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Bruce Lee: Authorship, Ideology, and Film Studies Part 2. As discussed at length in Part I of this essay, over the last several decades, there has been virtually no diversity within the field of Bruce Lee Studies. The fact that the academic discourse on quality, Lee consists entirely of supratextual deconstruction of black essays, his cinematic indexicality has created a sphere wherein there is an thesis of management, egregious imbalance in analytic focus. Even in the best textual analyses of Lee#8217;s film work [1], there is still looming over the exegeses the presence of the dominant critical orthodoxy as produced by the cultural studies colonization. Moreover, the vicious paradox of Bruce Lee Studies in assessing its place within film studies is that one of its most serious impediments is Lee#8217;s considerable popularity/familiarity. As Hegel warned, the essay bacon, familiar, because of its very familiarity, can at times be taken for granted as sufficiently understood. [2] Because of the popularity of Lee and his films, Hong Kong film festivals, action/martial arts festivals, university screenings, and the like often times do not even bother showing his films, an affronting practice enabled by a lack of objections which signifies an acquiescence to the tacit implication that everybody has already seen his films and everyone already knows everything there is to know about them, ostentatious and unsophisticated as they are. [3] It is much more acceptable for academic activity involving martial arts cinema to focus on quality, the work of King Hu, the essay, only martial arts filmmaker of the era to be accepted by the film studies community as a #8220;legitimate#8221; auteur. [4] Only Bey Logan and John Little have gone out of their way to praise Lee as a skilled filmmaker, with the former noting the delicacy with which Lee visually structured his fight with Chuck Norris in The Way of the Dragon (Logan, 2006) and the latter evaluating the philosophical density of The Game of Death (Little, 2001). Thesis Of Management! In an effort to conrad build on these isolated appraisals of Lee#8217;s stylistic and thematic acumen, this analysis of The Way of the Dragon will be concerned primarily with Lee#8217;s careful construction of a thematically consistent and fecund visual scheme, and not just for his fight sequences. While the colonization of thesis quality of management, Lee by the cultural studies institution has led to the routinization of social students essay, analysis in the form of supratextual deconstruction, so, too, has the film studies community established an analytic routine for appraisals of martial arts films: It is standard practice in analyses of martial arts films to thesis quality focus entirely on fight scenes, with the rest of the narrative being ignored or, at best, marginalized. [5] In Lee#8217;s case, such neglect/marginalization of the non-combat scenes in The Way of the Dragon can result (indeed, has resulted) in the totality of his filmic artistry being insufficiently recognized/appreciated. As it will be argued here, Lee represents the continuation from King Hu to Chang Cheh of martial arts filmmakers treating the thinking tools, camera not merely as a utilitarian necessity in the documenting of extravagant martial arts, but as an thesis quality, artistic tool used equally for dramatic and critical and analysis combat purposes. As covered in Part I, as a result of the quality, incredible box-office success of his prior two starring vehicles, Lee was able, in 1972, to phd writing form his own production company with Raymond Chow and thesis quality begin to make his own films. His first film was The Way of the phd writing, Dragon , a contemporary gangster film that afforded him the ability to both practice the craft of filmmaking and, in true starteur fashion, #8220;reshape and break the mold#8221; (Knapp, 1996: 2) that he had established in his previous films.

The plot concerns Tang Lung (Bruce Lee), who has traveled to Rome from his home in Hong Kong in order to quality of management help a family friend, Chen Ching Hua (Nora Miao), who is being pressured by local crooks to sell her restaurant. At first, Tang#8217;s country bumpkin ways make Chen and the other employees at essay the restaurant wonder what help he could possibly offer; through the of management, supreme cultivation of his martial arts prowess, however, Tang proves his efficiency in short order, almost singlehandedly toppling the conrad, small criminal enterprise that had been threatening his friend, embracing and mastering his newfound role as the thesis quality, #8220;superiorly built stranger-hero abroad#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 126). Lee#8217;s muscular body as the site of phd writing, masculine potency and nationalistic strength/pride. Of course, the of management, fact that Lee is Chinese and muscular has led innumerable scholars to devote a disproportionate amount of time to discussing his nationality and francis bacon masculinity, while others have been turned off by what they take to be (ostensibly antinomic currents of) either overt racism on Lee#8217;s part towards non-Chinese in the hyperbolic pedestaling of his own country or a promulgation of thesis of management, stereotypical representations of Chinese meekness/buffoonery. [6] Not surprisingly missing from these interpretations, considering the lasting disfavor with auteurism, are Lee#8217;s own intentions as the presiding author. By Sir Francis! #8220;Reading into#8221; the films#8217; race/gender politics in search of novel interpretations may make for fun exercise in cultural studies circles, but in striving for a historical poetics of Lee#8217;s martial arts cinema, the starting point for the film scholar needs to thesis of management be Lee and his filmmaking technique. Thus, the following analysis will offer a #8220;close reading#8221; of the film that seeks to by sir bacon elucidate the themes explored by Lee and the cinematic techniques he employed to reinforce his various thematic concerns. Beginning literally with the very first shot (a close-up of a visibly uncomfortable Tang), which starts off a scene played for comedy with Tang being the object of a perplexed white woman#8217;s curious stare, Lee intentionally positions himself as the #8220;to-be-looked-at#8221; object, to employ the famous phrase from quality of management, Laura Mulvey. Photo Books For Children! Recalling Knapp#8217;s conceptualization of the starteur, Lee, armed with a keen sense of of management, his position as a film star, is here able, as a filmmaker, to offer a conscious, comedic commentary on his position as a sexualized and essay books for children fetishized other . While some of the interpretive work with Lee#8217;s films has tried to #8220;place#8221; the ostensibly powerless Lee in the position of the other who is apprehensively scrutinized by thesis quality of management, the #8220;higher#8221; races, here it is and analysis plainly evident that Lee recognized this #8220;subject position#8221; and was using this Western perception as a key ingredient for this particular narrative/characterization. Thesis! More than once in critical and analysis the hour and a half that follows this brief introduction scene, Lee will have Tang stared at by bewitched characters, both #8220;foreigners#8221; (the woman in the airport in the beginning of the thesis quality, film, the prostitute he meets shortly after his arrival, the gangsters) and even other Chinese characters (Chen, the other restaurant employees, and the homosexual character played by photo books for children, Wei Ping-Ao). A direct result of Lee#8217;s transnational #8220;outsider#8221; experiences, Tang#8217;s characterization #8220;highlights the problem of of management, cultural dislocation#8221; and problems among students invites the spectator to quality of management sympathize with a character forced to live #8220;in a space of anxiety, ambiguity, and contradiction#8221; (Shu, 2003: 52-53) where they are judged even by members of their own race/culture. And speaking even more to Lee#8217;s directorial sensibility, his superb skill at inculcating an abundance of thematic information in his mise-en-scene allows the spectator to photo share the sense of discomfort and anxiety felt by Tang.

Of more interest here than the fact that Lee is positioned as the looked-at other is how this positioning occurs, the technique Lee uses to solicit spectatorial identification. In the opening scene, it is significant that the quality of management, shots of Tang are never from a subjective point-of-view, i.e., from the point-of-view of the phd writing, woman staring at thesis him. As opposed to aligning the camera/spectator with the woman looking, Lee positions the spectator outside of the looking/looked at dyad so as to highlight Tang#8217;s experience of being looked at . By starting with a close-up of Tang, Lee cues the problems essay, spectator, in later two-shots or long shots where Tang is not the thesis quality of management, only one in the frame, to focus on Tang and his reactions (something for which Lee would also use his character#8217;s anomalous costuming), and and analysis tools with this precedent set, Lee can subsequently experiment with more complex blocking and thesis quality depth-of-field, confident that the spectator will understand the nature of the photo books for children, mise-en-scene as expressive of thesis of management, Tang#8217;s perspective. Following this opening scene, Lee shoots a very similar scene wherein Tang is by sir again made uncomfortable by his foreign surroundings, only in this second sequence, Lee uses greater depth-of-field and more complex framing. After he is picked up at of management the airport by Chen and given the rundown on the present problem with the gangsters, Chen takes Tang back to among her apartment so he can drop off his things and get situated.

Used to quality living in the #8220;New Territories#8221; in the Hong Kong countryside, Tang is discernibly uneasy upon entering Chen#8217;s swanky apartment. The anachronistic Tang uncomfortably seated in a posh apartment. Lou Gaul rightly observes an interior/exterior dialectic as one of Lee#8217;s primary thematic concerns in this film, a concern that proliferates in this scene as Tang, the phd writing, #8220;fighting animal#8221; whose #8220;primitive fighting prowess#8221; necessitates a #8220;wild, open area where his spirit can soar#8221; (Gaul, 1997: 100-101), is confined to a bizarre and disconcerting interior space. As is evident in the above screenshot, Lee frames himself in great depth so as to make himself seem small and vulnerable, and quality of management he positions the two angled chairs in such a way as to make it appear that Tang is literally trapped in this environment. Once Chen reenters the room, she sits down on the couch next to Tang and hands him a glass of water. She then immediately begins to talk, but due to the framing of the scene, with Tang in critical the foreground, the thesis, fact that he is not in critical focus and is receiving less light is of no consequence, for, as mentioned vis-a-vis the precedent set in the opening scene, any shot that includes Tang will be structured so as to make the spectator focus on him. The awkward and essay on benjamin franklin's intestinally-challenged Tang dominates the frame. The purpose of the framing is to quality of management again play up Tang#8217;s awkwardness for comedy. After his ill-fated attempt to conrad black essays get something to thesis eat at the airport [7], Tang has been plagued by an upset stomach, and essay on benjamin franklin's inventions now, in the middle of a conversation with Chen, he has to try to find a way to extricate himself and use the bathroom. Thesis Quality! Too modest to interrupt, though, Tang simply sits in students essay the exact position seen in the above screenshot, never taking a sip from his glass, just waiting for her to either stop talking or say something that will allow him to interject.

When he finally gets the opportunity (after she tells him not to thesis of management be shy about asking her if he needs something), he quickly rushes out of the frame, leaving Chen to photo books for children shake her head in exasperation. Upon returning from the thesis, bathroom, Chen forces Tang to take a trip to the bank to secure his money. After a vexatious encounter with an overfriendly banker, Chen takes the hopelessly boorish Tang to the Piazza Navona and francis lectures him on proper etiquette amongst the locals. Thesis Of Management! She tells him that, when someone puts their arm around him, they are being friendly; that, if someone smiles at him, he should smile back; and that, if there is any doubt, he should just do what the other person is doing. In classic screwball fashion, all during Chen#8217;s lecture, an by sir francis bacon, Italian woman (Malisa Longo) sitting nearby is quality making eyes at Tang, who is essay by sir bacon afforded the opportunity to commit yet another faux pas. A prostitute captures Tang#8217;s attention and gets him in trouble. Adroitly controlling frame space, editing, and of management sound, Lee cuts an accidental, nonverbal solicitation from Tang to a prostitute concurrent with Chen#8217;s admonition of Tang#8217;s boorish behavior. Off-screen dialogue anchors the humor, while Lee, with Keatonesque stoicism and obliviousness, is cut alternately smiling and winking at Malisa in accordance with the instructions being given him by Chen in photo books proper interpersonal interaction, a comedic sequence reminiscent of Cary Grant unwittingly providing Raymond Massey with instructions on how to incapacitate him in Arsenic and Old Lace . Tracking Chen down to her restaurant after his solecism with the prostitute, Tang is quality of management given more opportunities to make obvious his anachronistic presence (while Lee is given more opportunities to show off his cinematographic ingenuity). After meeting the restaurant staff, including the chef, Uncle Wang (Huang Chung-Hsin), Tang is forced once more to rush to the bathroom. Predisposed, Tang is not present when the gangsters arrive to scare off the lunch crowd and once again threaten the staff. Essay By Sir Francis Bacon! When he emerges from the bathroom and bumps into Ho (Wei-Ping Ao), the quality, crime boss#8217; second-in-command, he has no idea that Ho is #8220;the enemy#8221; and on benjamin franklin's just thinks he happens to be a nice, regular customer with whom he engages in innocuous pleasantries.

Sensing the anger in thesis quality the restaurant staff and once more being admonished by Chen for improper behavior, Tang pouts angrily. He has ostensibly acquiesced to his outsider status, which Lee reinforces with the blocking and cinematography in the next scene. After cutting to an exterior shot of the restaurant to show that it is now night, Lee cuts to francis bacon a medium close-up of Tang sitting by himself and pouting at a corner table in the restaurant, from which he pans to a long shot of all of the thesis of management, other employees sitting together in the middle of the restaurant. Then, when a group of the gangsters returns to cause more trouble, the framing shows two distinct groupings, with the gangsters forming one group and the restaurant staff forming the other, Tang noticeably outside of both groups, seated by himself in the same isolated corner of the restaurant. Among Students Essay! Tang having acquiesced to his outsider status. Of Management! Jimmy (Unicorn Chan), one of the restaurant employees, asks the thugs to on benjamin #8220;step outside,#8221; which initiates the first fight sequence of the quality, film. At first, Lee#8217;s framing propagates Tang#8217;s outsider position, in spite of the realm of combat being a place wherein Tang might finally be able to essay on benjamin show some usefulness. With the thesis, restaurant staff facing off against the gangsters in essay by sir francis bacon the restaurant back alley, Tang is still noticeably at the farthest remove from the camera, isolated at the back right edge of the frame, obviously with much to prove if he wants to be accepted in this environment.

Tang obscured and thesis of management nearly pushed out photo essay for children, of the mise-en-scene. After Jimmy proves his inferiority, Tang steps in to establish his dominion. Stopping Tony (Tony Liu) from challenging the gangsters after Jimmy, Tang motions for the staffers to move out of his way. Literally forcing himself from the outside edge of the quality of management, frame to social problems students essay center stage, Tang finally ceases to be intimidated by his environment, asserting his self-confidence and proceeding to dispatch the four overmatched thugs with ease. After his awesome fighting display, he is jubilantly embraced by the previously contemptuous restaurant staff, finally achieving a social victory.

Whereas Gaul#8217;s previously noted observation regarding the centrality of an interior/exterior dialectic occupying Lee#8217;s mise-en-scene is indisputable, what he misses is the resolution of this conflict as a result of this fight scene. With the success of the first fight scene, Tang ceases to be inhibited by his surroundings. No longer the ignorant outsider, Tang has grown to thesis where he is #8220;neither brutish nor civilized,#8221; but a delicate balance between the two, a #8220;conquistador [#8230;] adapted to by sir francis bacon the fabric and equilibrium#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 55) of his new world, confident in his ability to meet and conquer any subsequent physical or social challenge. In the next several scenes, Tang is of management significantly never relegated to the boundaries of the frame nor is he pushed back to its deepest region; instead, Tang frequently occupies the center of the frame space, with characters eagerly hovering around him or pushing him into the foreground. An illustrative scene with thus far unappreciated significance to social problems students essay Lee#8217;s particular characterization of Tang finds him at the breakfast table after a morning workout. Eating with no shirt on obviously does not call to mind #8220;civilized#8221; behavior, but more importantly, Tang comes dangerously close to offending Chen by saying he prefers the food in Hong Kong to hers, but he is able to gracefully regain his social footing and preserve Chen#8217;s feelings. Thesis Quality Of Management! So while he is critical tools clearly no James Bond, a suave man-of-the-world with an abundance of grace and charm, he is at least making progress from being a hopeless dolt. Tang making social progress. Having proven in quality the previous fight scene that he is #8220;bodily suited to a guiding, mythological task#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 133), Tang now occupies the position of the hero. Putting himself (literally, as will be seen in a future sequence) in the line of fire, Tang is also now the syndicate#8217;s primary target.

After once more thwarting their strong-arm tactics (in the famed double nunchaku fight scene where Tang decimates nearly the entire gang in the restaurant back alley armed only with his iconic primitive weaponry), the crime boss, tired of phd writing, Tang#8217;s ubiquity, issues an ultimatum to the restaurant staff that orders Tang delivered to him by midnight. In the case of noncompliance, Tang will be killed. Undoubtedly the sequence offering the of management, most skillful display of problems among, cinematography, editing, and thesis quality sound, it begins with the staff discussing among themselves the books, pros and thesis cons of complying with the ultimatum and turning over Tang. Motivating the low-key lighting with the lone wall light visible in the master shot, the tighter shots take on a high degree of ominousness, particularly those of Uncle Wang, whose relentless pragmatism and constant warnings of danger are beginning to take on a sinister quality. Evincing the mythological archetype of the thinking, shapeshifter, the #8220;wily#8221; character who #8220;never discloses [#8230;] the whole content of his wisdom#8221; (Campbell, [1949] 1968: 381), Uncle Wang is appropriately lit in a fashion that signifies the dual nature of his ultimately back-stabbing character. It will be discovered at the end of the film that Wang was playing both sides after being corrupted by greed; in a foreshadowing effect, Wang is thus split here between having one side of his face lit normally while the other side catches the malevolently green flickering light emanating from the glass candle holder on thesis quality, the table. Convincing Chen that sending Tang back to conrad black essays Hong Kong is the safest move, Lee then cuts from this menacing restaurant scene to an equally foreboding scene set in Chen#8217;s apartment. Of Management! Sticking with the same noirish lighting scheme, Lee opens the phd writing, scene with a shot of the clock that will propel the suspense reminiscent of thesis of management, High Noon . After the initial close-up of the photo books for children, clock, Lee zooms out to encompass Chen#8217;s entrance into the frame.

Her first action is to cast a desperate look at the clock, which reads 11:55 PM, meaning she has five minutes to get Tang to safety. Tang, meanwhile, is sitting on the couch, his feet resting on the coffee table, completely aloof and at thesis peace as he talks of the coming Chinese New Year, the essay books for children, contrast in their respective demeanors heightening the tension. Lee then cuts to a shot of quality of management, a hit man taking a rifle from out of its case and looking through the scope, adjusting the focus to better survey the open window into Chen#8217;s apartment. With the classic Hitchcockian #8220;bomb under the table#8221; sufficiently registered, Lee cuts back inside the phd writing, apartment with a low-angle long shot of Tang on the couch, Chen#8217;s legs entering the camera#8217;s field of vision as she nervously paces through the shot. The startling noise of firecrackers causes Chen to jump, but Tang laughs it off as friendly Chinese residents celebrating the New Year. Quality Of Management! The sound of the clock#8217;s relentless ticking invades Chen#8217;s consciousness; she casts another nervous glance at the clock and sees it is now 11:57. She sits down and tells Tang that he has to leave, at for children which point Joseph Koo#8217;s score initiates a persistent ringing sound, which will increase in audibility over the course of Chen#8217;s dialogue. The ticking overlays the ringing, creating a layered soundtrack that contributes to the visuals to heighten the suspense until Lee cuts back to the sniper, at which point Koo#8217;s percussion punctuates the danger of his presence as he zeroes in his scope on quality of management, Tang. Back inside the apartment, Lee shoots a close-up of the clock#8217;s pendulum before rapidly raising the camera to the clock#8217;s face, which indicates it is now midnight. The clock starts ringing and Chen starts pulling at Tang#8217;s arm, failing to impress upon him the seriousness of the situation and now simply trying to photo forcibly remove him from the apartment. More firecrackers are heard, prompting Tang to suggest closing the window to block out the noise for the sake of the visibly agitated Chen.

Just as he reaches his hand up to grab the shudder, however, a shot rings out and a bullet shatters the bottom of the window frame. Tang pulls Chen down out of visibility from the window and tells her to wait in the apartment as he runs out to thesis quality confront the sniper. Conrad Essays! Due to the obvious fact that there is no ideological salience whatsoever in this extended suspense sequence, it is quality of management not surprising that it has never once been discussed in extant analyses of the film. But as the work done in the prolific field of Hitchcock Studies has amply demonstrated, a lack of ideological salience does not imply a lack of phd writing, artistic salience, and scholars operating under such a misguided notion can be/have been blinded to the high level of thesis of management, technical craftsmanship that comes from essay francis bacon, a harmonious linkage between cinematography, editing, and sound, a level of craftsmanship remarkably possessed by first-time director Lee, granting him the ability to quality of management imbue his film with a wealth of thematic interest and affective power. As more and more supratextual film analysis enters the academic discourse, it becomes clearer and clearer the #8220;lack of an analysis of essay franklin's, film as aesthetically charged, or functioning affectively on the spectator#8221; (Isaacs, 2008: 3). There has been, especially in Bruce Lee Studies, a #8220;rush into interpretation before the aesthetic has been [#8230;] clearly apprehended,#8221; which has resulted in #8220;an all too easy dismissal#8221; of thesis, much of what constitutes the filmic object #8220;on grounds that it is facile#8221; (Darley, 2000: 6), again recalling the Hegelian trap of familiarity and the Bordwellian warning against #8220;ransacking#8221; film style.

One can also see in the non-combat scenes analyzed thus far the extent to which Lee went, in conrad black essays the move from auteur to starteur, to create a real and relatable character to play. In the tradition of Eisenstein and the nouvelle vague , Lee was as much a theorist as he was an quality, artist, and the time and intensity he devoted to cultivating his skill in the martial arts was matched only by critical and analysis tools, the time and intensity he devoted to his film art. Believing that #8220;the aim of of management, art is to project an inner vision into the world, to state in aesthetic creation the deepest psychic and personal experiences of a human being#8221; (Lee, 1975: 9), and that acting is the #8220;psychic unfolding of the personality#8221; (Lee, 1975: 10), the essay, impetus to his careful mise-en-scene and authentic performance becomes clear. Lee sought to create, in the construction of the film#8217;s visual space, a window into the mind and soul of his character, and through his acting, sought to bring to life what he called the #8220;autonomous individual,#8221; a character who is #8220;on his own, striving to realize himself and prove his worth#8221; (Lee, 1975: 206), an undeniably autobiographical but at the same time universal character type. The autonomous individual, in Lee#8217;s conceptualization, is quality of management #8220;stable only so long as he is phd writing possessed of self-esteem,#8221; the acquirement and maintenance of which #8220;is a continuous task which taxes all of the individual#8217;s power and inner resources#8221; (Lee, 1975: 206). Tang Lung#8217;s mythological task is thus, in line with the archetypal #8220;hero#8217;s journey,#8221; the of management, mastery of oneself; he must walk #8220;the path of self-realization,#8221; fittingly the most difficult road to travel, in the esoteric #8220;cultivation of the social problems among students, spirit#8221; (Lee, 1975: 206). While the non-combat scenes in The Way of the Dragon are integral to an understanding of quality, Lee#8217;s characterization of essay by sir, Tang Lung and the visual representation of his thematic preoccupations, the fight scenes are undeniably important, as well. It is through physical action that Tang is able to prove his worth, both to himself and to those around him, and finally save Chen and take down the gangsters. In the spirit of the Western, The Way of the Dragon serves as a parable of physical action becoming law (Thomson, 2004: 235).

Thus, the deservedly famous showdown between Tang and Colt (Chuck Norris), the American martial artist hired by thesis quality, the syndicate to essay on benjamin franklin's inventions finally get rid of Tang, can be viewed as constitutionally sacrosanct combat wherein the victorious martial artist#8217;s supremacy constitutes legal dominion in the matter at thesis hand. The interested parties#8212;the restaurant staff, on the one hand, and the crime syndicate, on essay bacon, the other#8212;each have their legal counsel, only quality, instead of arguing legalities in a court of law, Tang and Colt will engage in mortal combat on the hallowed ground of the Roman Colosseum, and to on benjamin franklin's inventions the victor belong the spoils. To understand the meticulousness with which Lee visually structured the Colosseum fight scene, a return is necessary to the previous two fight scenes that took place in the restaurant back alley. While discussing the first fight scene, Gaul off-handedly comments on thesis of management, the peculiarity of a particular shot where Lee is on benjamin franklin's seated and looking up at two approaching thugs, whose point-of-view Lee#8217;s camera has briefly occupied. After pointing out the existence of quality of management, this shot, Gaul goes no further in conrad black theorizing its significance. Based on the earlier instances of characters looking at quality of management Tang and making judgments based on his appearance/behavior, it becomes explicit in this particular shot Lee#8217;s subversive efforts in inverting the position of power from one looking down to one looking up. Based on his race, culture, class, etc., Tang/Lee may occupy a particular sociological/ideological position in the minds of others, but that position is less a prison and more a starting block and to attempt to keep Tang/Lee imprisoned in such a constraining sociological/ideological position is to risk being taken by surprise by the strength within him. Spending his life being alternately ignored, underestimated, or ridiculed, Lee takes the opportunity, as Tang, to poke fun at essay on benjamin inventions and ultimately rise above this discursive position. The fact that he #8220;stooped to play the fool#8221; highlights not a propagation of weakness/inferiority, as suggested by Teo#8217;s disfavor with Lee#8217;s characterization; more strikingly, it highlights Lee#8217;s #8220;superiority and satirical might as a representative#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 119) of the strong transnational outsider. Within the film, he #8220;unmasks, #8216;sees through#8217;, the fiction upon which the social link of the existing power structure is quality of management founded#8221; (#381;i#382;ek, 2005: 229), and essay on benjamin franklin's the fact that Lee shoots the point-of-view dolly shot with very slow movement signifies the of management, apprehension with which the thugs are approaching this shockingly competent individual.

Their other two friends paid for their ignorant denunciation of the Chinese country bumpkin with their consciousness, and even though Tang is seated in a position of ostensible weakness and inferiority, they have seen what lies behind the facade and are now approaching with respectful caution. Later, in the second restaurant alley fight scene between Tang and the crime faction, Lee includes two similar scenes with Tang playing on his perceived impotence/inferiority. First, when being led out to the alley at gunpoint, Tang is walking with his hands up. Eventually, the thug with the gun tells him he can put his hands down, but Tang blankly stares at him as if he does not understand. He keeps up the ignorance charade long enough for the thug to let his guard down, put at ease by Tang#8217;s apparent fatuity, at which point Tang quickly strikes him in the groin and removes the gun from his possession. Lastly, during the same fight scene, Tang, approached by one of the knife-wielding gangsters after having already displayed an abundance of combative efficaciousness, flashes him #8220;an obtuse-looking but deceptively passive smile#8221; (Saunders, 2009: 128) before unleashing a vicious torrent of strikes with his nunchaku, a signification to the gang that he has officially invalidated the currency in their perception of him as an unthreatening idiot. Problems Among Students! Tang/Lee acknowledging, subverting, and mastering others#8217; ignorant perceptions. Clearly, Lee had an astute understanding not only of the thesis of management, power of satire and general good humor in the structuring of his narrative and the remolding of his persona through the character of Tang Lung, but also of the power of the camera in his strategic deployment of various identification#8212;or, more to the point, identification manipulation #8212;techniques. Conceding this assertion, the spectator viewing the final fight between Tang and Colt is enabled to recognize the essay by sir bacon, subtle Hitchcockian shift in perspective at the crucial turning point of the fight, a move executed by Lee in thesis of management order to condemn the senseless bloodlust overwhelming martial arts cinema at essay for children the time, the most brilliant and poignant achievement of his all-too-short career as a filmmaker. Much has been made in thesis quality discussions of The Way of the Dragon of the classic Colosseum encounter; as possibly the most famous scene in martial arts cinema, it is not surprisingly the most frequently discussed scene in critical analyses (aesthetic, textual, and essay on benjamin inventions supratextual alike) of the film.

Yet, because of the quality of management, lack of authorial context and the indifference to on benjamin form and thesis quality narratology in the extant analyses, there is still much to be gleaned from further analysis. Most popularly, especially over the last decade, scholarship on martial arts cinema promulgates an affinity with dance in the prioritization of the physical movement inherent in martial arts over any alleged supratextual ideological saliency. [8] As logically attested to by Melanie Morrissette, #8220;before any social and political analysis,#8221; for which martial arts cinema #8220;seems to fulfill some needs,#8221; the aesthetic rendering of the physiological #8220;should be the major subject of analysis#8221; (Morrissette, 2002). Arguing on the same line, Aaron Anderson posits that #8220;mimetically representational fights#8221; seek above all else to #8220;convey a narrative story;#8221; thus, the #8220;aesthetic aspect of this stylization#8221; of combat inherent in cinematic representation must attain primacy in by sir francis ascribing meaning to thesis quality a particular fight scene, or as Anderson terms it, a particular #8220;movement-narrative#8221; (Anderson, 1998). Problematically, action scenes are often reduced in essay theory to pure spectacle, indulgent scenes that are alleged to #8220;#8216;freeze#8217; the narrative in its tracks#8221; (Anderson, 1998). Thus, the quality, film studies institution#8217;s codification of martial arts film analysis as purely the critical thinking and analysis tools, province of aesthetic analyses of fight scenes (the only scenes worth looking at in this condescendingly trivialized #8220;cinema of attractions#8221; plagued by juvenile storytelling) has inculcated the notion that the fight scenes, as spectacles, cannot possibly contain thematic currency, neither intrinsically as a #8220;movement-narrative#8221; nor as a thematic link in the overall narrative chain (which is itself allegedly devoid of thematic acuity). In direct contrast to thesis these widely held assumptions, analyzing the Colosseum fight scene in The Way of the Dragon enables one to recognize both the scene#8217;s relevance to the rest of the film#8212;as previously discussed, its signification of photo for children, juridical combat in the settling of the restaurant dispute#8212;as well as Lee#8217;s investment in it as a thematically rich #8220;movement-narrative.#8221; The most commonly asserted meaning of thesis, this fight scene is its serving as #8220;one of Lee#8217;s performative #8216;lessons#8217; #8216;about#8217; martial arts (Bowman, 2010: 76), and indeed, this is the problems among, most explicit of quality, its meanings as offered by Lee, the conrad black, perennial pedagogue of martial arts cinema. Searching deeper, a meaning ascribed to the sequence by Leon Hunt vis-a-vis spectatorial identification, endemic of the ideology-inclined cultural studies colonization, places race/culture as the main determinant of identification and emotional impact: Watching [martial arts] films as a white, Western fan [#8230;] may involve a degree of identification with Bruce Lee [#8230;] but it may also lead, at some point, to thesis quality finding one#8217;s counterpart in the gwailo [#8230;] I may not want to [#8230;] identify with Chuck Norris in The Way of the Dragon [#8230;] yet part of me knows that the Lee/Norris [Colosseum] fight embodies a patriotic structure of feeling that is essay supposed to at least partly exclude me (Hunt, 2003: 3). Resultant from the thesis quality of management, cultural studies dogma that #8220;films cannot possibly be thinking,#8221; that they and their makers are helpless prisoners #8220;in the repressive grip of ideology, a grip only theory [re: theorists ] can break#8221; (Rothman, 1999: 35), Hunt falls into the same reductive trap that removes film from the among, realm of art and of management the filmmaker from the realm of artist. Problems Essay! More beneficial, especially in turning to martial arts cinema, is to work from an aesthetic/textual viewpoint that enables one to register, analyze, and appreciate the of management, films#8217; richness and complexity. For the Colosseum scene in particular, as already asserted, Lee#8217;s continued utilization of identification manipulation techniques provides the greatest salience in the breakdown of how Lee triggers within the spectator the #8220;multiplicity of affects available for stimulation#8221; (Carroll, 2008: 148) beyond the restrictive domain of ideological deconstruction.

For Hunt, the notion of essay books for children, #8220;identification#8221; is unproblematic and straightforward, and indeed, this essay has also made use of the term as a signifier of the vague psychological connections often made between spectators and characters. For Noel Carroll, the concept of identification represents one of the most frustratingly malleable terms in all of thesis quality, film studies, to which he has devoted a considerable amount of time and essay bacon energy interrogating. More productive than using the thesis of management, term #8220;identification#8221; as a catch-all for the #8220;diversity of essay francis, phenomena#8221; experienced by filmgoers, Carroll prefers discussing the affective system of the of management, spectator, affect being defined as a broad compass comprised of #8220;hard-wired reflex reactions, like the startle response, sensations (including pleasure, pain, and essay on benjamin inventions sexual arousal), phobias, desires, various occurrent, feeling-toned mental states#8212;such as fear, anger, and jealous#8212;and moods#8221; (Carroll, 2008: 149). It is also important to note that the specific affective realm with which Lee is concerned in the Colosseum scene is the emotional realm, in which #8220;differential computational appraisals of stimuli#8221; cause the spectator to experience #8220;visceral feelings#8221; (Carroll, 2008: 151). Lee seeks to take the of management, spectator beyond a sense of detached voyeurism and truly bring the spectator into the fight, to viscerally experience it alternately from the black essays, two opposing combatants#8217; perspectives. Standard martial arts film practice of the thesis, era typically saw the protagonist face his/her enemy (who, by the finale, had been sufficiently demonized in what was often a one-dimensional characterization/caricature) with murderous intent, relishing the opportunity to inflict bodily damage and unhesitatingly dealing the fatal blow (e.g. Come Drink with Me , The One-Armed Swordsman , Five Fingers of Death ). The predominance of the essay on benjamin franklin's, revenge trope in this genre can be seen as the most convenient way of alleviating any moral/ethical concerns for of management, the spectator, who can comfortably enjoy in essays watching, if not in thesis of management some sense participating in, the violent and bloody carnage offered up for their entertainment. And Lee was the first person to acknowledge that the films he made for Wei made use of this trope. Even though he had twice played avenging angels who, by film#8217;s end, had racked up a considerable body count, he always insisted by way of essay on benjamin franklin's, mitigation that his characters be punished, first with arrest in The Big Boss and then with death in quality of management Fist of Fury . [9] In The Way of the Dragon , Lee would take the opportunity as the critical tools, presiding author to quality of management give his philosophy of cinematic morality more explicit treatment than ever before.

In the phd writing, early stages of the fight, Colt is quality getting the better of Tang. Forced to adapt his fighting style to the larger and stronger opponent, a substantial portion of the social, middle section of the fight sees Tang turning the tables on Colt. Arguably the most exceptional display of fight choreography and general martial artistry in Lee#8217;s entire oeuvre , the portion where Tang frustrates Colt with the diversity of his offense and his Ali-inspired perpetual motion is quality some of the critical, easiest martial arts cinema in which the spectator can vicariously participate through Lee#8217;s supremely cultivated hero. Inserts of a cat help to invoke a sense of playfulness, of the clearly superior Tang toying with the quality of management, perplexed Colt in for children the same fashion as the cat is seen pawing a loose rock on the Colosseum floor. This untroubled sense of enjoyment in watching Tang mercilessly punch and kick another human being is thesis quality of management devoid of all of its physical and emotional gravitas, and while this is no doubt to satisfy the prerequisite of the genre to provide interest in martial spectacle, a more discerning appraisal can uncover a supreme cinematic dexterity whereby Lee leads the spectator down this path of simplistic entertainment only to problems among students blindside them with a lurch in tone that reveals Lee#8217;s true and profound intention. In the existing scholarship on Vertigo , scholars are in almost unanimous agreement that the flashback where Hitchcock takes the viewer from out of Scottie#8217;s (James Stewart) consciousness and into Judy#8217;s (Kim Novak) #8220;constitutes nothing less than the decisive turning point#8221; (Keane, 2009: 237) in the narrative, the thesis quality, effect of which #8220;is ruthlessly to expose#8221; (Wood, 1989: 363) the on benjamin, nature of Scottie#8217;s actions, ranking #8220;among the most disturbing and painful experiences#8221; (Wood, 1989: 387) in all of thesis quality, Hitchcock#8217;s cinema in the way it makes it wholly impossible to resume an unproblematic psychological and phd writing emotional alignment with Scottie as the film approaches its conclusion. At the risk of continuing to compare a first-time director to one of the masters of the art form, Lee#8217;s efforts in staging the fight between Tang and Colt are identical to those displayed by thesis quality, Hitchcock in Vertigo , and achieved through identical means. Having just invested so much emotionally in rooting for Tang, cheering with a bloodthirstiness for more violence after each landed strike, Lee now forces the spectator to both confront the sight of a man suffering in agonizing pain from the onslaught of violence just administered, and even share his pain.

At this crucial point in the fight, Tang has established his superiority, repeatedly stifling Colt#8217;s offense while landing his own strikes at will. Tired, hurt, and continuously getting hit, Colt has completely emptied his combative toolbox. He has nothing left to throw at Tang, who is still irritatingly bouncing around, his perpetual motion creating, defensively, an critical thinking, impossible target to hit, while offensively, he is intolerably unpredictable. In borderline cruel fashion, Lee indulges in a technique of misdirection whereby, in identical fashion to when Tang, after orginally appearing overmatched, changed up his technique and gained the quality of management, competitive edge, Colt now begins mimicking Tang#8217;s movements, bouncing around and throwing sidekicks, evidently now on an even playing field with Tang. The music even picks up the exact same triumphant cue as heard before, only Lee allows Colt a mere glimpse of promise, snuffing out the music and extinguishing Colt#8217;s last desperate attempt to achieve the success he was enjoying in the initial stages of the fight with a ferocious series of punches that floor Colt.

It is at phd writing this precise moment that Lee executes his filmic coup, inserting a subjective shot from Colt#8217;s punch-drunk point-of-view of a blurry Tang, at the same time cueing a dour and foreboding note on the soundtrack. The dynamic of the entire fight scene shifts in this instant from one of thesis of management, vicarious thrill to one of morbid disavowal. No longer a bloodthirsty Roman peasant witnessing a gladiatorial slaying for general amusement, Lee forces the spectator to focus not on the victor, but the loser, to impress the phd writing, important point that mortal combat is not some abstract, metaphysical concept existing in thesis of management antiquity to be used frivolously for entertainment purposes, but a real condition of life, past and present, that involves pain and suffering, and that, if used in the cinema, must be used in a humanistic manner, a commonplace notion in critical thinking and analysis tools the genre now (e.g. Best of the of management, Best and photo books Lionheart ) but unheard of at the time as to its radicality. Thesis Of Management! After the dynamic of the and analysis tools, fight has shifted, what follows is Colt#8217;s continued subjection to thesis Tang#8217;s superiority. Essay Franklin's! His painful sluggishness is now no match for of management, Tang#8217;s lithe speed.

An attempted roundhouse kick from Colt merely allows Tang the opportunity to use his speed to kick Colt#8217;s back leg out from by sir francis bacon, under him, sending him crashing to the concrete once more. Quality! And, rather than cutting to a shot of Tang, Lee keeps the camera focused on Colt, who remains on his back, groaning in thinking pain. In offering a theory of #8220;kinesthetic response,#8221; Anderson talks of how the spectator witnessing physical movements onscreen can experience #8220;muscular sympathy,#8221; a process whereby the quality of management, spectator is essay by sir not only imagining, for example, how cool it would be to be able to thesis move and kick like Bruce Lee, but whereby, calling to mind past experiences of either hitting someone or being hit, the essay franklin's inventions, spectator calls on a physical rather than a psychological response to that which is on film. Painful and injurious experiences in of management human experience thus allow the spectator witnessing Colt#8217;s progressive dismantling to thinking tools muscularly sympathize with his physical pain. As Anderson asserts, #8220;the body itself, through empathic physical sensation, participates#8221; in the #8220;viewed movement#8221; (Anderson, 1998). By the end of the sequence, at which point Tang has beaten Colt to quality the brink of blindness, thoroughly bruised and phd writing bloodied his face, and of management even broken one of his arms and one of his legs, Lee finally returns the critical, spectator to Tang#8217;s point-of-view.

The extended and excruciating excursion into Colt#8217;s subjectivity allows for Tang#8217;s eventual veneration of Colt to be shared by the spectator. Without using dialogue, Lee cuts a series of looks between Tang and Colt wherein Tang is pleading with Colt to concede defeat. Adhering to the warrior code, Colt chooses #8220;death before dishonor.#8221; With one good arm and on one good leg, Colt lunges at Tang, who reluctantly kills Colt, settling the matters of the #8220;movement-narrative#8221; and the overall narrative once and for all but achieving something much more impressive and profound than merely providing an thesis of management, exciting climax. While the fight between Tang and Colt unavoidably invokes a sense of cultural jingoism, with the minority trouncing the hubristic imperialist, Lee had the sagacity to demarcate the racial/cultural line so as to make his erasure of that line all the more conspicuous and poignant. If it is an ideological message one is essay on benjamin inventions determined to thesis quality find in the work of Bruce Lee, then the search can end with this sequence#8217;s tragically beautiful coda featuring Tang paying tribute to his felled brother by symbolically laying him to rest with his belt and conrad black dobak. Lee#8217;s final proclamation, achieved through purely visual means, persuasively contends that #8220;if we are to overcome the quality, #8216;effective#8217; social power, we have first to franklin's break its fantasmatic hold upon us#8221; (#381;i#382;ek, 2005: 231). Lee was determined#8212;as a man, husband, father, martial artist, and filmmaker#8212;to move beyond race, culture, ideology, religion, class, gender, occupation, education, style of martial arts, etc., in an effort to find that transcendental autonomous individual. If it is at all possible to sum up the essence of a human being in a single statement, the closest to success one could come in quality of management attempting to conrad black essays sum up Bruce Lee would be to recall his answer to Pierre Berton#8217;s question of whether he considered himself Chinese or American: #8220;I want to think of myself as a human being,#8221; because #8220;under the sky#8221; there is #8220;but one family: It just so happens that people are different#8221; (Lee, 1971). Just as Lee did not pretend to thesis of management dismiss culture, race, and ideology as insignificant, this essay#8217;s efforts have not been to remove ideological critique from relevance in the analysis of cinema. More productively, the goal has been to highlight the insufficiency of ideological deconstruction as a hegemonic, standalone critical position. Essay Francis Bacon! As Bruce Lee proclaimed, #8220;there is no such thing as an effective segment of a totality#8221; (qtd. in quality Little, 2001: 91).

The essence of cinema is essay its lack of a single fixed and tangible essence; it thrives based on its magnificently irreducible multidimensionality. Far more than just the mechanistic offspring of the cultural machine in need only of ideological deconstruction, the great artworks in cinema are #8220;fed by a complex generic tradition and, beyond that, by the fears and aspirations of a whole culture,#8221; at once transcending their individual makers while at of management the same time being inconceivable without them (Wood, 1989: 296). And such is the case with the martial arts cinema of Bruce Lee. 1 First, a full-length critical overview from film critic Lou Gaul (1997), and second, an anthology of Lee criticism edited by Jack Hunter (2005), which presents a short essay for each of Lee#8217;s four completed films plus an essay on the 1978 version of The Game of Death , which brings up an important point to be made regarding this particular film#8217;s legacy. For three decades, fans and scholars interested in Lee#8217;s incomplete final film, The Game of Death , had no material with which to work other than the infamous 1978 film released by essays, Columbia Pictures. That film included only half of the footage Lee shot before his death (all that was recovered at the time) and not a single remnant of Lee#8217;s original story (neither Robert Clouse, who directed the quality, non-Lee footage from the 1978 version, and Columbia nor Raymond Chow and by sir Golden Harvest were able to thesis of management recover Lee#8217;s original story outline), creating a myth akin to photo essay books Stroheim#8217;s Greed about the lost, #8220;real#8221; version. It was not until the 2000 documentary Bruce Lee: A Warrior#8217;s Journey that the world was able to see all of the existing footage shot by Lee and edited (by John Little) according to his specifications. Little also released a companion book in 2001, which contains Lee#8217;s recovered original treatment for The Game of Death as well as the thesis, only existing textual analysis of phd writing, this particular version of the film (the analysis offered in Bowman#8217;s text, aside from being grossly specious, is far too brief to be considered alongside Little#8217;s rigorous interrogation, although he does at least direct his attention to the film Lee intended). Since all of the other existing scholarship on the film focuses on the 1978 version (e.g. in Gaul#8217;s text and the Hunter anthology), which is a severe violation of Lee#8217;s original artistic vision, it is of course the Little book that should be consulted by readers interested in the continued, albeit aborted, evolution of Lee#8217;s filmmaking from The Way of the Dragon to The Game of Death . 2 As Hegel posits, #8220;the commonest way we deceive either ourselves or others about understanding is by assuming something as familiar and accepting it on that account#8221; (Hegel, [1807] 1998: 18).

Adding to the irony, it is Bowman himself who sagaciously observed this danger (Bowman, 2010: 45) in Bruce Lee Studies, yet, similar to the #8220;Kantian Parallax#8221; elucidated by thesis, Slavoj #381;i#382;ek, Bowman, restricted as he was by his cultural studies framework, was able to recognize but not escape the danger presented by the Hegelian trap of familiarity (#381;i#382;ek, 2006: 25). 3 For example, Peter Rist, writing for Offscreen about a special series of screenings of Hong Kong martial arts movies hosted by the UCLA Film Television Archive in 2003, acceded that it was understandable that Lee#8217;s films, as popular as they are, would be ignored (Rist, 2003). 4 Chang Cheh, while not officially canonized yet, seems to be the next martial auteur that film scholars are attempting to have canonized within film studies, while Lee remains conspicuously absent. 5 In Making Meaning , Bordwell discusses what he terms #8220;nodal passages#8221; (Bordwell, 1989: 214), the scenes that, having subordinated the film to his/her established argument, the interpreter surgically removes to support his/her position. Obviously, the critical and analysis tools, inherent weakness in this methodology is that it is #8220;partial and thesis one-sided#8221; with the thinking tools, interpreter essentially #8220;concealing those parts of the thesis, film that don#8217;t fit#8221; (Bordwell, 1989: 214) the already formulated argument. In general terms, obvious nodal passages are opening scenes, climaxes, and by sir endings. In the case of martial arts films, however, even these sequences tend to be ignored, with the fight scenes being viewed as the only areas worth studying. See, for example, Bordwell#8217;s analysis of King Hu, wherein he makes the thesis of management, claim that #8220;naturally, the most inviting objects of stylistic inquiry are [#8230;] fight scenes#8221; (Bordwell, 2000: 113).

He does acknowledge that #8220;dramatic and photo essay books expository scenes#8221; in martial arts films #8220;are not without stylistic interest#8221; (Bordwell, 2000: 113), but because the of management, fight scenes are so attractive to the scholar and because they are what readers expect to be analyzed, the rest of the films are inescapably ignored and the totality of the various artistic visions cannot possibly be adequately assessed/appreciated. Among Essay! Thus, the goal here in analyzing The Way of the Dragon is to not elevate one over/at the expense of the other, but to show how they both come together in the structuring of quality, a single, thematically unified narrative. Critical Thinking! 6 Much was already made of Lee vis-a-vis nationality and masculinity in Part I of this essay. Thesis Quality! To the charges of racism on Lee#8217;s part towards non-Chinese, see Peggy Chiao, who identifies Lee#8217;s #8220;blatant racism#8221; as #8220;one of the major weaknesses of his films#8221; (Chiao, 1981: 38). As to the disfavor regarding his #8220;bumpkin persona,#8221; see Teo (1997: 116-117). Teo does acknowledge a potential subversive power in by sir Lee adopting such a persona. However, he ultimately comes to disavow it as the regression of a previously #8220;heroic figure into a parody#8221; (Teo, 1997: 116). So, while Teo acknowledges the presence of thesis of management, potential subversive power, he argues that Lee is unable to realize it through a lack of filmmaking savvy, a conclusion likely stemming from an allegiance to Lee as a symbol of nationalistic pride.

As such, it is logical, if unhelpful, that Teo was turned off by Lee#8217;s #8220;indulgence in playing the bumpkin#8221; (Teo, 1997: 116) over the ascension of Chinese strength. For a more tempered appraisal of this film and Lee#8217;s characterization therein, see Teo#8217;s subsequent discussion of Lee in social his charting of the historical evolution of Chinese martial arts cinema (Teo, 2009: 74-81). 7 In a sequence cut from many of the international releases of the film but restored for a number of the thesis, more recent DVD releases, Tang enters the airport restaurant in the hopes of getting some food in his stomach before Chen arrives to critical thinking tools pick him up. Unable to read the thesis, menu, Tang points to a series of items for the waitress to social problems among bring him, unaware that he just asked for every soup on the menu. When his meal arrives, rather than admit he made a mistake, he digs in and eats every bowl. For several scenes hereafter, Tang is battling a severely upset stomach. Other sequences cut from this film include an extended encounter with the Italian prostitute, who takes Tang back to her apartment after Chen runs off. Tang, oblivious to her intentions, is mortified when she emerges from her bedroom naked and runs from the apartment. Lastly, there is thesis of management another bathroom joke calling back to the soup incident where Tang, while at Chen#8217;s restaurant, uses the bathroom and is seen by a local using the toilet as if it were a squat toilet. 8 The most dedicated and persuasive of scholars in this branch of study is Aaron Anderson.

In particular, his Jump Cut (1998) essay on kinesthesia in martial arts films is illustrative of the points of focus for this type of aesthetic analysis. Also in franklin's inventions line with Anderson#8217;s work on martial arts and dance is Melanie Morrissette (2002), whose Offscreen essay on thesis, the importance of choreography in the creation of meaning in physical action onscreen is invaluable for the continued aesthetic analysis of on benjamin franklin's, martial arts cinema in thesis of management film studies. 9 To read Lee#8217;s thoughts on violence in film and his ambitions on this front as a budding filmmaker, see The Wisdom of thinking and analysis tools, Bruce Lee (Dennis and Hutchinson, 1976: 98-108). Anderson, Aaron. #8220;Kinesthesia in Martial Arts Films.#8221; Jump Cut 42 (1998). Web. Anderson, Aaron. #8220;Asian Martial Arts Cinema, Dance, and the Cultural Languages of thesis, Gender.#8221; Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora . Ed. Kam Tan See, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2009. Print. Bordwell, David. Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of by sir bacon, Cinema . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1989.

Print. Bordwell, David. #8220;Richness through Imperfection: King Hu and the Glimpse.#8221; The Cinema of Hong Kong . Thesis Quality Of Management! Ed. David Desser and Poshek Fu. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2000. Print. By Sir! Bowman, Paul. Theorizing Bruce Lee: Film-Fantasy-Fighting-Philosophy . Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2010. Print.

Bruce Lee: A Warrior#8217;s Journey . Dir. Quality! John Little. 2000. DVD . Conrad Black! Campbell, Joseph. Thesis Quality! The Hero with a Thousand Faces . New Jersey: Princeton University Press, [1949] 1968. Print. Carroll, Noel. The Philosophy of Motion Pictures . Malden: Blackwell, 2008. Print. Chiao, Peggy. #8220;Bruce Lee: His Influence on the Evolution of the essay books, Kung Fu Genre.#8221; Journal of Popular Film and of management Television 9.1 (Spring 1981): 30-42. Print.

Darley, Andrew. Visual Digital Culture: Surface Play and Spectacle in New Media Genres . London: Routledge, 2000. Print. Dennis, Felix and Roger Hutchinson. The Wisdom of Bruce Lee . New York: Pinnacle, 1976. Print.

Gaul, Lou. Students Essay! The Fist That Shook the World: The Cinema of Bruce Lee . Quality Of Management! Baltimore, MD: Midnight Marquee, 1997. Print. Hegel, G.W.F. The Phenomenology of Spirit . Trans. A.V. Miller. Delhi: Shri Jainendra Press, [1807] 1998. Print.

Hunt, Leon. Kung Fu Cult Masters . London: Wallflower, 2003. Print. Hunter, Jack, ed. Intercepting Fist: The Films of Bruce Lee . London: Glitter, 1999. Print. Isaacs, Bruce. Toward a New Film Aesthetic . Photo Books! New York: Continuum, 2008.

Print. Keane, Marian E. Quality! #8220;A Closer Look at Scopophilia: Mulvey, Hitchcock, and Vertigo.#8221; A Hitchcock Reader . Ed. Marshall Deutelbaum and Leland Poague. Malden: Blackwell, 2009. Print. Knapp, Laurence F. Directed by Clint Eastwood: Eighteen Films Analyzed . Jefferson, NC: McFarland , 1996.

Print. Lee, Bruce. The Tao of Jeet Kune Do . Burbank, CA: Ohara Publications, 1975. Print. Photo Essay Books For Children! Lee, Bruce. #8220;Bruce Lee.#8221; The Pierre Berton Show . 9 Dec. 1971. Television. Little, John. Thesis Of Management! Bruce Lee: A Warrior#8217;s Journey . Chicago: Contemporary, 2001. Print.

Logan, Bey. Phd Writing! The Way of the Dragon . Dir. Bruce Lee. Hong Kong Legends, 1972. DVD . Platinum Edition. 2006. Audio Commentary.

Morrissette, Melanie. #8220;Choreography: The Unknown and Ignored.#8221; Offscreen 6.8 (2002). Web. Rist, Peter. #8220; UCLA #8217;s #8220;Heroic Grace: The Chinese Martial Arts Film.#8221; Offscreen 7.6 (2003). Web. Rothman, William. #8220;Some Thoughts on Hitchcock#8217;s Authorship.#8221; Alfred Hitchcock: Centenary Essays . Ed.

Richard Allen and S. Ishii-Gonzales. London: BFI , 1999. Print. Saunders, Dave. Thesis Quality! Arnold: Schwarzenegger and the Movies . London: I. B. Tauris, 2009. Print.

Shu, Yuan. #8220;Bruce Lee to Jackie Chan: Reading the conrad black essays, Kung Fu Film in an American Context.#8221; Journal of of management, Popular Film and Television 31.2 (Summer 2003): 50-59. Print. Teo, Stephen. Hong Kong Cinema: The Extra Dimensions . London: BFI , 1997. Print. Teo, Stephen. Chinese Martial Arts Cinema: The Wuxia Tradition . Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009. Print. Thomson, David. The Whole Equation: A History of Hollywood . New York: Alfred A. Essay Francis Bacon! Knopf, 2005. Print.

Wood, Robin. Hitchcock#8217;s Films Revisited . New York: Columbia UP, 1989. Quality Of Management! Print. #381;i#382;ek, Slavoj. Interrogating the Real . Ed. Rex Butler and Scott Stephens. London: Continuum, 2005. Essay! Print. #381;i#382;ek, Slavoj.

The Parallax View . Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006. Print. Kyle Barrowman is a PhD student in the School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University. In addition to his previous contributions to Offscreen , his work has appeared in quality such journals as The International Journal of Zizek Studies , Senses of Cinema , Colloquium , and the JOMEC Journal . He also serves as the Assistant Editor of the Martial Arts Studies journal. His work is available at essay by sir bacon address cited above. Thesis Of Management! Bruce Lee: Authorship, Ideology, and Film Studies Part 1. Photo Books! Leon Saunders Calvert. Playing with Memories: Essays on Guy Maddin. UCLA#8217;s #8220;Heroic Grace: the Chinese Martial Arts Film#8221; A Touch of Hu: A Fan#8217;s Notes and an Appreciation. Interview Hou Yong : Zhang Yimou#8217;s Cinematographer. Choreography: the thesis of management, unknown and ignored.

1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to quality of management submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to thinking and analysis write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and thesis of management using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by francis, author, not by thesis quality, the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for photo essay, the MLA Handbook for Writers of quality of management, Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page)

How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface.

Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to phd writing 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the quality typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to essay for children Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of thesis of management, Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and black essays right margins are too big.

To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Thesis. Change it to phd writing 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to thesis of management change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an for children automatic page number and your surname.

2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the thesis new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an on benjamin inventions informative title that actually informs the thesis reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and phd writing Macbeth”). Like all the thesis other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is by sir bacon no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the thesis quality general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to critical compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth.

Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. Thesis Quality. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to conrad look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the quality period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and photo the page number.

If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in thesis quality of management, 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the essay importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the thesis of management filler leaves more room to essay books for children develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an thesis of management Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Phd Writing. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the thesis same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in essay books for children, order to fit it into our own sentence.

To let the reader know what we changed, we put [] around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the of management quote comes from. Phd Writing. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to thesis quality of management establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and phd writing make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for thesis quality of management, variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in phd writing, our own words, we must still cite the quality of management idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. Social Problems Among Students Essay. This part can be tedious and quality tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.

MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for conrad black, no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in quality, your bibliography depends on what kind of critical and analysis, item it is. Thesis. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry.

If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for by sir francis, a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). Thesis. See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to phd writing be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to thesis organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in and analysis tools, a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to quality of management go along with each item.

Use double-spaced line height. Among. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for thesis, clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to photo books more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in quality, an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers.

That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to thinking and analysis tools put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in thesis quality, citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about conrad black essays, that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the thesis of management page number the text appears on within the authors works?

That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Franklin's Inventions. Before my college year in thesis of management, America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of photo essay, essay. Thesis Of Management. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Phd Writing. Thank you again. I’m glad to thesis quality of management know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for essay, that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing.

With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the thesis quality text appears on photo books within the thesis quality authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by franklin's, Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the thesis Table of Contents double spaced – MLA?

“@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in problems among students, middle school and I have to do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and thesis quality this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to phd writing 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. Thesis Quality Of Management. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in francis, a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for of management, different reasons.

that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of conrad black, Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for of management, Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an phd writing Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option.

Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for quality of management, documenting sources — use an social problems among in-text citation and thesis a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to conrad use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on thesis quality of management citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is problems among students about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and thesis it looks just like your example. I followed everything to among the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in of management, wrong format. Phd Writing. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from quality thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on thinking a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for of management, the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions.

I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the and analysis instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to of management have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to social essay his or her own criteria. Thesis Quality. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about phd writing, what “format” the college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.

seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and thesis page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Social Among Essay. Instead of thesis quality, conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of phd writing, longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. Thesis Quality Of Management. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and on benjamin re-read those same passages for thesis quality, themselves, and further the work of thinking and analysis, scholarship as it is of management conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply.

What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to photo essay books use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in thesis of management, a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in franklin's, the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. Quality Of Management. But it’s best for you to talk to your teacher about the and analysis tools specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to quality ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong?

I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. Essay Francis Bacon. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about quality of management, MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written.

The first section includes links to pages about essay books, how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. Thesis. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for essay inventions, me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. Thesis Of Management. In middle school I never wrote an essay in critical tools, this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)?

I’m using a book title and quality of management author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and on benjamin franklin's the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the quality of management paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. Problems Among. MLA style puts the book title in thesis quality of management, italics. Essay For Children. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for quality of management, students of social sciences, media sciences and business?

I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at photo essay, the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful.

is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in thesis quality of management, a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the for children makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the quality of management model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph.

Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the on benjamin inventions MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. Quality Of Management. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the phd writing citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to thesis advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and among essay Include also how much Papers Should be worked on.

Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is thesis of management no specific answer to essay for children how much a paper should be worked on. Quality. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the by sir francis bacon chance to revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.

Thank you!

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Why Your Ecommerce Store Needs a Business Plan (and How to Write One) If your first thought when hearing the words business plan is yuck, then you're not alone. For most people, the thought of quality, writing a business plan brings up painful memories of past homework assignments and many online store owners view them as something only real world businesses and Silicon Valley startups need. And lets face it, there's all that fun marketing stuff you could be doing like taking product photos, writing blog posts and opening social media accounts. But the truth is, the essay for children, fun stuff will only be meaningful if you build your business on a strong foundation.

And that's where writing a simple business plan comes in. Even if you don't actually need funding for your business or need to thesis quality submit a business plan to anyone, there are still some compelling reasons you should consider writing one for yourself. For example, let's say that you're just starting out. You've created an essay francis online store, you may even be making some sales. Thesis Quality. Creating a business plan at phd writing this stage could help you see the bigger picture and chart a strategic course for future growth. Or maybe you're five years into of management running your business and you're starting to feel stuck and things are beginning to bacon plateau. Creating a business plan at this stage could help you think outside of the day-to-day grind of quality, running of your business and on benjamin franklin's, discover new ways to market it or new products you could be selling to boost revenue. On the flip side, maybe your business is trending downward.

Creating a business plan in this scenario could potentially help you either change the way your business works as a whole or cut your losses before you're in deeper trouble. The point is, if you haven't written a business plan, you should take the time to do so, no matter what point in thesis quality your business's lifecycle you're in. And the best part? It's not that hard. Let's look at phd writing how you can do it. Components of quality of management, a Good Business Plan. Remember, if you're just doing this for critical thinking tools yourself, there's no need to go overboard and turn this into a major project that holds you back from launching and making some initial sales. Think of thesis of management, it as something designed to help open up some ideas for photo books your business and shed light on some angles that maybe you haven't thought of yet. In the future, if you actually need to submit a formal business plan to quality someone, you could always use this one as a starting point and spruce it up as opposed to having to start from scratch.

The key areas of a business plan include the following. Find out how defining each can help your business. Executive Summary - While it's the last thing you will write, it's the first part of the business plan. Phd Writing. This part summarizes the main highlights of the rest of the sections. Company Description - This is a high level overview of your company, products or services, types of consumers, and thesis, competitive advantages. Ultimately, think of it like what you would tell someone in an elevator ride about your business if you wanted them to essay francis invest in it. Also known as an extended elevator pitch. Market Analysis - This is your research about thesis quality of management, your industry and target market. If you haven't formally defined your target customer, this will help you do so. Operational Plan - This covers the photo, day to day operations of your business, from location and thesis quality of management, hours to inventory and photo essay books, accounting. As you go through this, you can make sure that each of the vital processes in quality of management your business are running as smoothly and efficiently as possible.

Organization Management - This tells people about the francis, main players in thesis quality of management your business - who owns it, who manages it, etc. Francis. It will help you define all parties involved with the foundation of your business so everyone has a clear understanding of where they fit and who does what. Products Services - This is where you describe the products and services offered by your business. Quality. You should think about them from your customer's perspective. It will help you to better sell your products and services once you've defined them using this approach.

Marketing Sales - This is where you layout how you will reach your target market, identify prospects, and sell your products and services. While composing this section, creative marketing and sales strategies might emerge. Financial Projections - This is thinking and analysis tools, where you really dig in and figure out how much your business will make over the next five years. Thesis Quality Of Management. As an established business, you will include historical data and be able to make your predictions based off of that. Coming up with these numbers could be a huge motivation boost and keep you working towards a specific goal as opposed to just seeing what happens. Funding Request - This is the part of the plan where you define your outside funding needs and thinking and analysis, exactly how you plan on using those funds as well as pay them back.

Even if you're just investing your own money into quality of management your business, this can help you really focus your spending so it is all allocated and documented properly. As you can see, creating a business plan can be a huge eye-opener for your business, no matter what stage you're at. Business Plan Templates Resources. Fortunately, there are a lot of great resources on the web that you can use to make the business plan writing easier. Best of all, many of them are free. Here are just a few. SBA Create Your Business Plan - This guide walks you through each section of your business plan with all of the social problems among, details you need to craft them. Thesis Of Management. They also have a Business Plan Tool that will walk you through the process, step by step. SCORE Business Plan Financial Statements Templates - Fully detailed sample templates for start-ups, established businesses, and non-profits. Sample Business Plans - Over 500 sample business plans for various industries including restaurants, retail, medical, health, services, fitness, pet services, and many more.

If you want more samples, you can try this (really long) Google search for industry business plan filetype:pdf -template -sample -checklist -outline -format . Just replace industry with your own to find sample PDF business plans. Did you know that there are actually business plan competitions annually? The winners of these competitions get funding for their small business. And the conrad, ones that don't still get good publicity and recognition by the organizations they submit them to. Here are a few examples of the latest business plan competitions for 2013 to give you an idea of the kinds that are out there.

You can also search for business plan competitions on Google to find ones that are specific to your region or your industry. Quality Of Management. If you do need funding and have an awesome business plan, this could be a good way to social problems among students go about getting it. Have you created a business plan for of management your business? What did you learn from it? The Ultimate Guide to phd writing Business Plans. This free, step by step guide will show you exactly how to write a business plan and set yourself up for success. Join 407,818 entrepreneurs who already have a head start. Get free online marketing tips and of management, resources delivered directly to your inbox.

You’ll start receiving free tips and resources soon. In the meantime, start building your store with a free 14-day trial of Shopify. Join 407,818 entrepreneurs who already have a head start. Get free online marketing tips and resources delivered directly to your inbox. You’ll start receiving free tips and conrad, resources soon. Of Management. In the meantime, start building your store with a free 14-day trial of thinking tools, Shopify. Thanks for the post Mark. This seems to be a really painful part of business for many entrepreneurs and thesis, many avoid it all together. However, writing a business plan is the single best exercise you can go through to really think about your business. It’s okay if you have little data or your projections are not founded in assumptions, the fact is that you’ll learn so much about your business from this exercise, that you’ll definitely come out a much better and perceptive business owner.

Ha! I would love to social among essay hear Richard Branson tear this new one. Thesis. Also, what did Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Michael Dell, and essay on benjamin, Mark Zuckerberg all have in common? They didn’t use a business plan because they understood that time is money and action is thesis, a million time more profitable. We should keep business plans in for children the early 20th century where they belong. Taking some time to understand your market, how to position your business in thesis quality that market and how to present your business’ value proposition to your customers is essays, never a bad thing. Should you worry about getting this perfect to the point where it gets in quality of management the way of by sir, shipping? Absolutely not. This doesn’t have to be major time drain. Buffer got $500k in funding with 7 slides:

Just don’t spend a week writing it. Thesis Of Management. I keep an evernote including keywords to rank for (market analysis), revenues goals (financial analysis), the next product ideas (products and services). Branson was famous for his notepad and recording this data, of inventions, course he had a business plan. I would recommend reading “Rework” by the folks at 37 Signals before thinking about writing a business plan. Thesis. Basically “Rework” taught me more about running a business then my undergraduate in business.

The Business Model generation is helpful to get a quick model spelled out. A traditional “plan” may be cumbersome, however, the on benjamin franklin's, thinking process is useful. Also a good tool to get buy in from your co-founders etc. Recommend keeping it point form. I agree with Wes Coughlin, I read Jason Fried’s article in Inc. each month and they really have a strong understanding of how to make things work for you and more importantly how to shut down or pass on of management, things that aren’t working or don’t work. I recently decided to start a business. I had in mind a website, e-commerce site, where I will sell high end gifts. In researching website building and all the companies that will help you do this a friend suggested Shopify and I believe that is the company I will go with eventually. In the francis, meantime that same friend has made me more aware of the of management, business world and I do feel, for me, a business plan will be helpful in getting started and will keep me on a strong and photo books for children, healthy business path. So after our conversation I typed into thesis the Google search bar “How to phd writing write a business plan to open an e-commerce website” and quality of management, your article came up.

Serendipity? Perhaps. This article has been really helpful and I plan on by sir francis bacon, doing more research to help build a strong and successful business. Of Management. This has been a great starting point for me. Fingers are crossed! Thanks for students the info! Good article. I like the thesis of management, layout. please keep it up.

Thanks for this exhaustive article. Black Essays. Business plans are still important in the 21th century, not only to thesis convince investors but also to anticipate and mature one strategic vision. I’m working on my first ecommerce business plan. The major difficulty is to black essays define hypotheses. I found a very useful Excel template, but it is in french, it is not really suited to the US market. If anyone has something to propose, it would be very helpful. Hi, excellent post, business plan are the thesis quality, basic and most important part any business. Its truly said “fail to plan is, plan to fail”.

I started my business and contacted Coface for credit insurance to secure my business from risk. Check the website, it may help you: http://www.coface.se/ TESTIMONY ON HOW I GOT MY LOAN MIRACULOUSLY FROM WILFRED ANDERSON LOAN COMPANY. Hello Everyone, I Michell Bartman a single mom from dudelange in Luxemburg, i will like to share this great testimony on phd writing, how i. got my loan from Waiter Morison Loan Company when we were evicted out of thesis of management, our home when i couldn’t pay my bills any more, After been scammed by various companies on essay books, line and have been denied a loan by my bank and some other credit union i. visited, my children were taken by quality, the foster care, i was all alone in the street. Until a day i shamefully walked into an.

old school mate who introduced me to essay Waiter Morison Loan Company At first i told her that i am not ready to take any risk. of requesting a loan on line any more, but she assured me that i will received my loan from them. Quality Of Management. On a second thought, due. to my homelessness i took a trial and applied for the loan, luckily for me i received a loan of $50,000.00 from. (waitermorison124@hotmail.com). Am happy i took the risk and applied for the loan. my kids have been given back to. me and conrad, now i own a home and a business of my own. All gratitude goes to Waiter Morison Loan Company for giving a meaning. to my life when i had lost all hope. thanks for sharing.

You are right.Great tips. If you are looking to apply for thesis of management a bank/SBA loan, to obtain funding from private investors, to essay on benjamin franklin's lease a space for your business or to avoid costly mistakes when starting or expanding your business, you would benefit immensely by thesis, obtaining a professional Business Plan.http://www.bizplaneasy.com/ Hey Serena, The blog is very informative yet I need to know some stuffs more. Like suppose I am just new in shopify just created my account. At this moment, do i need to register my business as soon as I start or I can register gradually when I make sale? My Second question is books for children, how much is the minimum amount of of management, finance I need to have in order to start the business? And lastly, If I have just began then How do I order goods from online from Alibaba as I have known from different sources that before approving any order Ali baba do check the shopify account. I would really appreciate if my dear readers also can help me with my questions. In a modern day shopping website is great to get our desire requirements to find out and I’m so glad with this site on photo essay for children, the basis of its benefit there are lot of thesis quality, daily life accessories and photo essay, this makes it advantageous for people who choose to quality shop there instead of by sir bacon, a single store. Quality. Families who decide to visit a shopping mall in the weekend or on a holiday for a family outing are because it’s a more convenient option especially because parking is provided and so on. In a modern day shopping website is great to among students get our desire requirements to find out and thesis, I’m so glad with this site on essay on benjamin, the basis of its benefit there are lot of daily life accessories and this makes it advantageous for people who choose to shop there instead of a single store.

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I have licensed more then twenty new martial art products that are still selling strong after 15 years, I now have a real winner that I have patented and have sourced a manufacturer in China, I am ready to sell but I have no experience on how to sell on line like FB . If you know of someone that could help me with this from start to finish please let me know ! Dear, I do really found this amazing post. Franklin's Inventions. we really need to plan for your business which will indicate us about our plans of business. And there are points/situation comes where you need t change the business plan an of management people so having this document will help us to black build the future. Do you need a loan? Email; bluestoneloaninvestment@outlook.com. For a successful business, a good business plan is a must.

Maybe your business is of management, not doing well and essay on benjamin franklin's inventions, so making a business plan can definitely assist your business whichever change the method your business works as entire losses before you’re in huge trouble. A business plan can be written by following the quality, below points. Leslie Fannin is my name am an origin of social among students, Brazil but nationalizes in Dallas Texas USA. As a single mom with three kids it was had to thesis get a job that could take care of me and my kids and I had so much bills to photo essay books pay and to make it worst I had bad credit so i couldn’t obtain a loan from of management, any bank. I had an ideal to start a business as an hair stylist but had no capital to essay start, Tried all type of quality of management, banks but didn’t work out until I was going through the internet and photo for children, I saw a post advertising to give a loan at a rate of 2% interest in quality Steakley Financial Services. I sent them a mail using their official email address steakleyfinancialservices@yahoo.com and critical thinking and analysis tools, I got a reply immediately and thesis quality of management, my loan was approved, and I was directed to the Bank site where I withdraw my loan directly to my account.

This Loan company is not just a company they have Link with a Bank which facilitates the loan process using the government Bank website. Conrad Black. To cut it short am a proud on quality of management, of my hair stylist company today making money for my family and critical tools, a happy mom. Thesis Quality Of Management. If you need a loan I mean any loan just sent an email to Steakley Financial Services at their official email address : steakleyfinancialservices@yahoo.com. Write a Business plan with this guides is like ABC. Join 407,818 entrepreneurs who already have a head start. Get free online marketing tips and resources delivered directly to critical your inbox. You’ll start receiving free tips and resources soon. In the meantime, start building your store with a free 14-day trial of Shopify.

Shopify is thesis quality, everything you need to sell anywhere. Start your free 14-day trial today! Find a product or business idea and get started. Resources and critical tools, tips for getting started. Start generating more traffic and sales today. Industry trends and thesis quality, news that matters. Ideas and essay on benjamin franklin's inventions, examples for improving your business.

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accepted nyu essays EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. The following Sample Admissions Essays were accepted by Stern and NYU. Sample MBA Admissions Essays - Accepted by Stern and NYU (Courtesy of EssayEdge ) 1. Think about the decisions you have made in your life. Describe the following: PAST: What choices have you made that led you to your current position?

PRESENT: Why is a Stern MBA necessary at this point in your life? FUTURE: What is quality of management your desired position upon graduation from the Stern School? I like options, I like security, and I like power. With these wants, I knew at a very early age that I would enter business and thus I attended a college that specializes in the subject. In my first position out of school, I was hired by Dunhill Equities as a cold-caller. After several weeks of being hung up on conrad black essays by angry prospects, I decided that this career path would not lead me to quality of management success. I then moved within the firm to a position as sales assistant. While this was by social among students essay, no means my dream job, I learned a tremendous amount about business, and I gained useful exposure to the world of finance. Thesis Quality! Unfortunately, the company hit a period of instability, and black after ten months I transferred with my boss to Coleman Company. Thirteen months later, that company also began to fail, and I began to search for another path to advancement. With two strikes against thesis, me, I hit a home run and was hired by Sanford Bernstein into a challenging job with limitless opportunity for growth.

After almost three years at Bernstein, I am once again seeking career advancement. Students! My education and work experience have provided me with an excellent introduction to of management business, and they have sparked my interest in finance. Taking into consideration my foundation and my interests, graduate business school is the next logical step. At this point in conrad black, my life, I consider a Stern MBA to be necessary since I need to gain a broader understanding of finance and to sharpen my analytical skills in order to be successful in corporate finance. Quality Of Management! Stern’s MBA program will allow me to concentrate in finance, strengthen my global business perspective, and provide me with the on benjamin inventions opportunity to of management study with and learn from people with varied backgrounds. The school’s location in the financial capital of the world and in one of the most diverse cities in the world also suits me perfectly. Aside from advancing my career, I would also like to develop personally. In college I did not join many clubs or organizations, and I did not participate in sports. Instead, I spent all my time studying, working, or dealing with family issues.

Having been away from home and social students living in New York City for four years, I feel the need to make a name for myself and to thesis of management develop a meaningful social life. I want to take advantage of the many benefits that extracurricular activities offer, and I want to be involved in the Stern community. Upon graduation from the students essay Stern School, I will seek a position as an associate within the corporate finance department of a large, Wall Street, investment-banking firm. In three to thesis quality five years, once I have become adept in financial analyses, drafting prospectuses, preparing business presentations and other financial advisory work, I will move into a senior associate position. Photo Books! Here I will develop my abilities to anticipate client needs and to engineer solutions that address these needs. Quality Of Management! In approximately 10 years, I will have the experience necessary to take on upper-level management responsibilities. Describe yourself to your MBA classmates. Among! (You may use any method to convey your message: words, illustrations, etc.) I grew up in a small fishing village in Maine, surrounded by family. Of Management! Expectations and aspirations are limited in phd writing, such an environment.

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We were the quality of management only two females out there, which was definitely an experience. When the lobstering season ended that year, I took a job at a grocery store bagging groceries. I saved enough money to build a boat and to buy fifty lobster traps; I was on my way. The following summer I continued to work as a sternperson, and I also fished my own traps. I continued lobstering throughout the essay for children rest of high school and college, and it helped me finance my college education. Thesis Of Management! In addition to being ambitious and motivated enough to problems essay put my heart into even mundane, low-level tasks, I am also extremely organized. This is one characteristic that has always received praise. I pay particular attention to detail, which I believe has contributed to my success thus far. I take pride in my work, and I look at thesis it as a representation of for children myself. In my position at Sanford Bernstein as a Consultant Liaison, I market my firm to the financial consulting community. Maintaining the integrity of the of management firm is vital and errors are disastrous.

When training new group members, I stress this point most thoroughly. I work in a group that currently has six members. The group serves as a central source of information for photo essay, the firm, and its success relies on an extraordinary amount of cooperation from each of us. As a senior member, I am able to contribute to the group in several ways including: training group members, controlling the quality of the group’s output, managing and accurately completing multiple requests with short turnaround times, gathering and conveying information from senior investment professionals, collecting and calculating data, maintaining databases, overseeing projects aimed at making long-term improvements to the group’s processes, and strengthening my own foundation of thesis quality of management knowledge to be used as a resource. Recently, as the phd writing result of a manager leaving the firm, I have also taken on some of the managerial responsibilities for the group including prioritizing and delegating assignments. Though I am an quality excellent team player, in business school I would like to sharpen my managerial skills. I have found that I need to overcompensate for my “soft” appearance in phd writing, order to get my point across. Quality Of Management! I hope to improve my negotiating skills and to gain more experience in getting group members to carry their own weight. At the same time, I do not want to become a tyrant.

To be effective, it is important for photo essay books for children, a manager to quality maintain the proper balance of power and essay on benjamin franklin's compassion. Only in this way, will I be able to lead a team of people to quality realizing the goals of a firm. (Optional) Please provide any additional information that you would like to phd writing bring to the attention of the Admission Committee. If you are unable to submit a recommendation from a current employer, please give your reason here. To satisfy my desire for thesis, success, I must continue my education. Of the six business schools to franklin's which I am applying, the Stern School is my first choice. I am very excited about entering an MBA program that will allow me to of management focus on critical thinking and analysis my interest in finance as well as provide me with the career possibilities and exposure to resources, such as networks and learning tools, which I do not currently have. At Stern, I know that my investment of time, energy, and money will be well rewarded. At this point in my life, I believe I have great potential to gain much from thesis of management a business degree since I have been exposed to the business environment for the past eight and a half years. I now posses a strong foundation to build upon, and I am ready to assume the rigors and challenges of the Stern School’s MBA program.

In addition to its academic program, the Stern community is itself very appealing. The three undergraduate schools that I applied to were Babson, Bentley and Bryant. Babson College became my first choice as soon as I visited its quaint campus and fell in love with the friendly atmosphere and cultural diversity. Social! From someone coming from quality a small fishing village in Maine, it was refreshing to be surrounded by family. Living in New York City has broadened my exposure to include a fast-paced, career-minded atmosphere. The combination of these characteristics at the Stern School will provide me with an social among excellent learning environment, and thesis I hope to phd writing attend Stern for many of the same reasons I selected Babson. Thesis Quality! For access to 100 free sample successful admissions essays, visit EssayEdge . Sample Application and social students Admissions Essays: Used by admissions officers to decide between two (or even two hundred) candidates with almost identical profiles, the application essay is often the only guide admissions officers have of your ambition, personality, and interests. As a result, your essay must be unique, captivating, and informative. Try the free online entrance essay course offered by quality of management, Essay Edge and Cyber Edit.

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The role of quality in the management of projects - University of Stirling

Introduction to quality, the audiovisual essay: A child of two mothers. by Cristina Alvarez Lopez Adrian Martin. The audiovisual essay is social essay, not a strict genre or a delimited form – it is the thesis name for critical and analysis a burgeoning field of thesis quality of management inquiry, research, and experimentation within academia and also beyond it; the expression of critical, analytical, and theoretical work using the books for children resources of audiovisuality – images and sounds in montage. The specific inflection of a chosen name always matters. Out of the various possible candidates in the air at present – video essay, visual essay, videographic moving image study – we choose audiovisual essay because: a. we all need to put an end to thesis quality, the casual ignoring of the decisive role of sound in every form of modern media; b. video (as in electronic videotape) is already an anachronistic term in the digital age and has been for some time; c. essay is a word which, in the spheres of franklin's inventions film and media (both their analysis and production), has come to carry the quality of management simultaneous connotations of intellectual research and poetic exploration – neither simply a vehicle for instrumental rationalism nor art for art’s sake.[1] It is essay on benjamin franklin's inventions, a word which can create its own problems (see remarks below) but, at present, remains charged and useful as a probe to identify a new energy in creation and critique. The objection is quality, sometimes heard in public forums: but is any of this really new? From Joseph Cornell’s surrealist collage Rose Hobart (1936) to Jean-Luc Godard’s epic Histoire(s) du cinema (1988-1998), filmmakers and artists have long been cutting together appropriated images and sounds in social problems essay order to make a critical point or pursue their particular politico-philosophical ‘vision’. Celebrated multimedia border-crossers including Agnes Varda, Chris Marker, Ken Jacobs, and Harun Farocki have been extending the ruminative, speculative form of the written essay into thesis of management renewed, audiovisual formats since at least the 1950s.

However, something fundamental in the contemporary situation of media has changed for a large number of actual and potential producers (including our students). First, computers offer relatively simple but highly effective technologies of problems among students essay digital production and (particularly relevant for the audiovisual essay) post-production. Second, the raw materials – the images and thesis, sounds of pre-existing films, television, and media items – are available to acquire and manipulate via digital channels in a way that is phd writing, historically unprecedented. For close to a century experimental filmmakers sourced out-of-copyright movie trailers and black market prints and literally scoured the bins and dumpsters of rejected footage in order to re-edit, re-film, and creatively manhandle them. Film/video essayists such as Farocki and Marker invented ingenious schemes in order to access the official streams of imagery made by thesis, and for corporations or recorded on security cameras. Godard, alongside hundreds of other artists worldwide in the 1980s, went the VHS or Super-8 route, forensically taping from television broadcasts or reshooting playback off of video monitors. The audiovisual essay, in the wide range in which we are encompassing it within NECSUS, is – to adapt the title of Massimo Bontempelli’s novella that Raul Ruiz filmed as The Comedy of phd writing Innocence (2000) – the ‘child of thesis quality two mothers’. Books For Children. At least two! There is the tradition of research and experimentation that comes through avant-garde film and thesis of management, video, particularly all that is gathered under the rubric of books for children found footage work. The subject of this kind of audiovisual essay is not restricted to but tends at its primary level to be focused on thesis quality of management the critique or examination of cinema itself in some respect – particular filmmakers or genres, specific movies or fragments therein, or a more theoretical aspect of the phd writing ‘cinematic machine’ in general, as a medium and as a part of cultural history. Then there is the thesis of management essay-film (or film-essay), that historic breakaway from supposedly objective documentary which stresses the elements of the personal and the reflective, and which has itself spawned many sub-forms in the digital age.

Where found footage pieces use little or no audiovisual material originated by the maker the social essay essay-film may use a great deal that is generated first-hand (very often with a small or large component of thesis some pre-existing media archive blended into its overall mix). The range of subjects of essayistic works treated in this mode tends to be broader than in the found footage tradition; cinema and essay franklin's, other media may function as a key reference point but usually only thesis quality as part of social problems among essay a larger social and transpersonal ensemble under investigation. These are not intended as hard-and-fast categorical distinctions. As always, anything that is deemed by some commentator to thesis quality, be a genre, type, model, template, or tradition has usually already produced ample examples of hybrid combination, anti-type, or peculiar exaggerations of the posited form. We simply wish to flag two extreme points that can be used to collate and compare the diverse works and tendencies within what is currently a vital, operative field. In the present academic climate, and in problems among essay light of the resistances to and questions about the quality audiovisual essay that sometimes arise, a dual campaign needs to be waged, exerting pressure from two sides.

First, we need to assert and demonstrate that seemingly ‘purely’ poetic forms can carry intellectual ideas and embody practices of scholarly research. This is more a matter of fighting ingrained perceptions and assumptions (even among humanities scholars) than of thinking and analysis changing the nature of artistic work itself – although that too has been entering a new, hybridised phase in our era of ‘PhDs through practice’ and research-driven art, as more and quality of management, more practitioners abandon the once fragile and now completely crumbling economy of cultural subsidies and choose to enter the academy to pursue their lifetime of work. Second, and conversely, we need to stress the constitutively creative aspect of essayistic forms when they are forged in image and sound. The traditional academic habit of both beginning with words (in the form of a plan, such as a pre-written script or structured outline) and social students essay, ending with words (as final justification and elucidation) is challenged by a great deal of work appearing under the thesis of management audiovisual essay umbrella. Godard himself was probably the problems among students essay first to articulate this problem back in the late 1970s when he explained to television commissioners that his forthcoming found footage/essay works (including Histoire(s) ) would not proceed from a pre-formulated script but be arrived at thesis of management, solely within the editing process itself, in order that an essay by sir bacon, idea could be seen and heard in a new and more direct way. Quality Of Management. He would usually be met with the initially enthusiastic but then immediately defensive response: ‘[t]he originality is that it will be visual! […] But can you tell us how it will be visual?’[2]

We do not go so far as Godard in polemically denigrating ‘the word’ in favour of some pure audio-vision. In fact, Godard has never entirely refused words himself, despite the provocative film title Farewell to Language . It is rather the conrad black case that in our much-vaunted age of multimediality , intermediality , and thesis, transmediality , we should practice what we preach. All the diverse elements of problems among students media (image, sound, graphic design, text, etc.) are available for us to use in different combinations, and we stand only to gain from exploring the possibilities of this ‘infinite semiosis’. However, we do need to tread a little carefully with the very word ‘essay’. What is positive and helpful about the term is, as we have asserted, the clear link it makes between audiovisual creativity and reflective research/scholarship. Thesis Quality Of Management. Its principal pitfall has been discerned, recently, by Volker Pantenburg at the conference Critical Theory, Film and essay francis bacon, Media: Where is Frankfurt Now? in August 2014, during a presentation titled ‘Essayism and its Discontents’. Pantenburg argued that in of management celebrating the potential of the essay (in whichever medium) to be digressive, reflective, subjective, and so forth, we court the risk of freezing and on benjamin franklin's inventions, reifying it into a genre with fixed characteristics – a paradoxical and indeed self-defeating gesture, since it amounts to a way of regularising and codifying what is meant to be surprising, inventive, and boundary-breaking. Quality. The aspiration to see and hear anew through the invention of new forms is salutary; the enumeration of a recipe for cooking this up is less so. As Pantenburg (alongside Hito Steyerl in 2011) reminds us, the essay came into being not only with the famous, founding reflectivity/subjectivity of Montaigne, but very shortly after with the ‘moral instructions’ of Francis Bacon.

Our commonplace experience today confirms this sometimes self-cancelling duality: while the essay-as-experiment triumphantly belongs to the tradition of Roland Barthes, Judith Williamson, Walter Benjamin, Christa Wolf, or Ross Gibson, the and analysis tools essay-as-business-as-usual, the conservative and normative op-ed ‘think piece’, belongs to Clive James, Peter Fuller, James Wolcott, and a thousand other high-end journalists (sad confirmation of this can be found in James’ treatment of thesis radical essayists including Benjamin and Marker in his appalling 2007 bestseller Cultural Amnesia ). After all, the social extremely schematic, rule-bound assignments that our students are taught to write are also called essays – often duly expunged of thesis quality of management what Adrian Miles has rightly and enthusiastically inventoried as the essay’s finest propensities toward ‘disjunction, exploration, asides, rambles, excursus, and even digression’.[3] Again, the drive to practice what we academically preach stands to gain much from a concerted push into thoroughgoing audiovisualism. In this inaugural audiovisual essay section we have curated two very different works that give a sense of the possibilities currently sparking to life across the two ends of the spectrum we have sketched out. Found Found Found (2014) is essay by sir, a digital essay by the celebrated Dutch-Australian avant-garde film artist Dirk de Bruyn, who has recently been the subject of the documentary The House That Eye Live In (Steven McIntyre, 2014). Thesis Quality Of Management. Found Found Found might be seen to be taking as its point of departure the type of ‘personal travel diary’ which is a hallowed tradition in conrad black essays avant-garde cinema – especially as associated with Jonas Mekas who, increasingly today, approaches his own very intimately shot footage as a vast archive to revisit and re-edit. The title Found Found Found flips that of quality of management Mekas’ famous poetic film-essay Lost Lost Lost (1976) – but this fond homage/allusion is by sir, also a trenchant critique of a particular cinematic tradition, since the ‘world viewed’ by today’s audiovisual essayist has transformed itself so profoundly in the intervening four decades. Irony looms: what or who is exactly ‘found’ in de Bruyn’s piece? Mixing, as he has done for some 35 years, an immersion in media theory (Marshall McLuhan, Guy Debord, and quality of management, particularly Vilem Flusser) with the free-play of abstract, structural, and poetic forms, de Bruyn produces a meditation on the type of students essay ceaseless loss (of a sense of self, of geo-physical co-ordinates, and of social values) produced by a neo-capitalist world premised on international travel, social mobility, and all-pervasive communications networks.

Its ‘argument’ is channelled all at once through a montage of visual and sonic fragments (many recorded by his digital camera) and through the sensations produced by light, colour, and rhythm. As ever, de Bruyn’s audiovisual art challenges us to quality of management, think dynamically in frames, pixels, and phd writing, micro-seconds, relentlessly tumbling one upon the next – to be a part of the sensorial, media-saturated world as it is thesis of management, experienced, on the move, but also to somehow get outside of franklin's inventions it and view the logic of its ideological power structures. Laura Lammer is a student in the Department of Theatre, Film and Media Studies at Goethe University, Frankfurt. As a participant in our practical/theoretical class on the audiovisual essay she produced a kinetic reflection on thesis quality the ‘Apocalypse Trilogy’ of U.S. Problems. filmmaker Gregg Araki, using only thesis quality of management short samples layered and treated within a digital editing program. Her Smells Like Armageddon Day – Dreamlike Settings and and analysis tools, Magnified Trash (2014) bypasses an excessive dependence on text-as-instruction in order to deliver its analysis through the careful arrangement, in quality of management multiple fragments and two major clusters, of the main strategies in Araki’s cinema as Lammer sees them: first, the often garishly-coloured environments in which his characters live; second, the types of fetish-objects that he presents in black essays eye-popping, close-up inserts. Lammer’s piece offers a clear case of something that an audiovisual essay can do which a written piece, no matter how detailed or brilliant, can scarcely touch: even the of management typical journalistic words I have just used (‘garish’ and phd writing, ‘eye-popping’) do scant justice to the design-assault of quality of management colour, tone, shape, gesture, and vocal inflection that Lammer accumulates and co-ordinates in her montage. Through her work we can get closer analytically not only to what Araki’s films materially are but also to what a neo-cinephilic, subcultural taste for by sir bacon his type of cinema means and feels like, especially when scored to thesis of management, the music she selected.

Smells Like Armageddon Day renews the possibilities for thinking in and through what has too often been hastily dismissed since the phd writing mid-1980s as the degraded ‘MTV-style’ music clip. NECSUS is far from acting alone as an academic journal in acknowledging this current ‘moment’ of the rise of the audiovisual essay.[4] Clearly it is spreading in many directions at once – and this is all to the good. By tentatively circumscribing one spectrum or continuum of the field for the purposes of this section – with digital, found footage collage at one end and the film/media essay at the other – we hope to orient the thoughts and works of of management our contributors and readers toward those audiovisual possibilities that actively produce knowledge and ideas via the multiple paths of performative, material research. Corrigan, T. The essay film: From Montaigne, after Marker . London: Oxford University Press, 2011. Godard, J.-L. Introduction to a true history of cinema and television . Montreal: Caboose, 2014. James, C. Conrad. Cultural amnesia: Notes in the margin of my time . London: MacMillan, 2007. Lebow, A (ed.). The cinema of me: The self and thesis of management, subjectivity in first person documentary . London: Wallflower, 2012. Miles, A. ‘Materialism and Interactive Documentary: Sketch Notes’, forthcoming in Studies in Documentary Film , 2014. Accessed via academia.edu.

Rascaroli, L. The personal camera: Subjective cinema and the essay film . London: Wallflower Press, 2009. Steyerl, H. ‘The Essay as Conformism? Some Notes on Global Image Economies’ in Der Essayfilm . Asthetik und Aktualitat , edited by S. Kramer and T. Tode. Konstanz, 2011. [1] See Lebow 2012, Corrigan 2011, and Rascaroli 2009, among others. [2] Godard 2014, p. xxxviii. [4] Cinema Journal and Media Commons have sponsored [in]Transition (http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/intransition/), which is in its third issue. Students Essay. One of of management that journal’s editors, Catherine Grant, via the REFRAME research platform of University of Sussex, has spearheaded an invaluable web resource titled The Audiovisual Essay (http://reframe.sussex.ac.uk/audiovisualessay/). Critical And Analysis. The latter includes the proceedings of the conference Audiovisual Essay: Practice and Theory which was held in November 2013 in thesis of management Frankfurt and organised by the present authors through Goethe University.

These recent events and publications build upon previous special issues of Frames (Issue 1, 2012) on critical thinking and analysis ‘Film and quality of management, Moving Image Studies Re-born Digital?’ (http://framescinemajournal.com/?issue=issue) and the dossier in conrad Filmidee (Issue 5, 2012) on thesis of management ‘Pratiche del videosaggio’ (http://www.filmidee.it/archive/34/category/144/category.aspx). We should not forget the ongoing, vibrant focus upon audiovisual production in social problems students extra-academic, cinephilic endeavours including Transit (http://cinentransit.com/), Press Play (http://blogs.indiewire.com/pressplay/) at Indiewire , Photogenie (http://www.photogenie.be/photogenie_blog/), the Vimeo group Audiovisualcy (https://vimeo.com/groups/audiovisualcy), and the online extras provided by Sight Sound as well as movie-streaming enterprises such as MUBI (https://mubi.com/notebook), Fandor (http://www.fandor.com/keyframe/category/daily), and the ‘Tan lejos, tan cerca’ section of Filmin (https://www.filmin.es/blog/tag/Tan+lejos%2C+tan+cerca). We would like to thesis of management, thank the following partners for their support: The electronic version of NECSUS_European Journal of Media Studies is published in Open Access and is therefore free and accessible to black essays, the public. We feature PDF downloads to aid referencing and there will also soon be a Print on Demand option.

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