you are one of those gay and lesbian couples, no? A recent essay by spm Patty Onderko in the current issue of Parenting magazine explores that question, and concludes that yes, the world feels more embracing to at least one lesbian mother lately. She writes: And here is the moment I hate: the Explaining of the Situation.

Family , Homosexuality , Lesbian 848 Words | 3 Pages.